H M Proskin

Salus Research, Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States

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Publications (96)73.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: The aim of this single-site, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 3-arm parallel study was to determine the effectiveness of a prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS; NovaMin(®) ) with and without fluoride in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately after a single application and 28 days following dental scaling and root planing. MATERIALS & METHODS: Overall, 151 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects received a scaling and root planing procedure followed by a final prophylaxis step using one of three different prophylaxis pastes: Test-A (15% NovaMin(®) and NaF), Test-B (15% NovaMin(®) ) and a control. Dentine hypersensitivity was assessed by tactile stimulus (Yeaple Probe(®) ) and by air blast (Schiff scale) at baseline, immediately after and 28 days after a prophylaxis procedure. One hundred and forty-nine subjects completed the study. RESULTS: Subjects having received the test prophylaxis pastes showed statistically lower (anova, p < 0.05) dentine hypersensitivity compared with the control group immediately after the prophylaxis procedure (Yeaple Probe(®) : Test-A = 20.9 ± 12.6, Test-B = 22.7 ± 12.9, Control=11.2 ± 3.1; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.1 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.1 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7) and after 28 days (Yeaple probe: Test-A = 21.5 ± 11.9, Test-B = 20.6 ± 11.3, Control = 11.8 ± 6.0; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.0 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.0 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the single application of both fluoridated and non-fluoridated prophylaxis pastes containing 15% CSPS (NovaMin(®) ) provided a significant reduction of dentine hypersensitivity up to at least 28 days.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • Mark S Putt, Howard M Proskin
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    ABSTRACT: Scaling and root planing (SRP) is the primary non-surgical treatment for periodontitis, but its effectiveness is limited. Consequently, various adjunctive therapies have been investigated to improve clinical outcome. This study evaluated the clinical effects of one SRP procedure alone or combined with local administration of hydrogen peroxide gel using customized trays for the treatment of subjects with chronic periodontitis over a period of six months. An examiner-blind clinical trial was conducted among 30 subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis who were randomized to SRP alone or SRP combined with prescription custom-tray application (Perio Tray) of 1.7% hydrogen peroxide gel (Perio Gel) for a period of three months, then extended to six months. Following impressions for the test group, all subjects brushed twice daily with a regular dentifrice and toothbrush for a four-week acclimation phase to standardize oral conditions (while trays were fabricated) prior to initiating the treatment phase. SRP was performed three weeks after baseline, and clinical assessments, i.e., pocket probing depth (PPD) and bleeding index (BI), were conducted at baseline and after two, five, 13, and 26 weeks of peroxide gel applications. Clinical variables were compared by ANCOVA and paired t-tests after each treatment interval. A total of 13 test and 15 control subjects completed the original three-month trial, of whom 10 test and 13 control subjects finished the three-month extension. After two weeks of peroxide gel use prior to SRP, mean PPD for the test group significantly decreased from baseline by 0.21 mm and mean BI significantly dropped by 0.14; clinical parameters for the control group were unchanged. Two weeks following SRP, mean PPD significantly decreased from baseline by 0.65 mm for the test group and 0.17 mm for the control; mean BI significantly dropped by 0.17 for the test group and 0.05 for the control. Ten weeks following SRP, mean PPD decreases were 0.77 mm for the test group and 0.13 mm for the control, and mean BI reductions were 0.14 for the test group and 0.00 for the control. For subjects who completed the three-month extension (i.e., 23 weeks post-SRP), mean PPD decreases were 0.72 mm for the test group and 0.13 mm for the control, and mean BI reductions were 0.05 for the test group and 0.01 for the control. Analysis of deeper pockets (i.e., > 5 mm at baseline) showed the same relationship for PPD, but with larger differences between groups. For example, after two weeks of peroxide gel use prior to SRP, mean PPD decreased by 0.48 mm for the test group compared to 0.04 mm for the control. Two weeks after SRP, mean PPD decreased from baseline by 1.40 mm for the test group and 0.60 mm for the control, and 10 weeks after SRP by 1.57 mm for the test group and 0.58 mm for the control. After the extension (i.e., 23 weeks post-SRP), mean PPD changed from baseline by 1.50 mm for the test group and 0.55 mm for the control. With the exception of BI at 23 weeks post-SRP, all reductions cited above for the test group were statistically significantly different from the control group for both PPD and BI for all comparisons. When compared with SRP alone, clinical improvements in PPD (e.g., -1.0 mm for pockets > 5 mm at baseline) were maintained for up to six months after SRP with adjunctive use of 1.7% hydrogen peroxide gel, locally administered using prescription customized trays in the treatment of subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2013; 24(3):100-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of