[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Ten adult bottlenose dolphins were used for the study. Each animal received a single oral dose of meloxicam at 0.1 mg/kg. Two to seven serial blood samples were collected per animal, at one of fourteen time points between T = 0 and T = 240 hr. Complete blood count and serum chemistry analysis were performed prior to drug administration, as well as at the final time point for each individual. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. No adverse hematological, biochemical or clinical changes were noted during the study period. After oral administration, a peak plasma concentration of 1.03 microg/mL was achieved at approximately 11 hr. This suggests that a single oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg provides a peak plasma level similar to what is considered therapeutic in other species. However, the elimination of meloxicam in cetaceans was slower than in other species, with an elimination half-life of almost 70 hr, and detectable drug concentrations up to 7 days. A single oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg appears safe for use in this species, but caution in repeated dosing must be used, due to the prolonged elimination, until multi-dose pharmacokinetic studies are determined.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2014; 45(3):594-9. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Nephrolithiasis has been increasingly reported in bottlenose dolphins, with all cases to date being ammonium urate nephrolithiasis.
Materials and Methods:
A case-control study was conducted in dolphins with and without evidence of nephrolithiasis, aiming to identify biomarkers and risk factors associated with stone formation in a managed population. Dolphins were sampled in both fasting and postprandial states in order to study the effect of dietary factors on serum and urinary biochemistry. Urine was continuously collected over a 6-hr period via catheter and divided into three 2-hour collections, with a bolus fish meal given after completion of the first collection. Blood was sampled at the beginning of the fasting period and end of the postprandial period.
There were no significant differences in serum and urine chemistries and acid base profiles between dolphins with and without stones, at baseline or postprandially, suggesting that case and control animals in this study represent a continuum of stone risk. In analyses combining the case and control dolphins in a single cohort, we noted significant postprandial increases in urinary uric acid, sulfate and net acid excretion, accompanied by increased urinary ammonium excretion and a commensurate rise in urine pH. The supersaturation index of ammonium urate increased postprandially by more than twofold.
These findings suggest that dolphins are susceptible to ammonium urate nephrolithiasis at least in part because a high dietary load of acid and purines results in a transient but marked increase in the urinary supersaturation of the sparingly soluble ammonium urate salt.
The Journal of urology 07/2014; · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on captured free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during a health assessment exercise and compared with that of a Navy collection of dolphins habituated to handling out of water in order to assess possible cardiovascular impacts of capture and handling. Six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVr, aVl, and aVf) in the frontal plane and direct thorax leads were collected from both groups, with a modified base-apex lead additionally employed with the Navy collection dolphins. Measured and calculated parameters included amplitudes of P, R, S, and T waves and total QRS complex; T:S and T:QRS ratios; heart rate; durations of P wave; QRS complex, PR, QT, and RR intervals; maximum minus minimum RR interval; ST segment elevation-depression; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Physiologically minor but statistically significant differences were detected in S wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, and MEA. The PR interval, QRS duration, and S wave amplitude were slightly greater and the MEA oriented slightly rightward in wild postcapture dolphins compared to Navy collection dolphins. There were no differences in heart rate or maximum minus minimum RR interval, which serves as a proxy for the expected sinus arrhythmia of dolphins. The base-apex lead resulted in greater QRS amplitude than lead II, as expected for the category B ventricular activation of dolphins. The left-side direct thorax lead was more consistent than that of the right side. Clinically, ECG was a useful adjunct to auscultation and thoracic palpation for monitoring heart rate and rhythm and generated a record for archiving. Safe capture and handling protocols in place, under which dolphins are immediately returned to the water at progressive signs of distress, may make cardiovascular decompensation less likely to be detected by ECG. It appears that the dolphin cardiovascular system compensates suitably well to capture, as measured by ECG under the conditions of this study.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 12/2013; 44(4):972-81. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Firestorms negatively affected air quality throughout San Diego County during 2003 and 2007, including the San Diego Bay, which houses the Navy's bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Objective: To assess the potential impact of the 2003 and 2007 fires on dolphin health. Materials and methods: Hematology and serum chemistry values were evaluated retrospectively among Navy dolphins the year and month before; during; and the month after the 2003 and 2007 fires. Results: Both 2003 and 2007 fires were associated with lower calcium either during or the month post-fire compared to the control periods. During and the month following the 2003 fire, dolphins had higher serum carbon dioxide compared to the control periods. Dolphins during and the month following the 2007 fire had lower absolute or percent neutrophils and higher chloride. The 2007 fire was also associated with increased percent eosinophils during the fire and higher percent monocytes and bilirubin the month following the fire compared to the control periods. Discussion and conclusion: Consistent with what has been previously reported in humans and other animals, this study supports that fire smoke inhalation may have mild effects on dolphin physiology, including calcium homeostasis, lung function and immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus.
