[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Berylliosis is driven by the accumulation in the lung of beryllium-specific T helper type 1 (Th1) cells recognizing beryllium as antigen when presented principally by human leucocyte antigen DP molecules carrying a glutamate at position beta69 (HLA-DPGlu69). This study was designed to clarify the precise role of peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DP groove's pocket 4 and to identify peptides with higher affinity for pocket 4 that might prevent beryllium presentation and T-cell stimulation. Beryllium/HLA-DP interactions were analysed by the ability of beryllium to compete with CLIP and CLIP-derived peptides to HLA-DPGlu69 soluble molecule. The CLIP-derived low-affinity peptide CLIP-AA, could not outcompete beryllium; while the CLIP-derived high-affinity peptides CLIP-YY, CLIP-QY and CLIP-RF were only marginally influenced by the presence of beryllium in the competition assay. The effect of these CLIP-derived high-affinity peptides on beryllium presentation was determined by measuring interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) release upon beryllium stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from beryllium-hypersensitive subjects. CLIP-YY did inhibit beryllium presentation and T-cell activation, while CLIP-QY and CLIP-RF markedly enhanced the IFN-gamma response to beryllium. Anti-HLA-DP monoclonal antibody blocked the beryllium-induced IFN-gamma release in the presence of CLIP-QY (88%) and CLIP-RF (76%). A similar effect was observed for CLIP-YY capability to block IFN-gamma release by beryllium stimulation in the presence of CLIP-QY (79%) and CLIP-RF (76%). Overall, these data support the proposal that HLA-DP high-affinity peptides might be used as a model for specific berylliosis therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology, affecting primarily the lung and characterized by epithelioid granulomas. Disease association studies showed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II to be related to sarcoidosis. Initially, we studied the association of sarcoidosis with DQB1, and in the present study, we evaluated all amino acid variants of the HLA-DPB1, -DQB1, -DRB1, -DRB3, -DRB4 and -DRB5 genes to identify possible polymorphisms associated with the disease. Patients and controls were typed for class II genes to the allele level by sequence-based typing. Multiple logistic regression models showed DRAla71 and DQPhe9 to be independently associated with the disease. Subdivision of patients according to their radiographic stage resulted in identification of DRArg74 as independent associated residue in the RS I group, whereas DRAla71 and DQTyr30 were associated with RS II-IV groups. Polymorphic residues specifically associated with sarcoidosis shed new light on the characteristics of sarcoidosis-triggered peptides. Overall, pocket 9 of DQ and pocket 4 of DR seem to be the most important areas involved in the association with sarcoidosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to induce and/or monitor an immune response to a broad repertoire of epitopes universally recognized across continents and genetic backgrounds is considered a critical characteristic of an effective vaccine and diagnostic tool. Opportunities for epitope identification are expanding as the number of entirely sequenced pathogens approaches 500 and access to this data improves. The pace of vaccine design will accelerate as bioinformatics are systematically applied to whole genomes and used in combination with in vitro methods for screening and confirming epitopes. Given access to bioinformatic tools, epitope-driven diagnostic tools and both preventive and therapeutic vaccines (for infectious diseases of worldwide impact such as tuberculosis and HIV) are now within our reach. This review describes the structural basis of the bioinformatic tools for epitope prediction methods as well as the recent use of these approaches at genomic level in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccine design as example of structural bioinformatic system applied to pharmacogenomics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to beryllium (Be)-hypersensitivity (BH) has been associated with HLA-DP alleles carrying a glutamate at position 69 of the HLA-DP beta-chain (HLA-DPGlu69) and with several HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR alleles and polymorphisms. However, no genetic associations have been found between BH affected subjects not carrying the HLA-DPGlu69 susceptibility marker.
In this report, we re-evaluated an already described patient populations after 7 years of follow-up including new 29 identified BH subjects. An overall population 36 berylliosis patients and 38 Be-sensitization without lung granulomas and 86 Be-exposed controls was analysed to assess the role of the individual HLA-class II polymorphisms associated with BH-susceptibility in HLA-DPGlu69 negative subjects by univariate and multivariate analysis.