NUPRO Sensodyne Prophylaxis Paste with NovaMin, with and without fluoride, to a standard prophylaxis paste without fluoride (control) in reducing dentin hypersensitivity immediately after a single application following dental scaling and root planing. The secondary objective was to compare the duration of sensitivity relief up to 28 days after a single application of the NUPRO pastes with NovaMin compared to the control paste. This was a randomized, single-center, controlled, three-treatment, parallel-group study conducted at Salus Research in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Male and female subjects who met all inclusion/exclusion criteria and had two non-adjacent sensitive teeth based on tactile (Yeaple probe) and air blast assessments, were enrolled in the study. At baseline, tactile and air blast stimuli were administered and subjects were stratified according to their baseline air blast (Schiff) scores into one of three treatment groups: Group A (NovaMin without fluoride), Group B (NovaMin with fluoride) or Group C (NUPRO classic prophylaxis paste without fluoride). Subjects were then assessed post-treatment and at a 28-day follow-up using tactile and air blast methods. A total of 139 patients completed the study. Subjects having received the NovaMin containing prophylaxis pastes (Groups A and B) showed statistically lower (ANOVA, P< 0.05) dentin hypersensitivity compared to the control group immediately after the prophylaxis procedure. Group A tactile improvements were 86% immediate, and 88% after 28 days; air blast improvements were 49% immediate, and 50% after 28 days. Group B tactile improvements were 67% immediate, and 65% after 28 days; air blast improvements were 43% immediate, and 34% after 28 days. Group C experienced little improvement in tactile and air blast scores, 9% and 4% respectively, immediately following treatment, and 10% and 1% respectively after 28 days. At both time points, the reduction in sensitivity was meaningful and significantly better than in the group receiving a standard prophylaxis paste as the comparator (P< 0.05). Both NovaMin pastes were effective and there was no statistical difference between the pastes with and without fluoride. There were no adverse events reported during the course of this study.
    American journal of dentistry 10/2012; 25(5):262-8. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    Mark S Putt, Howard M Proskin
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition of the supporting dental tissues that is normally treated by mechanical removal of the subgingival biofilm. This mechanical treatment, generally known as scaling and root planing (SRP), is not entirely effective, and various adjunctive therapies have been investigated to improve the clinical outcome. This study evaluated the clinical effects of SRP alone or combined with local administration of hydrogen peroxide gel using customized trays in the treatment of subjects with chronic periodontitis. An examiner-blind clinical trial was conducted among 30 subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis, who were randomized to SRP alone or SRP combined with a prescription custom-tray application (Perio Tray) of 1.7% hydrogen peroxide gel (Perio Gel) for a period of three months. Following impressions for the test group, all subjects brushed twice daily with a regular dentifrice and toothbrush for a four-week acclimation phase to standardize oral conditions (while trays were fabricated) prior to initiating the treatment phase. Clinical assessments, i.e., pocket probing depth (PPD) and bleeding index (BI), were conducted at baseline and after two, five, and 13 weeks of peroxide applications; SRP was performed three weeks after baseline. Clinical variables were compared by ANOVA and paired t-tests after each treatment interval. A total of 13 test and 15 control subjects completed the study. After two weeks of peroxide gel use prior to SRP, mean whole-mouth PPD was unchanged for the control group, but significantly decreased 0.21 mm in the test group. Two weeks following SRP, mean PPD decreased from baseline by 0.17 mm for the control group and 0.65 mm for the test group. Ten weeks following SRP, mean PPD decreases were 0.13 mm for the control group and 0.77 mm for the test group. After two weeks of peroxide use prior to SRP, mean whole-mouth BI decreased 0.03 (from 15% to 12%) for the control and 0.14 (from 23% to 9%) for the test group. Two weeks after SRP, the mean whole-mouth BI score decreased 0.05 from baseline (15% to 10%) for the control and 0.17 (23% to 6%) for the test group. Ten weeks after SRP, there was no change from baseline for the control group, but BI was 0.14 lower (23% to 9%) for the test group. Further analysis showed the same statistical relationship between groups for PPD assessments of deeper pockets. For pockets > or =6 mm at baseline, mean PPD decreased by 0.04 mm for the control compared to 0.48 mm for the test group after two weeks of peroxide gel use and prior to SRP. Two weeks after SRP, mean PPD decreased from baseline by 0.60 mm for the control and 1.40 mm for the test group, and 10 weeks after SRP by 0.58 mm for the control and 1.57 mm for the test group. All reductions cited above for the test group were statistically significantly different from the control group for both PPD and BI. The adjunctive use over three months of 1.7% hydrogen peroxide gel, locally administered using prescription customized trays in the treatment of subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis, demonstrated statistically significant clinical improvements in pocket depths and bleeding when compared with SRP alone.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2012; 23(2):48-56.