We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk, and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These L. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96.3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti.
Dolphin-derived L. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals.
This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a new strain of L. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Applied Microbiology 07/2013; · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This brief communication describes the clinical presentation, antemortem diagnosis, and successful treatment of a pulmonary abscess associated with a Brucella sp. in a 27-yr-old female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Ultrasound revealed a 3-cm diameter hypoechoic mass deep to the pleural lining in the left lung field. Multiple ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates were performed and tested for bacterial and fungal etiology. All cultures were negative, but the infectious agent was identified by MicroSEQ analysis in two samples and confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using known Brucella sp. primers. Amikacin was infused into the abscess and was followed by an oral doxycycline and rifampin protocol. Follow-up diagnostic imaging, including radiographs and computed tomography, revealed a resolved lesion with minimal mineralization within the affected lung fields. Brucellosis should be considered for pulmonary disease in dolphins, and personnel who interact with marine animals should use caution to prevent zoonotic brucellosis.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2013; 44(2):495-9. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A routine pregnancy ultrasound examination of a 30-yr-old, multiparous, common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, detected an approximately 16-wk (gestational age) fetus with an omphalocele, an abdominal wall defect at the base of the umbilical cord. Throughout the pregnancy, ultrasound allowed for identification of the omphalocele contents, which included a portion of the liver and intestinal loops. The maximum diameter of the omphalocele was 11.4 cm at an estimated 51-wk gestation. Color Doppler was utilized to study the blood flow within the omphalocele as well as diagnose an associated anomaly of the umbilical cord, which contained three vessels instead of four. Gross necropsy and histopathology confirmed the ultrasound diagnoses. This is the first report of an omphalocele in a T. truncatus fetus, and the first report of a fetal and umbilical cord anomaly diagnosed with ultrasound in a cetacean.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 03/2013; 44(1):87-92. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Similar to people with metabolic syndrome, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. A panel of potential postprandial blood-based indicators of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were compared among 34 managed collection dolphins in San Diego Bay, CA, USA (Group A) and 16 wild, free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, FL, USA (Group B). Compared to Group B, Group A had higher insulin (2.1 ± 2.5 and 13 ± 13 μIU/ml), glucose (87 ± 19 and 108 ± 12 mg/dl), and triglycerides (75 ± 28 and 128 ± 45 mg/dl) as well as higher cholesterol (total, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol), iron, transferrin saturation, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine transaminase, and uric acid. Group A had higher percent unmodified adiponectin. While Group A dolphins were older, the same blood-based differences remained when controlling for age. There were no differences in body mass index (BMI) between the groups, and comparisons between Group B and Group A dolphins have consistently demonstrated lower stress hormones levels in Group A. Group A dolphins with high insulin (greater than 14 μIU/ml) had higher glucose, iron, GGT, and BMI compared to Group A dolphins with lower insulin. These findings support that some dolphin groups may be more susceptible to insulin resistance compared to others, and primary risk factors are not likely age, BMI, or stress. Lower high-molecular weight adiponectin has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and may be a target for preventing insulin resistance in dolphins. Future investigations with these two dolphin populations, including dietary and feeding differences, may provide valuable insight for preventing and treating insulin resistance in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, ammonium urate (AU) nephrolithiasis is rare in the Western hemisphere and more common in Japan and developing countries. Among a variety of risk factors, insulin resistance has been associated with urate nephrolithiasis in people. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are susceptible to AU nephrolithiasis, and it is believed that some populations are more likely to develop nephrolithiasis compared to others. In an effort to better understand population-based risk factors for AU nephrolithiasis in dolphins and their comparative value to humans, sonographic evaluation was performed on dolphins from a managed collection in San Diego Bay, CA (n = 40) and dolphins from a free-ranging, nearshore population in Sarasota Bay, FL (n = 39) to look for evidence of nephrolithiasis. While 14 (35%) of San Diego Bay dolphins evaluated for the study had sonographic evidence of nephrolithiasis, none of the Sarasota Bay dolphins had evidence of disease. Presence or absence of stones was confirmed by computed tomography in a subset of the San Diego collection (n = 10; four dolphins with stones, six without stones). Age was identified as a risk factor, as dolphins with stones in the San Diego collection were significantly older than dolphins without stones (25.4 vs. 19.1 years, respectively; P = 0.04). Additionally, San Diego dolphins included in the study were significantly older than Sarasota Bay dolphins (21.3 vs. 13.8 years, respectively; P = 0.008). In addition to the previously reported risk factors of hypocitraturia and hyperinsulinemia in bottlenose dolphins, other potential factors include geographic location, managed vs. free-ranging status, prey species, and feeding schedules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year-old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia), chronic inflammation (white blood cell count greater than 12,000 cells/μL), and mild fatty liver disease was evaluated for elevated pro-inflammatory mediators. Cytokine mRNA expression in postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue, as determined by real-time PCR, included an array of cytokines: TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, and IL-18. Values from this dolphin were compared to a younger reference dolphin with no known chronic metabolic perturbations or inflammation. Levels of TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-4 were higher in the case dolphin's liver compared to that of the reference dolphin. In the case dolphin's spleen, IL-10 and IFN-γ mRNA was upregulated while IL-4 was less than the reference dolphin. IL-18 and IL-13 were upregulated in both tissues. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) utilized the following antibodies: anti-porcine IL-6, anti-bovine IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10, anti-human TGF-β, anti-ovine IL-1β, and anti-dolphin IL-8. Fluorescent IHC in spleen from the case dolphin revealed staining of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and TGF-β throughout the tissue. IL-10 and IFN-γ were seen to predominate in areas surrounding the follicles of splenic tissue. This is the first characterization of cytokine levels in dolphin hepatic and splenic tissue. While there are limitations to a case study, this report of inflammatory biomarkers in tissues of a dolphin with insulin resistance and fatty liver disease are similar to those observed in human patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marine-origin Brucella infections and serologic evidence of exposure have been documented in multiple cetacean species. A dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen bottlenose dolphin sera for anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 131 serum samples collected over a 2 to 18 yr period from 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with confirmed Brucella infections were analyzed for the presence and magnitude of antibody titers against marine-origin Brucella to compare individual antibody responses to various disease manifestations. Additionally, an epidemiologic serologic survey of a managed population of 64 bottlenose dolphins was performed to evaluate for the presence of antibodies and to determine whether there were any clinical pathology predictors for exposure or infection. The serologic results revealed that the dolphins with Brucella-associated abortions were seronegative for 7 to 18 yr until after the abortion and maintained positive titers for several years, with 2 of 3 animals returning to seronegative status. In contrast, the dolphins with Brucella-associated pulmonary or bone lesions maintained persistent positive titers for 2 to 18 yr. The population serosurvey revealed no significant differences in antibody levels among males and females, and dolphins between the ages of 17 and 25 yr were 6.8 times more likely to be Brucella antibody positive compared to those that were younger or older. Seropositive dolphins did not have significant inflammation compared to seronegative dolphins but were more likely to have higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Among 16 dolphins that tested seropositive, 13 (81.3%) had previously been seropositive for at least 3 to 5 yr.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 12/2012; 102(1):73-85. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung disease is common among wild and managed populations of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. The purpose of the study was to apply standardized techniques to the ultrasound evaluation of dolphin lungs, and to identify normal and abnormal sonographic findings associated with pleuropulmonary diseases. During a 5 yr period (2005 to 2010), 498 non-cardiac thoracic ultrasound exams were performed on bottlenose dolphins at the Navy Marine Mammal Program in San Diego, California, USA. Exams were conducted as part of routine physical exams, diagnostic workups, and disease monitoring. In the majority of routine exams, no abnormal pleural or pulmonary findings were detected with ultrasound. Abnormal findings were typically detected during non-routine exams to identify and track disease progression or resolution; therefore, abnormal results are overrepresented in the study. In order of decreasing prevalence, abnormal sonographic findings included evidence of alveolar-interstitial syndrome, pleural effusion, pulmonary masses, and pulmonary consolidation. Of these findings, alveolar-interstitial syndrome was generally nonspecific as it represented several possible disease states. Pairing ultrasound findings with clinical signs was critical to determine relevance. Pleural effusion, pulmonary masses, and pulmonary consolidation were relatively straightforward to diagnose and interpret. Further diagnostics were performed to obtain definitive diagnoses when appropriate, specifically ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis, fine needle aspirates, and lung biopsies, as well as radiographs and computed tomography (CT) exams. Occasionally, post mortem gross necropsy and histopathology data were available to provide confirmation of diagnoses. Thoracic ultrasound was determined to be a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting pleural and pulmonary diseases in dolphins.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 11/2012; 101(3):243-55. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the regenerative properties and potential therapeutic value of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the bottlenose dolphin, there is a need to determine whether an adequate adipose depot exists, in addition to the development of a standardized technique for minimally invasive adipose collection. In this study, an ultrasound-guided liposuction technique for adipose collection was assessed for its safety and efficacy. The ultrasound was utilized to identify and measure the postnuchal adipose depot and aid in the guidance of the liposuction cannula during aspiration. Liposuction procedures from 6 dolphins yielded 0.9-12.7 g of adipose. All samples yielded sufficient nucleated cells to initiate primary cell cultures, and at passage 2, were successfully differentiated into adipogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic, and osteogenic cell lineages. The cultured dolphin cells expressed known stem-cell-associated CD markers, CD44 and CD90. Ultrasound-guided liposuction proved to be a safe and minimally invasive procedure that resulted in the successful isolation of ASCs in bottlenose dolphins. This is the first article that conclusively establishes the presence of stem cells in the dolphin.
