Carl Blomqvist

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (298)1927.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46,450 cases and 42,600 controls) and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 (rs1053338, per-allele OR=1.07, 95%CI=1.04-1.10, P=2.9x10(-6)), AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR=1.05, 95%CI=1.03-1.07, P=1.7x10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR=1.10, 95%CI=1.07-1.12, P=5.1x10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine GWAS: for ATXN7-K264R, OR=1.07 (95%CI=1.05-1.10, P=1.0x10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR=1.05 (95%CI=1.04-1.07, P=2.0x10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known genome-wide association study (GWAS) hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2,156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n=39,067 cases; n=42,106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 (rs17550038: odds ratio (OR)=1.24, 95% CI 1.16-1.33, p=4.2x10(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR=1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.11, p=8.7x10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, p=7.9x10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high grade breast cancer risk (p=2.1x10(-3)). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <=50 years.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 05/2014; 16(3):R51. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18), P = 6.0×10-10; P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8×10-4). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes.
    PLoS Genetics 04/2014; 10(4):e1004285. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    Human Molecular Genetics 04/2014; Hum Mol Genet.(23(7)):1934-46.. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Evidence for the association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarised the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. Materials and Methods A MEDLINE search to identify studies published up to January 2013 was performed. We combined published estimates for survival time in "moderate drinkers" versus non-drinkers. An analysis of individual participant data using Cox regression was carried out using data from eleven case cohorts. Results We identified eleven published studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Moderate post-diagnosis alcohol consumption was not associated with overall survival (HR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.05), but there was some evidence of better survival associated with pre-diagnosis consumption (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.88). Individual data on alcohol consumption for 29,239 cases with 4,839 deaths were available from the eleven case cohorts, all of which had data on ER status. For women with ER-positive disease there was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality, with some evidence of a reduction in all-cause mortality. Based on a single study, moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality in women with ER-negative disease. There was no association for pre-diagnosis intake in women with ER-negative disease. Impact Considering the totality of the evidence, moderate post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a major adverse effect on survival of women with breast cancer.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate how tailored exercise is experienced by cancer survivors. Twenty-five breast cancer survivors who were recently treated with systemic adjuvant treatments attended tailored exercise classes as a part of a randomized controlled exercise intervention study (Breast Cancer and Exercise, BREX). Focus group discussions with a median of four (range 3-6) participants in each group were conducted to capture their individual experiences of their course of illness, taking part in the exercise trial, the personal meaning of tailored exercise classes and the group. Attending the intervention in which the focus of attention was on physical rehabilitation was highly valued, since the participants experienced both improved physical fitness and improved coping. Due to altered physical appearance and poor physical fitness, the participants felt that tailored exercise for patients with breast cancer reduced their barrier to start exercising. Peer support from the group was valued, especially that of sharing experiences, receiving psychological support and gaining a sense of normality. A sense of mastery over their disease through participating in the intervention, i.e. better psychological functioning and improved mood, was a consequence of better physical fitness and of meeting other breast cancer survivors. Also participating in the study per se increases a sense of comfort and security with extra medical examinations and follow-up. Participating in the tailored exercise group for breast cancer survivors helped patients gain a sense of mastery, restoring their self-esteem and constructing a meaning for their cancer experience and its impact on their lives.
    Anticancer research 03/2014; 34(3):1193-9. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate whether the negative quality of life result of a large randomized exercise intervention study (BREX) was due to considerable spontaneous recovery after adjuvant treatments. The change in QoL was studied in the control patients of the BREX study (Group 1) and a group of similar follow-up patients that did not participate in any intervention study (Group 2). QoL was measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 with the breast cancer module supplement 6 and 12 months after surgery. QoL improved in both groups between 6 and 12 months after surgery. The improvement was similar in both groups for global QoL and for most of the QoL sub-scales. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that participation in an exercise intervention per se significantly improves QoL. Spontaneous improvement in QoL began during the first six months after the primary treatments, which might have confounded the results of the intervention of the BREX study.