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the 8-week dentin hypersensitivity efficacy of three toothpastes: (1) a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride and specially-designed silica (Test Dentifrice 1); (2) a commercially-available dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride in a silica base with sodium hexametaphosphate and zinc lactate (Test Dentifrice 2); and (3) a commercially-available non-sensitive dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Negative Control Dentifrice). For this 8-week randomized controlled clinical study, qualifying subjects had to have at least two hypersensitive teeth with a tactile hypersensitivity score (Yeaple Probe) between 10 and 50 grams of force, and air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Cold Air Sensitivity Scale). Subjects brushed twice daily for 1 minute, using the assigned toothpaste and toothbrush. Dentin hypersensitivity assessments, as well as examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, were conducted at the baseline examination and after 4 and 8 weeks of brushing. 118 subjects complied with the protocol, and completed the 8-week study. At baseline, the mean tactile sensitivity scores for toothpastes (1), (2) and (3) were 13.6, 14.1 and 13.1; at 4 weeks 28.75, 20.13, and 20.00; and after 8 weeks 33.1, 24.0 and 20.5, respectively. The mean air blast scores for toothpastes (1), (2), and (3) at baseline were 2.5, 2.5, and 2.4; at 4 weeks 1.25, 1.50 and 1.85; and after 8 weeks 0.99, 1.36 and 1.5, respectively. At all time points after the baseline examination, for both tactile and air blast sensitivity scores, the differences between Test Dentifrice 1 and the Negative Control Dentifrice were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The differences between Test Dentifrice 1 and Test Dentifrice 2 were statistically significant (P < 0.05) at 4 and 8 weeks after baseline examination for tactile sensitivity scores and at 8 weeks after baseline examination for air blast sensitivity scores.
    American journal of dentistry 07/2011; 24 Spec No A:14A-20A. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride, and specially-designed silica in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis. Qualifying adult male and female subjects from the West Palm Beach, Florida area were randomly assigned into one of two treatment groups: (1) a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride, and specially-designed silica (Test Dentifrice); and (2) a dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Negative Control Dentifrice). All subjects received an oral soft and hard tissue examination, baseline plaque and gingivitis were assessed, and subjects were dispensed their assigned dentifrice product along with a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for 1 minute, twice daily (morning and evening), using only the dentifrice provided. Examinations for plaque and gingivitis, and oral soft and hard tissue assessments were repeated after 3 and 6 months of product use. 115 subjects complied with the protocol, and completed the 6-month examination. After 6 months of product use, subjects assigned to the Test Dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline with respect to Plaque Index, Plaque Severity Index, Gingival Index, and Gingivitis Severity Index scores; and subjects assigned to the Negative Control Dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline with respect to Gingival Index scores only. Relative to the Negative Control Dentifrice group, the Test Dentifrice group exhibited an 18.8% reduction in Plaque Index; a 50% reduction in Plaque Severity Index; a 19.6% reduction in Gingival Index; and a 60% reduction in Gingivitis Severity Index after 6 months, all of which were statistically significant.
    American journal of dentistry 07/2011; 24 Spec No A:21A-27A. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy ofa dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride for controlling established gingivitis and supragingival plaque relative to that of a dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate, and a dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride as a negative control. Following a baseline examination for gingivitis and supragingival plaque, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Piscataway, NJ, USA area were randomized into three dentifrice groups. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice and a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for gingivitis and supragingival plaque were repeated after six weeks of product use. One-hundred and seventy-one (171) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. Relative to the group using the dentifrice with 0.243% sodium fluoride alone, the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and supragingival plaque index scores of 25.3% and 33.0%, respectively, after six weeks of product use. Similarly, relative to the group using the 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice, the 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and plaque index scores of 8.1% and 14.1% after six weeks of product use. Further, relative to the 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate dentifrice group, the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and plaque index scores of 18.7% and 22%, respectively. The overall results of this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride is efficacious for the control of established gingivitis and supragingival plaque as compared to a regular fluoride dentifrice, and that it provides a greater level of efficacy for the control of gingivitis and supragingival plaque than does a dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2010; 21(4):105-10.