Stem cells and development 04/2012; 21(16):2949-57. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A seven-year old California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) presented with focally extensive, bilaterally symmetric, proliferative axillary skin lesions and preputial lesions. A second California sea lion in the same population presented with similar proliferative lesions on the underside of the tail. Histopathology revealed epidermal hyperplasia with severe hyperkeratosis, with proliferating keratinocytes forming broad, branching pegs that extended into the dermis. Pan-papillomaviral consensus PCR was used to obtain initial E1 sequence template and the complete genome was determined using a combination of rolling circle amplification and specific-primer PCR. Analysis revealed a novel papillomavirus, Zalophus californianus papillomavirus 1 (ZcPV1), with seven open reading frames encoding five early proteins (E6, E7, E1, E2 and E4) and two late proteins (L1 and L2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that (ZcPV1) is most closely related to Equine papillomavirus 1 (EcPV1) in the genus Zetapapillomavirus, and Canine papillomaviruses 3 and 4 (CPV3, CPV4) in the genus Chipapillomavirus. The lesions regressed without intervention over a period of several months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bottlenose dolphins can have iron overload (that is, hemochromatosis), and managed populations of dolphins may be more susceptible to this disease than are wild dolphins. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin were measured in 181 samples from 141 dolphins in 2 managed collections and 2 free-ranging populations. Although no iron indices increased with age among free-ranging dolphins, ferritin increased with age in managed collections. Dolphins from managed collections had higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation values than did free-ranging dolphins. Dolphins with high serum iron (exceeding 300 μg/dL) were more likely to have elevated ferritin but not ceruloplasmin or haptoglobin, demonstrating that high serum levels of iron are due to a true increase in total body iron. A time-series study of 4 dolphins with hemochromatosis that were treated with phlebotomy demonstrated significant decreases in serum ferritin, iron, and TIBC between pre- and posttreatment samples; transferrin saturation initially fell but returned to prephlebotomy levels by 6 mo after treatment. Compared with those in managed collections, wild dolphins were 15 times more likely to have low serum iron (100 μg/dL or less), and this measure was associated with lower haptoglobin. In conclusion, bottlenose dolphins in managed collections are more likely to have greater iron stores than are free-ranging dolphins. Determining why this situation occurs among some dolphin populations and not others may improve the treatment of hemochromatosis in dolphins and provide clues to causes of nonhereditary hemochromatosis in humans.
Comparative medicine 01/2012; 62(6):508-15. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in hematological and serum chemistry values have been identified among older compared to younger humans. We hypothesized that healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) 30 years and older may demonstrate similar clinicopathological changes with increasing age. Retrospective hematological and serum chemistry data generated from routine, fasted blood samples collected over 10 to 20 years among six healthy dolphins that lived at least 40 years were analyzed to (1) assess linear trends in blood variable values with increasing age, (2) compare mean blood values by older age categories (30-35 years, 36-40 years, and >40 years), and (3) compare the prevalence of clinically high or low blood values by older age categories. Absolute lymphocytes, serum globulins, and mean platelet volume increased linearly with increasing old age. Mean white blood cells, neutrophils, serum globulins, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, serum cholesterol, and serum triglycerides; and the prevalence of neutrophilic leukocytosis, hyperglobulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia, were more likely to be higher as geriatric dolphins got older. A linear decrease in serum albumin with increasing age was present for five of six animals. Serum creatinine decreased among dolphins older than 40 years compared to when they were 30-40 years old. Our study demonstrates that older dolphins have changes in hematological and serum chemistry values similar to those found in older humans. As such, bottlenose dolphins may serve as a useful comparative model for aging in humans. Further studies are needed to assess whether these changes are associated with negative health outcomes and whether targeted therapeutics can help improve quality of life among aging dolphins.