    Anticancer research 03/2014; 34(3):1201-6. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary predisposition to breast cancer is largely affected by the mutations in the genes of the DNA repair pathways. Novel genes involved in DNA repair are therefore prospective candidates also for breast cancer susceptibility genes. The RHINO (Rad9, Rad1, Hus1-interacting nuclear orphan) gene plays a central role in DNA damage response and in cell cycle regulation. RHINO interacts with Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex and with ATR activator TopBP1, which recruit it to the site of DNA damage. We analyzed the effects of the germline variation in RHINO on breast cancer risk. We sequenced the coding region of the RHINO gene 466 index cases of Finnish breast cancer families and in 507 population controls. The genotypes of the most likely functional variant were further determined in a large dataset of 2,944 cases and 1,976 controls. We analyzed the common variation of the RHINO locus and determined the haplotypes using five SNPs in 1,531 cases and 1,233 controls. We identified seven variants including four missense variations, a 5' UTR variant, a silent variant, and a nonsense variant c.250C>T, R84X (rs140887418). All variants were also present in control individuals with frequencies close to those of the cases (P > 0.05). The c.250C>T variant was present in 12 breast cancer patients (0.4 %) and of 16 controls (0.8 %) with the difference not statistically significant (OR = 0.50, 95 %CI: 0.24-1.06, P = 0.066). The haplotype frequencies did not differ in cases and controls (P = 0.59). Germline variation in the RHINO gene is unlikely to influence inherited susceptibility to breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 SNPs among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident case and 2,702 population control women aged <=51 years. The SNPs with smallest P-values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC case and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P-values to obtain a gene-based P-value. We examined the gene with smallest P-value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer case and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P<4x10-8) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P<6x10-4) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P<0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genomewide gene-based threshold of 2.5x10-In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC appear to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 02/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large population-based registry studies have shown that breast cancer prognosis is inherited. Here we analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes implicated in human immunology and inflammation as candidates for prognostic markers of breast cancer survival involving 1,804 oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients treated with chemotherapy (279 events) from 14 European studies in a prior large-scale genotyping experiment, which is part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS) initiative. We carry out replication using Asian COGS samples (n=522, 53 events) and the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) study (n=315, 108 events). Rs4458204_A near CCL20 (2q36.3) is found to be associated with breast cancer-specific death at a genome-wide significant level (n=2,641, 440 events, combined allelic hazard ratio (HR)=1.81 (1.49-2.19); P for trend=1.90 × 10(-9)). Such survival-associated variants can represent ideal targets for tailored therapeutics, and may also enhance our current prognostic prediction capabilities.
    Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:4051. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background We have shown that most patients with seminomas have elevated serum concentrations of the free β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) and that in nonseminomatous testicular cancer, most of the hCG in the serum is hyperglycosylated (hCG-h). However, the tissue expression of hCG-h or hCGβ in germ cell tumors (GCTs) has not been reported. Our objective was to study the expression and diagnostic value of hCG-h and hCGβ in testicular GCTs. Methods We studied the immunohistochemical expression of hCG, hCG-h, hCGβ, and the free α subunit of hCG (hCGα) in GCTs from 154 patients. We compared the tissue expression with serum concentrations and evaluated the correlation between staining intensity, established prognostic variables, and outcome. Results The expression varied between tumor types. All forms of hCG, including hCG-h, were detected in embryonal carcinomas (22%) and mixed GCTs (48%). Polyclonal hCG and monoclonal hCGβ antibodies detected immunoreactivity in some seminomas (7%). No form of hCG was found in spermatocytic seminomas, pure teratomas, or a yolk sac tumor. The serum concentrations correlated with the corresponding tumor expression. The staining intensities of hCG, hCGβ, hCG-h, and hCGα correlated with disease stage but not significantly with relapse, disease-related mortality, or progression-free survival. Conclusion Trophoblastic tissue expresses hCG, hCG-h, and free subunits together whereas seminoma tissue occasionally expresses hCGβ. This difference might aid in differential diagnosis of some difficult-to-classify cases.
    Urologic Oncology 01/2014; · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triple negative (TN) breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer associated with a unique set of epidemiologic and genetic risk factors. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TN breast cancer (stage 1: 1,529 TN cases, 3,399 controls; stage 2: 2,148 cases, 1,309 controls) to identify loci that influence TN breast cancer risk. Variants in the 19p13.1 and PTHLH loci showed genome-wide significant associations (p<5x10(-8)) in stage 1 and 2 combined. Results also suggested a substantial enrichment of significantly associated variants among the SNPs analyzed in stage 2. Variants from 25 of 74 known breast cancer susceptibility loci were also associated with risk of TN breast cancer (p<0.05). Associations with TN breast cancer were confirmed for ten loci (LGR6, MDM4, CASP8, 2q35, 2p24.1, TERT-rs10069690, ESR1, TOX3, 19p13.1, RALY), and we identified associations with TN breast cancer for 15 additional breast cancer loci (p<0.05: PEX14, 2q24.1, 2q31.1, ADAM29, EBF1, TCF7L2, 11q13.1, 11q24.3, 12p13.1, PTHLH, NTN4, 12q24, BRCA2, RAD51L1-rs2588809, MKL1). Further, two SNPs independent of previously reported signals in ESR1 (rs12525163 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, p=4.9x10(-4)) and 19p13.1 (rs1864112 OR=0.84, p=1.8x10(-9)) were associated with TN breast cancer. A polygenic risk score (PRS) for TN breast cancer based on known breast cancer risk variants showed a 4-fold difference in risk between the highest and lowest PRS quintiles (OR=4.03, 95% CI 3.46-4.70, p=4.8x10(-69)). This translates to an absolute risk for TN breast cancer ranging from 0.8% to 3.4%, suggesting that genetic variation may be used for TN breast cancer risk prediction.