  • Farid Ayad, Bernal Stewart, Yun Po Zhang, Howard M Proskin
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy ofa dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride in controlling established gingivitis and supragingival plaque to that of a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate, and a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride. Following a baseline examination for gingivitis and supragingival plaque, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Mississauga, Ontario, Canada area were randomized into three dentifrice groups. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice and a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for gingivitis and supragingival plaque were repeated after six weeks of product use. One-hundred eighty-two (182) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. Relative to the 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group, the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and supragingival plaque index scores of 26.5% and 29.4%, respectively, after six weeks of product use. Similarly, relative to the 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group, the 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate/zinc lactate dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and plaque index scores of 12.7% and 12.6%, respectively, after six weeks of product use. Further, relative to the 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate/zinc lactate dentifrice group, the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and plaque index scores of 15.8% and 19.2%, respectively. The overall results of this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride is efficacious for the control of established gingivitis and supragingival plaque, and that it provides a greater level of efficacy for the control of gingivitis and supragingival plaque than does a dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2010; 21(4):111-6.
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    ABSTRACT: This double-blind clinical study, conducted at the University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico, was designed to compare the efficacy of two commercially available dentifrices for the control of supragingival plaque and gingivitis. Qualifying adult male and female subjects from the San Juan, Puerto Rico area were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: 1) a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride (Colgate Total); and 2) a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate (Crest Pro-Health). All subjects received an oral soft and hard tissue examination, and were dispensed their assigned dentifrice product, along with a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute, twice daily (morning and evening), using only the dentifrice provided. Examinations for supragingival plaque and gingivitis, and oral soft and hard tissue assessments were repeated after six weeks, three months, and six months of product use. One-hundred and nine (109) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the six-month examinations. At the six-month examination, both treatment groups exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline with respect to supragingival plaque and gingivitis scores. Relative to the Crest Pro-Health Toothpaste group, the Colgate Total Toothpaste group exhibited statistically significant reductions in supragingival plaque index scores of 18.5%, 20.7%, and 25.8% after six weeks, three months, and six months of product use, respectively. For gingival index scores, statistically significant reductions of 20.5%, 18.9%, and 17.1% were exhibited after six weeks, three months, and six months of product use, respectively. The results of this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride provides a significant reduction in established supragingival plaque and gingivitis, as compared to a dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate when used over a period of six months.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2010; 21(4):117-23.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this independent, double-blind, parallel, six-week clinical study was to assess the efficacy of a commercially available mouthrinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) for controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis relative to that of a control mouthrinse without CPC. Adult male and female subjects from the Maceió, Brazil area reported to the clinical facility, after having refrained from any oral hygiene procedures for 12 hours, and from eating, drinking, and smoking for four hours, for an assessment of the oral soft and hard tissues, and for a baseline gingivitis and dental plaque evaluation. Qualifying subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups, and were provided with their assigned mouthrinse, and an adult soft-bristled toothbrush and toothpaste for home use. Over the six-week period of home use, during which there were no restrictions regarding diet or smoking habits, subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute twice daily with the supplied toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste, to rinse their mouths with water after brushing, and then to rinse with their assigned mouthrinse for one minute before expectorating. The use of any other oral hygiene products or procedures, such as floss or interdental stimulators, was not permitted during the study. After six weeks of product use, subjects returned to the clinical facility, having followed the same restrictions with respect to oral-hygiene procedures, eating and drinking, as with the baseline visit, and the oral soft and hard tissue assessments and gingivitis and dental plaque evaluations were repeated. One-hundred and ten subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. With regard to supragingival plaque, after six weeks of product use, the subjects using the 0.05% CPC mouthrinse exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline in whole-mouth Plaque Index scores (32.1%), in Plaque Index scores measured at interproximal sites (31.3%), and in Plaque Severity Index scores (84.8%). Subjects using the control mouthrinse exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline in whole-mouth Plaque Index scores (7.0%), in Plaque Index scores measured at interproximal sites (6.4%), and in Plaque Severity Index scores (24.5%). When compared to the control mouthrinse group, the 0.05% CPC mouthrinse group presented statistically significant greater reductions in whole-mouth Plaque Index scores (27.9%), in Plaque Index scores measured at interproximal sites (27.9%), and in Plaque Severity Index scores (81.1%) after six weeks of product use. With regard to gingivitis, after six weeks of product use, subjects using the 0.05% CPC mouthrinse exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline in whole-mouth Gingival Index scores (25.0%), in Gingival Index scores measured at interproximal sites (25.3%), and in Gingivitis Severity Index scores (42.4%). Subjects using the control mouthrinse exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline in whole-mouth Gingival Index scores (6.5%), in Gingival Index scores measured at interproximal sites (5.5%), and in Gingivitis Severity Index scores (11.6%). When compared to the control mouthrinse group, the 0.05% CPC mouthrinse group presented statistically significant greater reductions in whole-mouth Gingival Index scores (19.8%), in Gingival Index scores measured at interproximal sites (20.7%), and in Gingivitis Severity Index scores (35.5%) after six weeks of product use. The results of this double-blind, parallel, six-week clinical study support the conclusion that a mouthrinse containing 0.05% CPC is efficacious for controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis. As measurements were conducted 12 hours after product use, the results also demonstrate that the 0.5% CPC mouthrinse provides 12-hour protection against plaque and gingivitis.