[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies on cancer cell invasion were primarily focused on its migration because these two events were often considered biologically equivalent. Here we found that T24T cells exhibited higher invasion but lower migration abilities than T24 cells. Expression of Rho-GDPases was much lower and expression of SOD2 was much higher in T24T cells than those in T24 cells. Indeed, knockdown of SOD2 in T24T cells can reverse the cell migration but without affecting cell invasion. We also found that SOD2 inhibited the JNK/c-Jun cascade, and the inhibition of c-Jun activation by ectopic expression of TAM67 impaired Rho-GDPases expression and cell migration in T24T shSOD2 cells. Further, we found that Sp1 can upregulate SOD2 transcription in T24T cells. Importantly, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was overexpressed in T24T and participated in increasing its invasion, and MMP-2 overexpression was mediated by increasing nuclear transport of nucleolin, which enhanced mmp-2 mRNA stability. Taken together, our study unravels an inverse relationship between cell migration and invasion in human bladder cancer T24T cells and suggests a novel mechanism underlying the divergent roles of SOD2 and MMP-2 in regulating metastatic behaviors of human bladder T24T in cell migration and invasion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p27Kip1 is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases that drive G1 to S cell-cycle transition and reduced p27Kip1 expression is prevalent in a wide range of human tumors, the exact mechanism(s) of p27Kip1-mediated tumor suppression remains obscure. In this study, we identified a close, inverse relationship between p27Kip1 and EGFR expression: the parental T24 human bladder cancer cells had high p27Kip1 expression but low EGFR expression and, in striking contrast, the metastatic derivative of T24 (T24T) had low p27Kip1 expression but high EGFR expression. This relationship was also found in various human cancer tissues, and was not only just correlative but alsocausal;depletion of p27Kip1 in MEF cells resulted in markedly elevated EGFR expression, a result reproducible with an egfr promoter-luciferase reporter in both T24 and MEF cells, suggesting transcriptional repression of EGFR by p27Kip1. Indeed, p27Kip1 was found toregulate EGFR expression via the JNK/c-Jun transcriptional factor: p27Kip1 deficiency activated JNK/c-Jun, whereas inhibition of JNK/c-Jun by dominant-negative mutants dramatically repressed egfr transcription. Furthermore, the proximal promoter of the egfr gene was crucial for its transcription, where the recruiting activity of c-Jun was much greater in p27Kip1-/- cells than in p27Kip1+/+ cells. Introduction of GFP-p27Kip1 into T24T cells suppressed JNK/c-Jun activation, EGFR expression and anchorage-independent growth. Our studies demonstrated that p27Kip1 suppressed JNK/c-Jun activation and EGFR expression in mouse MEFs and human bladder cancer cells, and obtained results consistent with those from human cancer specimens. This study provides new insights into p27Kip1 suppression of cancer cell growth, migration and metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have been highly instrumental in elucidating gene functions and molecular pathogenesis of human diseases, although their use in studying kidney stone formation or nephrolithiasis remains relatively limited. This review intends to provide an overview of several knockout mouse models that develop interstitial calcinosis in the renal papillae. Included herein are mice deficient for Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP; also named uromodulin), osteopontin (OPN), both THP and OPN, Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter Type II (Npt2a) and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF-1). The baseline information of each protein is summarized, along with key morphological features of the interstitial calcium deposits in mice lacking these proteins. Attempts are made to correlate the papillary interstitial deposits found in GEMMs with Randall's plaques, the latter considered precursors of idiopathic calcium stones in patients. The pathophysiology that underlies the renal calcinosis in the knockout mice is also discussed wherever information is available. Not all the knockout models are allocated equal space because some are more extensively characterized than others. Despite the inroads already made, the exact physiological underpinning, origin, evolution and fate of the papillary interstitial calcinosis in the GEMMs remain incompletely defined. Greater investigative efforts are warranted to pin down the precise role of the papillary interstitial calcinosis in nephrolithiasis using the existing models. Additionally, more sophisticated, second-generation GEMMs that allow gene inactivation in a time-controlled manner and "compound mice" that bear several genetic alterations are urgently needed, in light of mounting evidence that nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial, multi-stage and polygenic disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell migration is a dynamic process that is central to