[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly being seen in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). This condition has a complex pathogenesis, an incidence that can reach 30% and it is associated with higher short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, AKI is still characterised by lack of a single accepted definition, unclear pathophysiology understanding and insensitive diagnostic tools that make its detection difficult, particularly in the setting of ACS. Recent data suggested that patients with AKI during ACS, even those in whom renal function seems to fully recover, face an increased, persisting risk of future AKI and may develop chronic kidney disease. Thus, in these patients, nephrology follow-up, after hospital discharge, and secondary preventive measures should possibly be implemented. In this review, we aim at providing a framework of knowledge to increase cardiologists' awareness of AKI, with the goal of improving the outcome of patients with ACS.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: sec> Aims Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) who are managed without coronary revascularization represent a mixed and understudied population that seems to receive suboptimal pharmacological treatment. Methods and results We assessed patterns of antithrombotic therapies employed during the hospitalization and in-hospital clinical events of medically managed patients with ACS enrolled in the prospective, multicentre, nationwide EYESHOT (EmploYEd antithrombotic therapies in patients with acute coronary Syndromes HOspitalized in iTalian cardiac care units) registry. Among the 2585 consecutive ACS patients enrolled in EYESHOT, 783 (30.3%) did not receive any revascularization during hospital admission. Of these, 478 (61.0%) underwent coronary angiography (CA), whereas 305 (39.0%) did not. The median GRACE and CRUSADE risk scores were significantly higher among patients who did not undergo CA compared with those who did (180 vs. 145, P < 0.0001 and 50 vs. 33, P < 0.0001, respectively). Antithrombotic therapies employed during hospitalization significantly differ between patients who received CA and those who did not with unfractioned heparin and novel P2Y12 inhibitors more frequently used in the first group, and low-molecular-weight heparins and clopidogrel in the latter group. During the index hospitalization, patients who did not receive CA presented a higher incidence of ischaemic cerebrovascular events and of mortality compared with those who underwent CA (1.6 vs. 0.2%, P = 0.04 and 7.9 vs. 2.7%, P = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusion Almost one-third of ACS patients are managed without revascularization during the index hospitalization. In this population, a lower use of recommended antiplatelet therapy and worse clinical outcome were observed in those who did not undergo CA when compared with those who did. Clinical Trial Registration Unique identifier: NCT02015624, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . </sec
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficiency in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), the main circulating form of vitamin D in blood, could be involved in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). To date, however, the possible prognostic relevance of 25 (OH)D deficiency in ACS patients remains poorly defined. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the association between 25 (OH)D levels, at hospital admission, with in-hospital and 1-year morbidity and mortality in an unselected cohort of ACS patients.We measured 25 (OH)D in 814 ACS patients at hospital presentation. Vitamin D serum levels >30 ng/mL were considered as normal; levels between 29 and 21 ng/mL were classified as insufficiency, and levels < 20 ng/mL as deficiency. In-hospital and 1-year outcomes were evaluated according to 25 (OH)D level quartiles, using the lowest quartile as a reference.Ninety-three (11%) patients had normal 25 (OH)D levels, whereas 155 (19%) and 566 (70%) had vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, respectively. The median 25 (OH)D level was similar in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients (14.1 [IQR 9.0-21.9] ng/mL and 14.05 [IQR 9.1-22.05] ng/mL, respectively; P = .88). The lowest quartile of 25 (OH)D was associated with a higher risk for several in-hospital complications, including mortality. At a median follow-up of 366 (IQR 364-379) days, the lowest quartile of 25 (OH)D, after adjustment for the main confounding factors, remained significantly associated to 1-year mortality (P < .01). Similar results were obtained when STEMI and NSTEMI patients were considered separately.In ACS patients, severe vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with poor in-hospital and 1-year outcomes. Whether low vitamin D levels represent a risk marker or a risk factor in ACS remains to be elucidated.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 05/2015; 94(19):1-8. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000857 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD), which remains the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in CKD patients. Although the management of CAD is more challenging in patients with CKD than in the general population, and coupled with concerns about further deterioration of renal function and therapy-related toxic effects, CKD patients and those receiving dialysis have not traditionally been included in randomized trials evaluating either medical or revascularization therapies. Thus, only scant data from small prospective studies or retrospective analyses of controlled trials and registries are available, and to date no optimal treatment approach has been defined for this subgroup of patients. However, they potentially have much to gain from the pharmacological, interventional, and surgical strategies used in the general population. Thus, the objective of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the management of CAD in CKD patients, in particular with respect to uncertainties regarding coronary revascularization options, and their risk-benefit relationship in such a high-risk population.