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 02/2009; 20(2):55-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this independent, double-blind, seven-day clinical study was to assess the efficacy of a commercially available mouthrinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in preventing dental plaque build-up relative to that of a control mouthrinse without 0.05% CPC. Adult male and female subjects from the São Paulo, Brazil area reported to the clinical facility, having refrained from any oral hygiene procedures for 12 hours, and from eating, drinking, and smoking for four hours, for an assessment of the oral soft and hard tissues and a baseline dental plaque evaluation. Subjects qualifying for participation received a complete dental prophylaxis. Qualifying subjects were randomly assigned into one of the two treatment groups and were provided with their assigned mouthrinse, an adult soft-bristled toothbrush, and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for home use. Over the seven-day period of home use, during which there were no restrictions regarding diet or smoking habits, subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute twice daily (morning and evening) with the toothbrush and toothpaste supplied, to rinse their mouths with water after brushing, and then to rinse with 15 ml of their assigned mouthrinse for one minute before expectorating. The use of other oral hygiene products or procedures, such as floss or interdental stimulators, was not permitted during the study. After seven days of product use, subjects returned to the clinical facility having followed the same restrictions with respect to oral hygiene procedures, eating and drinking, as prior to the baseline examination, and the oral soft and hard tissue assessments and dental plaque evaluations were repeated. Forty-three subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. Results demonstrated that after seven days of product use, mean plaque levels were statistically significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the pre-prophylaxis levels for both treatment groups. The mean plaque level for the CPC mouthrinse group was 46.1% of the pre-prophylaxis plaque level, whereas the mean plaque level for the control mouthrinse group was 75.5% of the pre-prophylaxis plaque level. The results demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in plaque build-up for the CPC mouthrinse group (29.3%) as compared to the control group. The overall results from this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that, after seven days of product use, a mouthrinse containing 0.05% CPC provides significantly greater efficacy in preventing dental plaque build-up than a control mouthrinse without 0.05% CPC. As measurements were made 12 hours after final product use, the results also demonstrate that the CPC rinse provides 12-hour protection against dental plaque build-up.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2009; 20(2):50-4.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% polyvinylmethyl ether/maleic acid (PVM/MA) copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base (Colgate Total Advanced Toothpaste-Test Dentifrice) for controlling established supragingival plaque and gingivitis, relative to that of a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Crest Cavity Protection Toothpaste-Control Dentifrice). Following a baseline examination for supragingival plaque and gingivitis, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Barcelona, Spain area were randomized into two treatment groups. Subjects were given a complete oral prophylaxis and instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice and a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for supragingival plaque and gingivitis were repeated after three months and six months of product use. Ninety-four (94) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. Relative to the Control Dentifrice group, the Test Dentifrice group presented statistically significantly lower whole-mouth plaque index and gingival index scores (18.6% and 15.8%, respectively) after three months of product use. Similarly, relative to the Control Dentifrice group, the Test Dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in plaque index and gingival index scores measured on proximal sites (17.0% and 16.3%,respectively), and statistically significant reductions in plaque severity index and gingivitis severity index scores (22.2% and 46.9%, respectively) after three months of product use. Relative to the Control Dentifrice group, the Test Dentifrice group presented statistically significantly lower whole-mouth plaque index and gingival index scores (23.4% and 21.3%, respectively) after six months of product use. Similarly, relative to the Control Dentifrice group, the Test Dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in plaque index and gingival index scores measured on proximal sites (21.1% and 23.0%, respectively), and statistically significant reductions in plaque severity index and gingival severity index scores (27.1% and 64.5%, respectively) after six months of product use. The overall results of this double-blind clinical study, conducted in accordance with the quantitative criteria established by the American Dental Association, support the conclusion that a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base is efficacious for the control of established supragingival plaque and gingivitis.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 02/2008; 19(3):85-94.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of these two six-week, double-blind clinical studies was to compare the extrinsic stain prevention (Study #1) and stain removal (Study #2) efficacy of a new dentifrice (Colgate Total Advanced Toothpaste) containing 0.3% triclosan/ 2.0% polyvinylmethyl ether/maleic acid (PVM/MA) copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base, to a commercially available fluoride dentifrice without tooth whitening ingredients (Crest Cavity Protection Toothpaste) containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base. Following baseline examinations for extrinsic tooth stain and an oral tissue examination, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the northern and central New Jersey, USA areas were randomized for each study into two treatment groups which were balanced for gender and level of extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects received a full oral prophylaxis at the start of Study #1 only. All subjects were provided with their assigned product and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute twice daily (morning and evening) using only the dentifrice and toothbrush provided, and to refrain from using any other oral hygiene products for the entire six weeks of the study. There were no restrictions regarding diet or smoking habits during the course of the study. Examinations for extrinsic tooth stain and oral tissue assessments were repeated after three weeks and six weeks of product use. One-hundred fourteen (114) subjects participating in Study #1 and 119 subjects participating in Study #2 complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. In both studies, at the three-week and the six-week examinations, subjects who used the new dentifrice exhibited statistically significantly lower levels of extrinsic tooth stain area and extrinsic tooth stain intensity than did those subjects who used the commercially available fluoride control dentifrice. A new dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base is more efficacious in the prevention and removal of extrinsic tooth stain than a commercially marketed fluoride dentifrice.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 02/2008; 19(3):95-101.