    Carcinogenesis 12/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 11/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46,450 breast cancer cases and 42,461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P<0.01) of a per-allele main effect, and all two-way combinations of those were evaluated by a per-allele (1df) test for interaction using logistic regression. Second, all 2.5 billion possible two-SNP combinations were evaluated using BOOST, and SNP-pairs with the strongest evidence of interaction (P<10(-4)) were selected for more careful assessment by logistic regression. Under the first approach, 3,277 SNPs were preselected, but an evaluation of all possible two-SNP combinations (1df) identified no interactions at P<10(-8). Results from the second analytic approach were consistent with those from the first (P>10(-10)). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome.
    Human Molecular Genetics 11/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Most local recurrences have developed in the clinical target volume in previously published series after combined modality treatment for soft tissue sarcoma. However, marginal misses were seen in almost 20% of the patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the location of the recurrence and the total dose at the centre point of the local recurrence for future radiation therapy planning. Material and methods. We included only patients with images in digital form, during 1999-2006 (n = 17), treated for soft tissue sarcoma with combined surgical therapy and radiotherapy at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Image fusion was used to determine the location of the recurrence in relation to radiation therapy target. Results. In the present study utilising digital image fusion, in patients with 3D CT-based radiation treatment planning the risk of marginal miss was low as only one patient of 17 relapsed outside the target. Estimated mean radiation dose at the site of local recurrence was 49.1 Gy in patients with positive margins and 48.1 Gy in patients with negative margins. Conclusion. The risk of marginal miss in soft tissue sarcoma is low after modern 3D planned radiation treatment combined with surgery. More generous use of boost might improve in-target local control.
    Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) 11/2013; · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Breast cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular morbidity/mortality rate, when compared with healthy age-matched general population. Electrocardiography (ECG) changes have been found to be associated with chemo- and radiation therapy. In the present study we investigated changes in ECG patterns following modern adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. A standard 12-lead electrocardiogram was recorded at rest three times (prior and after adjuvant therapy) and retrospectively analyzed in 414 breast cancer patients, who participated in the open prospective phase III randomized trial (BREX) of exercise training 2005-2007. New electrocardiographic changes in the T-wave or ST-segment (depression or elevation) after the adjuvant therapy were recorded in 49 patients (13%). In multivariate analyses, hypertension treated with anti-hypertensive medication was the only significant factor associated with irreversible ECG changes (OR=4.71; 95% CI=1.36-16.38; p=0.015). New irreversible pathological electrocardiographic changes, which acquired during the adjuvant therapy, had a clear relationship with hypertension This patients subgroup needs to be studied further.
    Anticancer research 11/2013; 33(11):4933-9. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different molecular subtypes of breast cancer have been identified based on gene expression profiling. Treatment suggestions based on an approximation of these subtypes by immunohistochemical criteria have been published by the St Gallen international expert consensus panel. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) can be classified into the same molecular subtypes. Our aim was to study the relation between these newly defined subtypes and prognosis in DCIS.Methods and material: TMA including 458 women from a population-based cohort with DCIS diagnosed 1986--2004 was used. Stainings for ER, PR, HER2 and Ki67 were used to classify the surrogate molecular subtypes according to the St Gallen criteria from 2011. The associations with prognosis were examined using Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Surrogate molecular subtyping could be done in 381 cases. Mean follow up was 164 months. Of the classified DCIS 186 were Luminal A (48.8 %), 33 Luminal B/HER2- (8.7 %), 74 Luminal B/HER2+ (17.4 %), 61 HER2+/ER- (16.0 %) and 27 Triple Negative (7.1 %). One hundred and two women had a local recurrence of which 58 were invasive. Twenty-two women had generalised disease, 8 without a prior local recurrence. We could not find a prognostic significance of the molecular subtypes other than a higher risk of developing breast cancer after more than 10 years of follow-up among women with a Triple Negative DCIS (OR 3.2; 95 % CI 1.1-9.8). The results from this large population-based cohort, with long-term follow up failed to demonstrate a prognostic value for the surrogate molecular subtyping of DCIS using the St Gallen criteria up to ten years after diagnosis. More than ten years after diagnosis Triple Negative DCIS had an elevated risk of recurrence.