Journal of nephrology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40620-015-0184-2 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients hospitalized for acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) present with symptoms and signs of volume overload, which are also associated with high rates of death and re-hospitalization. Several studies have investigated the possible use of extracorporeal ultrafiltration in the management of ADHF, evaluating potential clinical benefits in terms of hospitalization and survival rates versus those of conventional diuretic therapy. Though ultrafiltration remains an extremely appealing therapeutic option for patients with AHDF, some of the most recent studies have reported conflicting results. Differences in the selection of study population, heterogeneity of the indications for the use of ultrafiltration, disparity in the ultrafiltration protocols, and high variability in the pharmacologic therapies used for the control group could explain some of these contradictory findings. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview and an update on the mechanisms and clinical effects of ultrafiltration and on currently available evidence supporting its use in ADHF.
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 02/2015; 15(2). DOI:10.1007/s40256-015-0107-6 · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide an overview on the most recent evidence for the use of extracorporeal and peritoneal ultrafiltration in heart failure, focusing on the major publications from the last few years.
There have been several studies investigating the possible use of extracorporeal and peritoneal ultrafiltration in the management of acute and chronic heart failure. These trials have investigated the potential benefits and advantages of ultrafiltration over conventional medical therapy, in terms of clinical outcomes.
Although ultrafiltration remains an extremely appealing therapeutic option for patients with heart failure and congestion, with several theoretical beneficial effects, some of the most recent studies have reported inconsistent findings. Differences in the selection of the study population, heterogeneity of the indications for use of ultrafiltration, variation in the ultrafiltration protocols, and high variability in the pharmacologic therapy used for the control group could explain some of these conflicting findings.
Current Opinion in Cardiology 01/2015; 30(2). DOI:10.1097/HCO.0000000000000139 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite major advances in pharmacological therapy and cardiac devices, heart failure patients continue to be frequently (re-)hospitalized with signs and symptoms of fluid overload. Diuretics improve the symptoms of fluid overload, but their effectiveness is reduced by a number of factors including excess salt intake, underlying chronic kidney disease, renal adaptation to their actions and neurohormonal activation. Ultrafiltration (UF) is a mechanical method of fluid removal with several potential advantages over diuretic-based conventional therapies: several recent studies have demonstrated favorable clinical response to UF therapy. Such studies have shown that removal of large amounts of isotonic fluid, in addition to relieving symptoms of congestion, can improve exercise capacity, reduce cardiac filling pressures, restore diuretic responsiveness, and portend a favorable effect on cardio-pulmonary, cardiorenal interactions, and neurohormonal hyperactivation. However, despite these proposed benefits, so far, no clinical study has yet been carried out to explore the impact of UF therapy on hard clinical endpoints such as long-term mortality. In this article, we review a number of mechanistic aspects of UF therapy, with particular emphasis on cardio-pulmonary and cardiorenal interactions, and revisit the results of more recent clinical trials in order to highlight the characteristics that can help identify patients who are more likely to benefit from this therapeutic modality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are limited data comparing ultrafiltration with standard medical therapy as first-line treatment in patients with severe congestive heart failure (HF). We compared ultrafiltration vs. conventional therapy in patients hospitalized for HF and overt fluid overload.
Patients with congestive HF were randomized to receive standard medical therapy (Control group) or ultrafiltration (Ultrafiltration group). The primary end point of the study was re-hospitalizations for congestive HF during a 1-year follow-up. Fifty-six patients were randomized to ultrafiltration (n=27) or standard therapy (n=29). Despite similar body weight reduction at hospital discharge in the two groups (7.5±4.5 and 7.9±5.0 kg, respectively; P=0.75), a lower incidence of re-hospitalizations for HF was observed in the ultrafiltration-treated patients during the following year (hazard ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.48; P=0.002). Ultrafiltration-induced benefit was associated with a more stable renal function, unchanged furosemide dose, and lower BNP levels. At one year, 7 (30%) deaths occurred in the ultrafiltration group, and 11 (44%) in the Control group (P=0.33).
In HF patients with severe fluid overload, first-line treatment with ultrafiltration is associated with a prolonged clinical stabilization and a greater freedom from re-hospitalization for congestive HF.
Journal of cardiac failure 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.11.004 · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined circulating miRNA expression profiles in plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) vs. matched controls, with the aim of identifying novel discriminating biomarkers of Stable (SA) and Unstable (UA) angina.
An exploratory analysis of plasmatic expression profile of 367 miRNAs was conducted in a group of SA and UA patients and control donors, using TaqMan microRNA Arrays. Screening confirmation and expression analysis were performed by qRT-PCR: all miRNAs found dysregulated were examined in the plasma of troponin-negative UA (n=19) and SA (n=34) patients and control subjects (n=20), matched for sex, age, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the expression of 14 known CAD-associated miRNAs was also investigated.
Out of 178 miRNAs consistently detected in plasma samples, 3 showed positive modulation by CAD when compared to controls: miR-337-5p, miR-433, and miR-485-3p. Further, miR-1, -122, -126, -133a, -133b, and miR-199a were positively modulated in both UA and SA patients, while miR-337-5p and miR-145 showed a positive modulation only in SA or UA patients, respectively. ROC curve analyses showed a good diagnostic potential (AUC ≥ 0.85) for miR-1, -126, and -483-5p in SA and for miR-1, -126, and -133a in UA patients vs. controls, respectively. No discriminating AUC values were observed comparing SA vs. UA patients. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the combination of miR-1, -133a, and -126 in UA and of miR-1, -126, and -485-3p in SA correctly classified patients vs. controls with an efficiency ≥ 87%. No combination of miRNAs was able to reliably discriminate patients with UA from patients with SA.