As previously observed in this population the HLA-DPGlu69 markers was present in higher frequency in berylliosis patients (31 out of 36, 86%) than in Be-sensitized (21 out of 38, 55%, p = 0.008 vs berylliosis) and 41 out of 86 (48%, p < 0.0001 vs berylliosis, p = 0.55 vs Be-sensitized) Be-exposed controls.However, 22 subjects presenting BH did not carry the HLA-DPGlu69 marker. We thus evaluated the contribution of all the HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ polymorphisms in determining BH susceptibility in this subgroup of HLA-Glu69 subjects. In HLA-DPGlu69-negatives a significant association with BH was found for the HLA-DQLeu26, for the HLA-DRB1 locus residues Ser13, Tyr26, His32, Asn37, Phe47 and Arg74 and for the HLA-DRB3 locus clusterized residues Arg11, Tyr26, Asp28, Leu38, Ser60 and Arg74. HLA-DRPhe47 (OR 2.956, p < 0.05) resulting independently associated with BH. Further, Be-stimulated T-cell proliferation in the HLA-DPGlu69-negative subjects (all carrying HLA-DRPhe47) was inhibited by the anti-HLA-DR antibody (range 70-92% inhibition) significantly more than by the anti-HLA-DP antibody (range: 6-29%; p < 0.02 compared to anti-HLA-DR) while it was not affected by the anti-HLA-DQ antibody.
We conclude that HLA-DPGlu69 is the primary marker of Be-hypersensitivity and HLA-DRPhe47 is associated with BH in Glu69-negative subjects, likely playing a role in Be-presentation and sensitization.
Respiratory research 01/2005; 6:94. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polymorphism at position beta69 of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP molecule has been associated with susceptibility to several immune disorders and alloreactivity. Using molecular modeling, we have predicted a detailed structure of the HLA-DP2 molecule (carrying Glubeta69) complexed with class II associated invariant chain derived peptide (CLIP) and compared it with the form carrying Lys at beta69 (HLA-DP2K69). Major changes between the two models were observed in the shape and charge distribution of pocket 4 and of the nearby pocket 6. Consequently, we analyzed in detail the peptide-binding specificities of both HLA-DP molecules expressed as recombinant proteins. We first determined that the minimum peptide-binding core of CLIP for both HLA-DP2 and DP2K69 is represented by nine aminoacids corresponding to the sequence 91-99 of invariant chain (Ii). We then assessed the peptide-binding specificities of the two pockets and determined the role of position beta69, using competition tests with the Ii-derived peptide CLIP and its mutated forms carrying all the aminoacidic substitutions in P4 and P6. Pocket 4 of HLA-DP2 showed high affinity for positively charged, aromatic, and polar residues, whereas aliphatic residues were disfavored. Pocket 4 of the DP2K69 variant showed a reduced aminoacid selectivity with aromatic residues most preferred. Pocket 6 of HLA-DP2 showed high affinity for aromatic residues, which was increased in DP2K69 and extended to arginine. Finally, we used the experimental data to determine the best molecular-modeling approach for assessing aminoacid selectivity of the two pockets. The results with best predictive value were obtained when single aminoacids were evaluated inside each single pocket, thus, reducing the influence of the overall peptide/ major histocompatibility complex interaction. In conclusion, the HLA-DPbeta69 polymorphism plays a fundamental role in the peptide-binding selectivity of HLA-DP. Furthermore, as this polymorphism is the main change in the pocket 4 area of HLA-DP, it could represent a supertype among HLA-DP molecules significantly contributing to the selection of epitopes presented in the context of this HLA isotype.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Berylliosis is a granulomatous disorder of the lung caused by inhalation of beryllium (Be) and dominated by the accumulation of CD4+ T-helper (Th)1 memory T-cells proliferating in response to Be in the lower respiratory tract. Two gene markers have been associated with susceptibility to berylliosis: 1) the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DP gene whose allelic variants, carrying glutamate in position 69 of the beta-chain (HLA-DPGlu69), can bind Be directly and present it to interferon (IFN)-gamma releasing Th1 T-cell clones from patients with berylliosis; and 2) the cytokine gene tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha which has been shown to increase berylliosis risk independent of HLA-DPGlu69. In order to determine whether TNF-alpha release was triggered by Th1 T-cell activation by Be stimulation in the context of HLA-DPGlu69 molecules, the proliferation of BeSO4-stimulated blood mononuclear cells and the release of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 by BeSO4-stimulated blood mononuclear cells was quantified in 11 individuals with berylliosis using an anti-HLA-DP antibody as a probe for HLA-DP restricted T-cell activation. While proliferation and IFN-gamma release were completely abrogated by HLA-DP inhibition (inhibition with anti-HLA-DP monoclonal antibody (mAb): 88+/-16 and 77+/-16%, respectively; anti-HLA-DR: 29+/-38 and 14+/-10%, respectively), the release of TNF-alpha was not (inhibition with anti-HLA-DP mAb: 8.9+/-7.8%). No other cytokine was detected at significant levels. Moreover, Be was able to induce TNF-alpha production in healthy control subjects not exposed to Be in the absence of T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. In conclusion, these data suggest that the tumour necrosis factor-alpha response of mononuclear cells is independent of the activation of beryllium-specific human leucocyte anitgen-DP restricted T-cells, which is consistent with the finding that the tumour necrosis factorA2 and the human leucocyte anitgen-DPGlu69 genetic markers are independently interacting in increasing berylliosis risk.