  • Deyu Hu, Yun Po Zhang, William DeVizio, Howard M Proskin
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this independent, double-blind, overnight clinical study was to assess the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% polyvinylmethyl ether/maleic acid (PVM/MA) copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base (Colgate Total Advanced Toothpaste) for the overnight control of oral malodor and plaque microflora, relative to that of a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Crest Cavity Protection Toothpaste). After a five-day period using a supplied commercially available fluoride toothpaste, adult male and female subjects from the Chengdu, China area reported to the clinical facility in the evening, after having refrained from the use of all oral hygiene procedures, as well as eating and drinking, for at least six hours. Following an assessment of the oral soft and hard tissues, subjects were evaluated for baseline oral malodor by a panel of four trained judges using a nine-point hedonic scale. Plaque samples (baseline) from the teeth on the left side of subjects' mouths were also collected. Subjects who presented a mean baseline oral malodor score between 6.0 and 8.4 were stratified according to their oral malodor score and randomly assigned within strata to one of the two treatment groups. Subjects were provided with their assigned dentifrice and instructed to brush their teeth on the left side of their mouth only, for one minute under supervision. Subjects returned to the testing facility the following morning for an overnight evaluation, having refrained from the use of all oral hygiene procedures, and from eating and drinking. An oral malodor assessment was performed, plaque samples were collected from the teeth on the right side of the mouth, and a final oral soft and hard tissue evaluation was performed. Eighty-one (81) subjects completed the study. At the overnight evaluation, subjects in the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice group and the fluoride dentifrice group presented mean oral malodor scores of 4.91 and 6.86, respectively. Relative to the fluoride dentifrice group, at the overnight evaluation the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice group presented a statistically significant 28.4% reduction in oral malodor scores. Additionally, at the overnight evaluation, subjects in the triclosan/ copolymer/fluoride dentifrice group and the fluoride dentifrice group presented geometric mean microbial colony forming unit (CFU) scores of 3.15 and 6.07, respectively. Relative to the fluoride dentifrice group, at the overnight evaluation the triclosan/copolymer/ fluoride dentifrice group presented a statistically significant 49.5% reduction in microbial CFU scores. The overall results of this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that a single evening's use of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base provides statistically significantly lower levels of overnight (12-hour) oral malodor and plaque microflora when compared to a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 02/2008; 19(3):106-10.