a variety of physiological functions as well as disease pathogenesis. The modulation of cell migration by p27 has been reported, but the exact mechanism(s) whereby p27 intersects with downstream effectors that control cell migration have not been elucidated. By systematically comparing p27+/+ MEFs with genetically ablated p27-/- MEFs using wound healing, transwell and time-lapse microscopic analyses, we provide direct evidence demonstrating that p27 inhibits both directional and random cell migration. Identical results were obtained with normal and cancer epithelial cells using complementary knockdown and overexpression approaches. Additional studies revealed that overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and reduced intracellular oxidation played a key role in increased cell migration in p27-deficient cells. Furthermore, we identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as the transcription factor responsible for p27-regulated MnSOD expression which was further mediated by ERKs/ATF1-dependent transactivation of CRE within the stat3 promoter. Collectively, our data strongly indicate that p27 plays a crucially negative role in cell migration by inhibiting MnSOD expression in a STAT-3 dependent manner.
Journal of Cell Science 04/2014; · 5.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uroplakins (UP), a group of integral membrane proteins, are major urothelial differentiation products that form 2D crystals of 16-nm particles (urothelial plaques) covering the apical surface of mammalian bladder urothelium. They contribute to the urothelial barrier function and, one of them, UPIa, serves as the receptor for uropathogenic Escherichia coli. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism by which these surface-associated uroplakins are degraded. While it is known that endocytosed uroplakin plaques are targeted to and line the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), it is unclear how these rigid-looking plaques can go to the highly curved membranes of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). From a cDNA subtraction library, we identified a highly urothelium-specific sorting nexin, SNX31. SNX31 is expressed, like uroplakins, in terminally differentiated urothelial umbrella cells where it is predominantly associated with MVBs. Apical membrane proteins including uroplakins that are surface biotin-tagged are endocytosed and targeted to the SNX31-positive MVBs. EM localization demonstrated that SNX31 and uroplakins are both associated not only with the limiting membranes of MVBs containing uroplakin plaques, but also with ILVs. SNX31 can bind, on one hand, the PtdIns3P-enriched lipids via its N-terminal PX-domain, and, on the other hand, it binds uroplakins as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay, and by its reduced membrane association in uroplakin II-deficient urothelium. The fact that in urothelial umbrella cells MVBs are the only major intracellular organelles enriched in both PtdIns3P and uroplakins may explain SNX31's MVB-specificity in these cells. However, in MDCK and other cultured cells transfected SNX31 can bind to early endosomes possibly via lipids. These data support a model in which SNX31 mediates the endocytic degradation of uroplakins by disassembling/collapsing the MVB-associated uroplakin plaques, thus enabling the uroplakin-containing (but 'softened') membranes to bud and form the ILVs for lysosomal degradation and/or exosome formation.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99644. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavokawain A (FKA) is the predominant chalcone identified from the kava plant. We have previously demonstrated that FKA preferentially inhibits the growth of p53 defective bladder cancer cell lines. Here we examined whether FKA could inhibit bladder cancer development and progression in vivo in the UPII-SV40T transgenic model that resembles human urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) with defects in the p53 and the retinoblastoma (RB) protein pathways. Genotyped UPII-SV40T mice were fed orally with vehicle control (AIN-93M) or FKA (6 g /kg food; 0.6%) for 318 days starting at 28 days of age. More than 64% of the male mice fed with FKA-containing food survived beyond 318 days of age, whereas only about 38% of the male mice fed with vehicle control food survived to that age (p= 0.0383). The mean bladder weights of surviving male transgenic mice with the control diet versus the FKA diet were 234.6 ± 72.5 versus 96.1±69.4 mg (P=0.0002). FKA was excreted primarily through the urinary tract and concentrated in the urine up to 8.4 μmol/L, averaging about 38 times (males) and 15 times (females) more concentrated than in the plasma (P=0.0001). FKA treatment inhibited the occurrence of high-grade papillary UCC, a precursor to invasive urothelial cancer, by 42.1%. A decreased expression of Ki67, survivin and XIAP and increased expression of p27 and DR5 and number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the urothelial tissue of FKA-fed mice. These results suggest a potential of FKA in preventing the recurrence and progression of non-muscle invasive UCC.