    BMC Cancer 10/2013; 13(1):512. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal translation of mRNAs frequently occurring during carcinogenesis is among the mechanisms that can affect the expression of proteins involved in tumor development and progression. Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E is a key regulator of translation of many cancer-related transcripts and its expression is altered in various cancers and has been associated with worse survival. We determined the eIF4E protein levels using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 1,233 breast tumors on tissue microarrays. We analyzed the effects of the IHC expression level on tumor characteristics and patient survival, also with stratification by adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. In 1,085 successfully stained tumors, high level of eIF4E protein expression was associated with features of aggressive tumor phenotype, namely grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity, HER2 receptor positivity, and high expression of p53 and Ki67, and with triple negative subtype (p < 0.001). High eIF4E expression was associated with worse breast cancer-specific survival with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.99 (95 % CI 1.32-3.00, p = 0.0008) and was in a multivariate analysis an independent prognostic factor. High eIF4E expression was associated with worse outcome also after detection of distant metastasis (HR = 1.88, 95 % CI 1.20-2.94, p = 0.0060). In the subgroup analysis the survival effect was strongest among patients treated with anthracycline chemotherapy (HR = 3.34, 95 % CI 1.72-6.48, p = 0.0002), whereas no such effect was seen among patients who had not received anthracycline with significant difference in heterogeneity between the two groups (p = 0.0358). High expression of eIF4E is associated with adverse tumor characteristics and predicts poor breast cancer-specific survival. This effect is emphasized in patients treated with anthracycline chemotherapy. eIF4E as a treatment predictive factor warrants further studies.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 08/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Defective DNA repair is central to the progression and treatment of breast cancer. Immunohistochemically detected DNA repair markers may be good candidates for novel prognostic and predictive factors that could guide the selection of individualized treatment strategies. We have analyzed nuclear immunohistochemical staining of BRCA1, FANCD2, RAD51, XPF, and PAR in relation to clinicopathological and survival data among 1240 paraffin-embedded breast tumors, and additional gene expression microarray data from 76 tumors. The antioxidant enzyme NQO1 was analyzed as a potential modifier of prognostic DNA repair markers. RAD51 [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.94, P = 0.0050] and FANCD2 expression (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.28-1.76, P = 1.50 × 10(-7)) were associated with breast cancer survival. High FANCD2 expression correlated with markers of adverse prognosis but remained independently prognostic in multivariate analysis (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.49, P = 0.0043). The FANCD2-associated survival effect was most pronounced in hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative tumors, and in tumors with above-median NQO1 expression. In the NQO1-high subset, patients belonging to the highest quartile of FANCD2 immunohistochemical scores had a threefold increased risk of metastasis or death (HR 3.10, 95% CI 1.96-4.92). Global gene expression analysis indicated that FANCD protein overabundance is associated with the upregulation of proliferation-related genes and a downregulated nucleotide excision repair pathway. FANCD2 immunohistochemistry is a sensitive, independent prognostic factor in breast cancer, particularly when standard markers indicate relatively favorable prognosis. Taken together, our results suggest that the prognostic effect is linked to proliferation, DNA damage, and oxidative stress; simultaneous detection of FANCD2 and NQO1 provides additional prognostic value.
    Annals of Oncology 07/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,927.94 Total Impact Points


  • 1983–2014
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Swedish School of Social Science
      • • Department of Medical Genetics
      • • Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      • • Division of Plastic Surgery
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2013
    • Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Queensland 
      • School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2011–2013
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Health Science Research
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Genetic Epidemiology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • On-Q-ity
      Waltham, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas
      • Human Cancer Genetics Programme
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Public Health and Primary Care
      • • Department of Oncology
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2009–2011
    • Netherlands Cancer Institute
      • Division of Experimental Therapy
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2011
    • Uppsala University
      • Department of Surgical Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1999–2010
    • Uppsala University Hospital
      • Department of Oncology
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2008
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2007
    • The University of Sheffield
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Oncology
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2006
    • Örebro University Hospital
      • Department of Oncology
      Örebro, Örebro, Sweden
  • 2000–2002
    • University of Tampere
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Laboratory of Cancer Genetics
      Tampere, Western Finland, Finland