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    ABSTRACT: An earlier clinical study demonstrated that brushing with a commercial Arm & Hammer dentifrice containing baking soda physically removed significantly more plaque than brushing with either of two commercial dentifrices which did not contain baking soda. However, little has been done to confirm these results and to compare baking soda-containing dentifrices with more recently commercialized non-baking soda dentifrice formulations. The objective of this study was to compare commercial dentifrices containing 20% to 65% baking soda and commercial dentifrices without baking soda in enhancing plaque removal efficacy of tooth brushing. Five randomized, controlled, blinded, crossover clinical studies were performed among healthy adult volunteers who provided informed consent. After approximately 24 hours without oral hygiene, subjects with sufficient plaque were enrolled in the study phase. Plaque was scored before and after supervised brushing for one minute using the Turesky, et al. modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at six sites per tooth according to Soparkar's modification as described by Lobene, et al. In each study, wash-out periods with a regular dentifrice not evaluated in the study separated each product treatment. In all studies, every dentifrice exhibited a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in 24-hour plaque scores. Between-group comparisons of whole mouth plaque scores in all five studies demonstrated that brushing with baking soda dentifrices resulted in statistically greater (p < 0.01) reductions in whole mouth mean plaque scores than brushing with dentifrices that did not contain baking soda. Results on other tooth surfaces, such as facial, lingual, proximal, and gingival surfaces also demonstrated statistically greater (p < 0.05) reductions in mean plaque scores for the baking soda-containing dentifrices as compared to the baking soda-free dentifrices. In three of the studies comparing different levels of baking soda, brushing with dentifrices with higher concentrations of baking soda consistently removed numerically more plaque than those containing lower levels. In one of these three studies, the difference in plaque removal between the baking soda dentifrices reached statistical significance. The results suggest a positive relationship between plaque removal efficiency and baking soda concentration. The collective results from the five controlled clinical studies on over 270 subjects reported in this paper, consistently demonstrate that Arm & Hammer baking soda dentifrices enhanced plaque removal effectiveness of tooth brushing to a significantly greater extent than the non-baking soda dentifrice products.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2008; 19(4):111-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this double-blind clinical study, conducted in harmony with Volpe-Manhold design for studies of dental calculus, was to compare the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% polyvinylmethyl ether/maleic acid (PVM/MA) copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base (Colgate Total Advanced Toothpaste) to that of a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Crest Cavity Protection Toothpaste) with respect to the reduction of supragingival calculus formation. Adult male and female subjects from the San Francisco area were entered into the eight-week pre-test phase of the study. Subjects received an evaluation of oral soft and hard tissues and were given a complete oral prophylaxis. They were provided with a non-tartar control placebo dentifrice and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush, and were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute. After eight weeks of using the placebo dentifrice, subjects were examined for baseline supragingival calculus formation using the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index. Qualifying subjects were randomized into two treatment groups which were balanced for gender and baseline calculus scores. All subjects entered into the twelve-week test phase were given a complete oral prophylaxis, and were provided with their assigned dentifrice and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute twice daily (in the morning and evening). Prior to each study visit, subjects refrained from brushing their teeth and eating and drinking for four hours. Seventy-seven (77) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. At the twelve-week examination, the Test Dentifrice group presented a mean Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index score of 13.22 and the Control Dentifrice group presented a score of 20.29. After twelve weeks of product use, the Test Dentifrice group exhibited 34.8% less supragingival calculus formation than the Control Dentifrice group (statistically significant at p < 0.05). The overall results of this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that after twelve weeks' use of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base provides significantly greater control of supragingival calculus formation relative to that of a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2008; 19(3):102-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate in a double-blind clinical study the effectiveness of a dentifrice containing triclosan and a copolymer (Colgate Total Toothpaste) for controlling breath odor 12 hours after brushing the teeth. A panel of four expert judges using a nine-point hedonic scale evaluated breath odor. Following a baseline evaluation of breath odor, prospective study subjects who presented breath odor scores above the threshold value for unpleasant breath odor were stratified by score, and randomized into two treatment groups. Subjects were provided with a soft-bristled toothbrush, and brushed their teeth thoroughly in their regular and customary manner with their assigned dentifrice. Subjects refrained from dental hygiene, breath mints, or mouthrinses for the next 12 hours, after which they were once again evaluated for breath odor. 76 adult male and female subjects from the Mississauga, Ontario, Canada area participated in the study. At 12 hours after brushing their teeth, subjects in both dentifrice treatment groups presented mean breath odor scores which were statistically significantly lower than the mean scores observed at baseline. However, the difference between the mean 12-hour breath odor score for the Colgate Total group was 4.65, which is within the range of values corresponding to pleasant breath odor; whereas the mean 12-hour breath odor score for the placebo group was 6.11, which is above the threshold value corresponding to unpleasant breath odor. Thus, the results of this double-blind study, conducted according to Guidelines by the Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Dental Association, support the conclusion that Colgate Total dentifrice provides effective control of breath odor at 12 hours after brushing the teeth.
    American journal of dentistry 05/2007; 20(2):79-82. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meta-analyses have been widely used to estimate treatment effects in evidence-based dentistry. Few conferences, however, have used a systems approach to assure coherent data management and analysis. The purpose of this section is to describe the data management and statistical analysis for the State of the Science of Implant Dentistry (SSID) conference. This overview includes (a) a description of widely used clinical trial designs for implant dentistry, (b) a description of data management procedures specifically designed for the SSID conference, and (c) a description of the data analysis methodology, including descriptive analyses and meta-analyses. The use of the systems approach facilitated data abstraction and analysis.