Cancer Prevention Research 10/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isorhapontigenin (ISO) is a new derivative of stilbene compound that was isolated from the Chinese herb Gnetum Cleistostachyum, and has been used for treatment of bladder cancers for centuries. In our current studies, we have explored the potential inhibitory effect and molecular mechanisms underlying ISO anti-cancer effects on anchorage-independent growth of human bladder cancer cell lines. We found that ISO showed a significant inhibitory effect on human bladder cancer cell growth and was accompanied with related cell cycle G0/G1 arrest as well as downregulation of Cyclin D1 expression at the transcriptional level in UMUC3 and RT112 cells. Further studies identified that ISO down-regulated Cyclin D1 gene transcription via inhibition of SP1 transactivation. Moreover, ectopic expression of GFP-Cyclin D1 rendered UMUC3 cells resistant to induction of cell cycle G0/G1 arrest and inhibition of cancer cell anchorage-independent growth by ISO treatment. Together, our studies demonstrate that ISO is an active compound that mediates for Gnetum Cleistostachyum's induction of cell cycle G0/G1 arrest and inhibition of cancer cell anchorage-independent growth through down-regulating SP1/Cyclin D1 axis in bladder cancer cells. Our studies provide a novel insight into understanding the anti-cancer activity of the Chinese herb Gnetum Cleistostachyum and its isolate ISO.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 05/2013; · 5.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is a glycoprotein normally targeted to the apical membrane domain of the kidney's thick ascending limbs (TAL). We previously showed that THP of TAL confers protection to proximal tubules against acute kidney injury (AKI) via a possible cross-talk between the two functionally distinct tubular segments. However, the extent, timing, specificity and functional effects of basolateral translocation of THP during AKI remain unclear. Using an ischemia-reperfusion (IRI) model of murine AKI, we show here that, while THP expression in TAL is down-regulated at the peak of injury, it is significantly upregulated 48 hours after IRI. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy reveal a major redirection of THP during recovery from the apical membrane domain of TAL towards the basolateral domain, interstitium and basal compartment of S3 segments. This corresponds with increased THP in the serum but not in the urine. The overall epithelial polarity of TAL cells does not change, as evidenced by correct apical targeting of NKCC2 and basolateral targeting of Na+-K+-ATPase. Compared to the wild-type, THP-/- mice show a significantly delayed renal recovery after IRI, due possibly to reduced suppression by THP of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as MCP-1 during recovery. Taken together, our data suggest that THP redistribution in the TAL after AKI is a protein-specific event, and its increased interstitial presence negatively regulates the evolving inflammatory signaling in neighboring proximal tubules, thereby enhancing kidney recovery. The increase of serum THP may be used as a prognostic biomarker for recovery from AKI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acrolein (Acr), an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is abundant in tobacco smoke (TS) and cooking and exhaust fumes. Acr induces mutagenic α- and γ- hydroxy-1,N(2)-cyclic propano-deoxyguanosine adducts in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Our earlier work has found that Acr-induced DNA damage preferentially occurs at lung cancer p(53) mutational hotspots that contain CpG sites and that methylation at CpG sites enhances Acr-DNA binding at these sites. Based on these results we hypothesized that this enhancement of Acr-DNA binding leads to p(53) mutational hotspots in lung cancer. In this study, using a shuttle vector supF system, we tested this hypothesis by determining the effect of CpG methylation on Acr-DNA binding and the mutations in human lung fibroblasts. We found that CpG methylation enhances Acr-induced mutations significantly. While CpG methylation enhances Acr-DNA binging at all CpG sites it enhances mutations at selective -TCGA- sites. Similarly, we found that CpG methylation enhances benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) binding at all -CpG- sites. However, the methylated CpG sequences in which BPDE-induced mutations are enhanced are different from the CpG sequences in which Acr-induced mutations are enhanced. CpG methylation greatly increases Acr-induced G to T and G to A mutation frequency to levels similar to these types of mutations found in the CpG sites in the p(53) gene in TS-related lung cancer. These results indicate that both CpG sequence context and the chemical nature of the carcinogens are crucial factors for determining the effect of CpG methylation on mutagenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum has been used as a remedy for cancers for hundred years, the active compounds and molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity have not been explored. Recently a new derivative of stilbene compound, isorhapontigenin (ISO), was isolated from this Chinese herb. In the present study, we examined the potential of ISO in anti-cancer activity and the mechanisms involved in human cancer cell lines. We found that ISO exhibited significant inhibitory effects on human bladder cancer cell growth that was accompanied by marked apoptotic induction as well as down-regulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Further studies have shown that ISO down-regulation of XIAP protein expression was only observed in endogenous XIAP, but not in constitutionally exogenously expressed XIAP in the same cells, excluding the possibility of ISO regulating XIAP expression at the level of protein degradation. We also identified that ISO down-regulated XIAP gene transcription via inhibition of Sp1 transactivation. There was no significant effect of ISO on apoptosis and colony formation of cells transfected with exogenous HA-tagged XIAP. Collectively, current studies, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, identify ISO as a major active compound for the anti-cancer activity of G. cleistostachyum by down-regulation of XIAP expression and induction of apoptosis through specific targeting of a SP1 pathway, and cast new light on the treatment of the cancer patients with XIAP overexpression.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(42):35234-43. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although an increased expression level of XIAP is associated with cancer cell metastasis, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. To verify the specific structural basis of XIAP for regulation of cancer cell migration, we introduced different XIAP domains into XIAP(-/-) HCT116 cells, and found that reconstitutive expression of full length HA-XIAP and HA-XIAP ΔBIR, both of which have intact RING domain, restored β-Actin expression, actin polymerization and cancer cell motility. Whereas introduction of HA-XIAP ΔRING or H467A mutant, which abolished its E3 ligase function, did not show obvious restoration, demonstrating that E3 ligase activity of XIAP RING domain played a crucial role of XIAP in regulation of cancer cell motility. Moreover, RING domain rather than BIR domain was required for interaction with RhoGDI independent on its E3 ligase activity. To sum up, our present studies found that role of XIAP in regulating cellular motility was uncoupled from its caspase-inhibitory properties, but related to physical interaction between RhoGDI and its RING domain. Although E3 ligase activity of RING domain contributed to cell migration, it was not involved in RhoGDI binding nor its ubiquitinational modification.
PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(4):e35682. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although few organ systems play a more important role than the kidneys in cytokine catabolism, the mechanism(s) regulating this pivotal physiological function and how its deficiency affects systemic cytokine homeostasis remain unclear. Here we show that elimination of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) expression from mouse kidneys caused a marked elevation of circulating IFN-γ, IL1α, TNF-α, IL6, CXCL1, and IL13. Accompanying this were enlarged spleens with prominent white-pulp macrophage infiltration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exacerbated the increase of serum cytokines without a corresponding increase in their urinary excretion in THP knock-out (KO) mice. This, along with the rise of serum cystatin C and the reduced inulin and creatinine clearance from the circulation, suggested that diminished glomerular filtration may contribute to reduced cytokine clearance in THP KO mice both at the baseline and under stress. Unlike wild-type mice where renal and urinary cytokines formed specific in vivo complexes with THP, this "trapping" effect was absent in THP KO mice, thus explaining why cytokine signaling pathways were activated in renal epithelial cells in such mice. Our study provides new evidence implicating an important role of THP in influencing cytokine clearance and acting as a decoy receptor for urinary cytokines. Based on these and other data, we present a unifying model that underscores the role of THP as a major regulator of renal and systemic immunity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(20):16365-78. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) can bind to small GTPases and keep them in a biologically inactive state in cytoplasm, through which it affects actin polymerization and cell motility. However, mechanisms underlying how RhoGDI regulates Rho GTPase complex formation/membrane extraction/GTPase dissociation remain largely unexplored. Our previous studies reported that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) interacted with RhoGDI via its RING domain and negatively modulated RhoGDI SUMOylation and HCT116 cancer cell migration. Here, we identified that RhoGDI SUMOylation specifically occurred at Lys-138, which was inhibited by XIAP domain. We further demonstrated that RhoGDI SUMOylation at Lys-138 was crucial for inhibiting actin polymerization and cytoskeleton formation as well as cancer cell motility. Moreover, SUMO-RhoGDI had a much higher binding affinity to small Rho GTPase compared with the un-SUMOylated form of RhoGDI. Taken together, our study demonstrated a novel modification of RhoGDI, SUMOylation at Lys-138, which played a key role in regulating Rho GTPase activation in cancer cells. The physiological regulation of RhoGDI SUMOylation by the RING domain of XIAP may account for modulation of cancer cell invasion and metastasis by XIAP.