This work showed that specific plasmatic miRNA signatures have the potential to accurately discriminate patients with angiographically documented CAD from matched controls. We failed to identify a plasmatic miRNA expression pattern capable to differentiate SA from UA patients.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80345. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080345 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether admission B-type natriuretic peptide levels predict the development of acute kidney injury in acute coronary syndromes.
Single-center study, 13-bed intensive cardiac care unit at a University Cardiological Center.
Six-hundred thirty-nine acute coronary syndromes patients undergoing emergency and urgent percutaneous coronary intervention.
We measured B-type natriuretic peptide at hospital admission in acute coronary syndromes patients (55% ST-elevation myocardial infarction and 45% non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction). Acute kidney injury was classified according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria: stage 1 was defined as a serum creatinine increase greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dL from baseline; stage 2 as a serum creatinine increase greater than two- to three-fold from baseline; stage 3 as a serum creatinine increase greater than three-fold from baseline, or greater than or equal to 4.0 mg/dL with an acute increase greater than 0.5 mg/dL, or need for renal replacement therapy. Acute kidney injury was developed in 85 patients (13%) and had a higher in-hospital mortality than patients without acute kidney injury (14% vs 1%; p < 0.001). B-type natriuretic peptide levels were higher in acute kidney injury patients than in those without acute kidney injury (264 [112-957] vs 98 [44-271] pg/mL; p < 0.001) and showed a significant gradient according to acute kidney injury severity (224 [96-660] pg/mL in stage 1 and 939 [124-1,650] pg/mL in stage 2-3 acute kidney injury; p < 0.001). The risk of developing acute kidney injury increased in parallel with B-type natriuretic peptide quartiles (5%, 9%, 15%, and 24%, respectively; p < 0.001). When B-type natriuretic peptide was evaluated, in terms of capacity to predict acute kidney injury, the area under the curve was 0.702 (95% CI, 0.642-0.762).
In patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes, B-type natriuretic peptide levels measured at admission are associated with acute kidney injury as well as its severity.
Critical care medicine 11/2013; 42(3). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000025 · 6.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Four monocentric studies reported that circadian rhythms can affect left ventricular infarct size after ST-segment-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objective: To further validate the circadian dependence of infarct size after STEMI in a multicentric and multiethnic population. Methods and Results: We analyzed a prospective cohort of subjects with first STEMI from the First Acute Myocardial Infarction study that enrolled 1099 patients (ischemic time <6 hours) in Italy, Scotland, and China. We confirmed a circadian variation of STEMI incidence with an increased morning incidence (from 6:00 am till noon). We investigated the presence of circadian dependence of infarct size plotting the peak creatine kinase against time onset of ischemia. In addition, we studied the patients from the 3 countries separately, including 624 Italians; all patients were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. We adopted several levels of analysis with different inclusion criteria consistent with previous studies. In all the analyses, we did not find a clear-cut circadian dependence of infarct size after STEMI. Conclusions: Although the circadian dependence of infarct size supported by previous studies poses an intriguing hypothesis, we were unable to converge toward their conclusions in a multicentric and multiethnic setting. Parameters that vary as a function of latitude could potentially obscure the circadian variations observed in monocentric studies. We believe that, to assess whether circadian rhythms can affect the infarct size, future study design should not only include larger samples but also aim to untangle the molecular time-dynamic mechanisms underlying such a relation.
Circulation Research 05/2013; 112(10):e110-4. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.300778 · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. To date, however, no standardized definition of AKI has been used for patients with ACS. As a result, information on its true incidence and the clinical and prognostic relevance according to the severity of renal function deterioration are still lacking. We retrospectively studied 3,210 patients with ACS. AKI was identified on the basis of the changes in serum creatinine during hospitalization according to the AKI Network criteria. Overall, 409 patients (13%) developed AKI: 262 (64%) had stage 1, 25 (6%) stage 2, and 122 (30%) stage 3 AKI. In-hospital mortality was greater in patients with AKI than in those without AKI (21% vs 1%; p <0.001). The adjusted risk of death increased with increasing AKI severity. Compared to no AKI, the adjusted odds ratio for death was 3.5 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 6.83) with stage 1 AKI and 31.2 (95% confidence interval 16.96 to 57.45) with stage 2 to 3 AKI. A significant parallel increase in major adverse cardiac events was also observed comparing patients without AKI and those with stage 2 to 3 AKI. In conclusion, in patients with ACS, AKI is a frequent complication, and the graded increase of its severity, as assessed using the AKI Network classification, is associated with a progressive increased risk of in-hospital morbidity and mortality.
The American journal of cardiology 12/2012; 111(6). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.11.046 · 3.43 Impact Factor