Journal of Comparative Physiology B 07/2011; 181(5):667-80. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate health indicators for a population of bottlenose dolphins in the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP) by use of data acquired from 1988 through 2007.
Retrospective cohort study.
167 bottlenose dolphins.
The following indicators were used to evaluate the health of dolphins during the 20-year period: 5-year age structure, median survival age, annual survival rates, mortality rates, and neonatal and calf survival and mortality rates. Limitations of these population measurements as health indicators for dolphins were assessed.
Crude mortality rates of dolphins for 1988 through 1992, 1993 through 1997, 1998 through 2002, and 2003 through 2007 were 3.1%, 4.7%, 3.6%, and 2.4%, respectively; during these same 4 study periods, median survival ages were 14.3, 14.4, 17.7, and 26.1 years, respectively, and mean survival rates were 0.98, 0.97, 0.97, and 0.99, respectively. From 1988 through 1997, 1998 through 2002, and 2003 through 2007, neonatal mortality rates were 4 of 16, 5 of 20, and 2 of 14 neonates, respectively. During these 3 study periods, mean annual survival rates for calves < 3 years old (excluding neonates that died at < 30 days old) were 0.97, 0.92, and 0.99, respectively.
Although there were limitations to the measurement of some health indicators, use of multiple methods indicated that the health of dolphins in the MMP population was comparable to, if not better than, that published for other dolphin populations. The MMP population of dolphins may provide useful reference values of health indicators for use in assessment of other managed dolphin populations.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 02/2011; 238(3):356-60. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five novel DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (Dpol) herpesviral sequences were generated using nested consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical samples from a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), orca (Orcinus orca), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a Phocid herpesvirus 2 (PhHV-2) isolate from a harbor seal (used as positive control). These novel sequences and other representative herpesvirus sequences were included in Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses to illustrate the phylogeny of herpesviruses amongst the marine mammal host species and in comparison to those of other animals. All 19 novel and known marine mammal herpesviruses included in the analyses aligned with members of the Alphaherpesvirinae or Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. The novel harbor seal herpesvirus clustered with members of the Macavirus genus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. The novel bottlenose dolphin herpesvirus clustered together in a monophyletic group with another delphinid alphaherpesvirus but could not be associated with an established genus. The orca herpesvirus also clustered with a delphinid alphaherpesvirus and formed a separate clade. The sea lion herpesvirus clustered with PhHV-2. PhHV-1 clustered with varicelloviruses and PhHV-2 clustered strongly in the Gammaherpesvirinae genus Percavirus. All cetacean gammaherpesviruses formed a monophyletic clade and could not be associated with an established gammaherpesviral genus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Odontocete brain tissues associated with auditory processing are hypertrophied and modified relative to their terrestrial counterparts. The relationship between the functional demand on these tissues and metabolic substrate requirements is unknown. Using positron emission tomography (PET), relative cerebral blood flow was measured in a bottlenose dolphin. Approximately 60 mCi (13)NH(3) was administered to the dolphin via a catheter inserted into the hepatic vein and threaded proximate to the vena cava. Radiolabel initially appeared as distributed focal points in the cerebellum. Increasing scan time resulted in an increase in the number of focal regions and in the diffusivity of label activity throughout the brain. The time course and spatial distribution of radiolabel was consistent with a cerebral blood supply dominated by the spinal meningeal arteries. Blood flow was predominantly observed in the cerebellum and neocortex, particularly the auditory and visual cortex. Differential brain glucose uptake, previously measured in a separate dolphin, showed good agreement with the differential supply of blood to brain tissues. Rates of blood supply and glucose uptake in the auditory cortex, inferior colliculus, and cerebellum are consistent with a high metabolic demand of tissues which are important to the integration of auditory and other sensory inputs.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 09/2010; 128(3):1460-6. · 1.65 Impact Factor