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(17):13752-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uromodulin, also known as Tamm-Horsfall protein, is a glycoprotein expressed exclusively by renal tubular cells lining the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Although the physiologic functions of this protein remain elusive, significant progress has been made during the last decade that highlights the importance of uromodulin in the pathophysiology of various diseases, such as medullary cystic kidney disease, urinary tract infections, and nephrolithiasis. Meanwhile, there is renewed interest in the role of uromodulin in kidney injury, both acute and chronic. In this article, we review the existing evidence that supports a role for uromodulin in acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and renal inflammation. Contrary to the conventional view of uromodulin as an instigator in kidney injury, new data from uromodulin knockout mice show a protective role for this protein in acute kidney injury, possibly through downregulating interstitial inflammation. In chronic kidney disease, uromodulin excretion, when adjusted for kidney function, is increased; the significance of this is unclear. Although it has been suggested that uromodulin exacerbates progressive kidney injury, we propose that the elevation in uromodulin secretion is instead reactive to injury and reflects an increase of uromodulin in the renal parenchyma, where it slows the injury process.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 03/2012; 59(3):452-61. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although formation of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) requires multiple steps and proceeds along divergent pathways, the underlying genetic and molecular determinants for each step and pathway remain undefined. By developing transgenic mice expressing single or combinatorial genetic alterations in urothelium, we demonstrated here that overcoming oncogene-induced compensatory tumor barriers was critical for urothelial tumor initiation. Constitutively active Ha-ras (Ras*) elicited urothelial hyperplasia that was persistent and did not progress to tumors over a 10 months period. This resistance to tumorigenesis coincided with increased expression of p53 and all pRb family proteins. Expression of a Simian virus 40 T antigen (SV40T), which disables p53 and pRb family proteins, in urothelial cells expressing Ras* triggered early-onset, rapidly-growing and high-grade papillary UCB that strongly resembled the human counterpart (pTaG3). Urothelial cells expressing both Ras* and SV40T had defective G(1)/S checkpoint, elevated Ras-GTPase and hyperactivated AKT-mTOR signaling. Inhibition of the AKT-mTOR pathway with rapamycin significantly reduced the size of high-grade papillary UCB but hyperactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of AKT-mTOR, MAPK and STAT3 altogether resulted in much greater tumor reduction and longer survival than did inhibition of AKT-mTOR pathway alone. Our studies provide the first experimental evidence delineating the combinatorial genetic events required for initiating high-grade papillary UCB, a poorly defined and highly challenging clinical entity. Furthermore, they suggest that targeted therapy using a single agent such as rapamycin may not be highly effective in controlling high-grade UCB and that combination therapy employing inhibitors against multiple targets are more likely to achieve desirable therapeutic outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acrolein (Acr), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is a human carcinogen. Acr can react with DNA to form mutagenic α- and γ-hydroxy-1, N(2)-cyclic propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts (α-OH-Acr-dG and γ-OH-Acr-dG). We demonstrate here that Acr-dG adducts can be efficiently repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in normal human bronchial epithelia (NHBE) and lung fibroblasts (NHLF). However, the same adducts were poorly processed in cell lysates isolated from Acr-treated NHBE and NHLF, suggesting that Acr inhibits NER. In addition, we show that Acr treatment also inhibits base excision repair and mismatch repair. Although Acr does not change the expression of XPA, XPC, hOGG1, PMS2 or MLH1 genes, it causes a reduction of XPA, XPC, hOGG1, PMS2, and MLH1 proteins; this effect, however, can be neutralized by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Acr treatment further enhances both bulky and oxidative DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. These results indicate that Acr not only damages DNA but can also modify DNA repair proteins and further causes degradation of these modified repair proteins. We propose