    The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants 02/2007; 22 Suppl:11-8. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this examiner-blind clinical study was to investigate the efficacy of three oral hygiene regimens for the control of gingivitis and supragingival plaque. Following a baseline examination for gingivitis and supragingival plaque, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the San Francisco, California area were stratified into three treatment groups, which were balanced for plaque. The groups were then randomly assigned to one of three oral hygiene regimens: 1) twice-daily tooth brushing with Colgate Total Toothpaste, accompanied by once-daily flossing after brushing; 2) twice-daily tooth brushing with Colgate Total Toothpaste without flossing; and 3) twice-daily tooth brushing with a sodium fluoride toothpaste, accompanied by once-daily flossing after brushing. All subjects were given a complete oral prophylaxis, and dispensed their assigned treatment product(s), along with a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use. All dentifrice products were supplied in the original packaging to which overwrapping had been applied. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute twice daily (morning and evening) using only the dentifrice provided, and to refrain from using anything other than their assigned oral hygiene products for the duration of the study. In addition, subjects were instructed to refrain from any routine dental treatment (except emergency) during the course of the study. There were no restrictions regarding diet or smoking habits over the course of the study. Examinations for gingivitis and supragingival plaque, and oral soft tissue assessments were repeated after three months, and again after six months of product use. One-hundred fourteen (114) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the six-month examinations. Statistical analyses showed similar results for both whole-mouth and interproximal scoring sites after six months of product use. Although not statistically significant, subjects using Colgate Total Toothpaste accompanied by the use of dental floss had numerically lower six-month scores for gingivitis and supragingival plaque formation when compared to the scores of subjects using Colgate Total Toothpaste without the use of dental floss. Relative to the sodium fluoride toothpaste accompanied by the use of dental floss, subjects using Colgate Total Toothpaste, both with and without the use of dental floss, exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingivitis and supragingival plaque formation after six months of product use. The results of this clinical study support the conclusion that the use of Colgate Total Toothpaste, both with and without the use of dental floss, provided statistically significant improvements over the sodium fluoride toothpaste plus flossing regimen with respect to the control of gingivitis and supragingival plaque formation. Although not statistically significant, numerically lower six-month scores for gingivitis and supragingival plaque were associated with Colgate Total Toothpaste accompanied by the use of dental floss, when compared with Colgate Total Toothpaste without the use of dental floss.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 02/2006; 17(5):138-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study compared the efficacy of an antimicrobial mouthrinse (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate) plus toothbrushing (mouthrinse group), mechanical interdental cleaning plus toothbrushing (mechanical group), and toothbrushing alone (control group), at reducing and preventing interdental gingival inflammation. 92 male subjects were examined for interdental inflammation using the Eastman interdental bleeding index at baseline, then monthly for 3 months after using one of the above oral hygiene regimens. The mechanical cleaning group had significant reductions in bleeding sites compared to baseline at 1 month (56.90% versus 13.17%) that persisted throughout the study (2 months = 6.65%, 3 months=5.70%). The other regimens showed no significant bleeding reduction at any time point in the study. The mechanical interdental cleaning group showed improvement over baseline at 1 month with the full benefit apparent after 2 months. The effect of location in the mouth on bleeding reduction was also assessed. The % of posterior sites which bled was always higher than anterior sites. Analysis of maxillary versus mandibular, and buccal versus lingual sites showed no significant differences. Additional observations of the data demonstrated that sites which bled at baseline were more likely to stop bleeding in the mechanical cleaning group. Also, sites which did not bleed at baseline were unlikely to bleed subsequently when mechanical cleaning was used. Neither of these observations were true for the other cleaning regimens. These data show that only mechanical interdental plaque removal combined with toothbrushing is effective at reducing or preventing interdental inflammation. This underscores the importance of instituting mechanical interdental cleaning to eliminate interdental inflammation.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 12/2005; 20(3):172 - 178. · 3.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

575 Citations
73.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Salus Research
      Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne
      Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States
    • Semmelweis University
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 1995–2011
    • Colgate-Palmolive
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2001–2010
    • University of Puerto Rico at Cayey
      Cayey, Cayey, Puerto Rico
  • 2009
    • Universidade Federal de Alagoas
      Maçayó, Alagoas, Brazil
    • University of São Paulo
      • Departamento de Estomatologia (FOB) (Baurú)
      Ribeirão Preto, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 2003–2008
    • Sichuan University
      • West China School of Stomatology
      Chengdu, Sichuan Sheng, China
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Periodontology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 2000
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • New Jersey Dental School
      Newark, NJ, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • School of Dentistry
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • University of the Pacific (California - USA)
      Stockton, California, United States
  • 1998–2000
    • Erie Community College
      Williamsville, New York, United States
    • National Institute of Standards and Technology
      • Polymers Division
      Gaithersburg, MD, United States
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • School of Dentistry
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
    • Indiana University East
      Indiana, United States
    • Howard University
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 1999
    • BioSci Research Ltd.
      Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States