European Respiratory Journal 12/2002; 20(5):1174-8. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Berylliosis is a chronic granulomatous disorder caused by inhalation of Be dusts that is driven by the accumulation of Be-specific CD4+ Th1-cells at disease sites. Susceptibility to berylliosis has been associated with the supratypic variant of HLA-DP gene coding for glutamate at position beta69 (HLA-DPbetaGlu69). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the HLA-DPbetaGlu69 residue plays a role in the interaction with Be. To this end, soluble HLA-DP2 molecule (carrying betaGlu69) and its mutated form carrying lysine at position beta69 (HLA-DP2Lys69) were produced in Drosophila melanogaster and then used in a Be binding assays. BeSO4 (1-1000 microM) was used to compete for the binding of the biotinilated invariant chain-derived peptide CLIP (50 microM). BeSO4 was capable of compete out biotin-CLIP binding from the HLA-DP2 (IC50%: 4.5 microM of BeSO4 at pH 5.0 and 5.5 microM of BeSO4 at pH 7.5), but not from the HLA-DP2Lys69 molecule (IC50%: 480 microM of BeSO4 at pH 5.0 and 220 microM of BeSO4 at pH 7.5). Moreover, the binding of NFLD.M60, a MoAb recognizing an epitope in the HLA-DP peptide binding region, to the HLA-DP2, but not to the HLA-DP2Lys69 soluble molecules was inhibited BeSO4. NFLD.M60 binding to HLA-DP2, but not to HLA-DP2Lys69 stably transfected murine cells was also inhibited by Be both at pH 5.0 and at pH 7.5. The data indicate a direct interaction of Be with the HLA-DPGlu69 molecule, in the absence of antigen processing.
Human Immunology 08/2001; 62(7):686-93. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Berylliosis is caused by a chronic immune reaction to beryllium; in Italy the first case of beryllium exposure-related disease was described in 1935 by Fabroni-Marradi and two additional cases of beryllium disease were subsequently described by Ambrosi and co-workers in 1968. No case has since been recognized using the standardized criteria including immunological testing.
To describe a case report of clinically significant berylliosis that occurred in a man exposed to beryllium for ten years in the workplace at concentrations below the permitted threshold limit value.
The man complained of dyspnoea, dry cough, weakness and weight loss for the past year and was at first diagnosed as suffering from sarcoidosis because of increased angiotensin converting enzyme levels, alteration of hepatic and renal functional indexes, the presence of diffused reticulo-nodular lung abnormalities with high resolution computed tomography that also showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, abnormal lung physiology with reduced diffusion capacity and a bronchial biopsy showing granulomatous lesions. Because of the occupational history immunological testing and high resolution HLA class II typing were performed.
The high response to beryllium in the lymphocytes proliferation test and the HLA typing which revealed the presence of the two susceptibility markers HLA-DPGlu69 and HLA-DRPhe47 led to a diagnosis of berylliosis.
The importance is stressed of suspecting a diagnosis of berylliosis in the proper occupational contexts and encouraging the use of immunological tests for diagnosis, and also the need for critical revision of the permitted threshold limit values.
La Medicina del lavoro 97(4):592-6. · 0.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Berylliosis is an environmental chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung caused by inhalation of beryllium dusts, characterized by the accumulation of CD4+ T cells and macrophages in the lower respiratory tract. Beryllium presentation to CD4+ T cells from patients with berylliosis results in T cell activation and these Be-specific CD4+ T cells undergo clonal proliferation and Th1-type cytokine production such as interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In exposed workers, genetic susceptibility to this granulomatous disorder is associated with major histocompatibility gene and the TNF-alpha gene. The HLA-DP glutamic 69 residue was shown to be the MHC genetic marker associated with disease susceptibility; furthermore the TNF-alpha TNFA-308*2 allele was found to be independently associated with HLA-DP Glu69 in the determination of berylliosis risk.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 17(2 Suppl):3-10. · 2.99 Impact Factor