that these two detrimental effects contribute to Acr mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2012; 287(15):12379-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Correct folding of a nascent polypeptide in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into a three-dimensional conformation is a crucial step in the stability, intracellular trafficking, and targeting to the final destination of a protein. By transiently and stably expressing human-relevant mutants of Tamm-Horsfall protein in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, we show here that a cysteine-altering mutation in the evolutionally conserved cysteine-rich domain had more severe defects in ER exit and surface translocation and triggered more apoptosis than a cysteine-altering mutation outside the domain. Both mutants were able to specifically bind and trap the wild-type Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and prevent it from exiting the ER and translocating to the cell surface. This explains at least partly why in patients with THP-associated diseases there is a marked urinary reduction of both the mutant and the wild-type THP. Exposure of mutant-expressing cells to low temperature (30 °C), osmolytes (glycerol, trimethylamine N-oxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide), and the Ca(2+)-ATP inhibitor thapsigargin only slightly relieved ER retention and increased surface targeting of the mutants. In contrast, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate and probenecid, the latter a uricosuric drug used clinically to treat gout, markedly reduced ER retention of the mutants and increased their surface translocation and secretion into the culture media. The rescue of the THP mutants was associated with the restoration of the level and subcellular localization of cytosolic chaperone HSP70. Our results reveal intricate mechanistic details that may underlie THP-associated diseases and suggest that novel therapeutics enhancing the refolding of THP mutants may be of important value in therapy.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 287(2):1290-305. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) overexpression has been found to be associated with malignant cancer progression and aggression in individuals with many types of cancers. However, the molecular basis of XIAP in the regulation of cancer cell biological behavior remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that a deficiency of XIAP expression in human cancer cells by either knock-out or knockdown leads to a marked reduction in β-actin polymerization and cytoskeleton formation. Consistently, cell migration and invasion were also decreased in XIAP-deficient cells compared with parental wild-type cells. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the regulation of cell motility by XIAP depends on its interaction with the Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) via the XIAP RING domain. Furthermore, XIAP was found to negatively regulate RhoGDI SUMOylation, which might affect its activity in controlling cell motility. Collectively, our studies provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms by which XIAP regulates cancer invasion and offer a further theoretical basis for setting XIAP as a potential prognostic marker and specific target for treatment of cancers with metastatic properties.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2011; 286(18):15630-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is a glycoprotein expressed exclusively in thick ascending limbs (TAL) of the kidney. We recently described a novel protective role of THP against acute kidney injury (AKI) via downregulation of inflammation in the outer medulla. Our current study investigates the mechanistic relationships among the status of THP, inflammation, and tubular injury. Using an ischemia-reperfusion model in wild-type and THP-/- mice, we demonstrate that it is the S3 proximal segments but not the THP-deficient TAL that are the main targets of tubular injury during AKI. The injured S3 segments that are surrounded by neutrophils in THP-/- mice have marked overexpression of neutrophil chemoattractant MIP-2 compared with wild-type counterparts. Neutralizing macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) antibody rescues S3 segments from injury, decreases neutrophil infiltration, and improves kidney function in THP-/- mice. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence volumetric imaging of wild-type mouse kidneys, we show that ischemia alters the intracellular translocation of THP in the TAL cells by partially shifting it from its default apical surface domain to the basolateral domain, the latter being contiguous to the basolateral surface of S3 segments. Concomitant with this is the upregulation, in the basolateral surface of S3 segments, of the scavenger receptor SRB-1, a putative receptor for THP. We conclude that TAL affects the susceptibility of S3 segments to injury at least in part by regulating MIP-2 expression in a THP-dependent manner. Our findings raise the interesting possibility of a direct role of basolaterally released THP on regulating inflammation in S3 segments.