[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survival after azacitidine (AZA) failure in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is poor and new treatment options are needed. Erlotinib, an oral inhibitor of the epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR), has shown in preclinical models some efficacy in higher risk MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this Phase I/II trial, 30 patients received 100 mg/day (n = 5) or 150 mg/day (n = 25) of Erlotinib orally after primary or secondary resistance to AZA treatment. Eighteen MDS and 12 AML patients were treated. This outpatient treatment was well tolerated with limited grade III-IV extra hematological toxicities (skin (n = 1), and diarrhea (n = 3). Response was observed in 6 patients (20%) including 1 complete remission (CR), 1 marrow CR and 4 hematological improvement (2 erythroid and 2 on platelets). Median duration of response was 5 months.
Erlotinib appears to induce a significant number of responses in higher risk MDS/AML having failed AZA treatment. Given the good safety profile of Erlotinib, its combination with other drugs could be tested in the future in MDS and AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcome of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after azacitidine failure is poor. In this population, we combined cytarabine (10-20mg/m(2)/day 14 days) with vorinostat (400mg/day) for escalating durations (7 days, 10 days and 14 days), and starting on day 1 (concomitant arm) or on day 14 (sequential arm) following a 3+3 phase I design. 40 patients were treated. Dose limiting toxicities were all seen in sequential arm. The overall response rate was 15% with 4 responses in concomitant arm (ORR=25%). We conclude that this combination is tolerable and concomitant administration might be less toxic and have better therapeutic effect (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00776503).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSESeveral prognostic scoring systems have been proposed for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), a disease in which some gene mutations-including ASXL1-have been associated with poor prognosis in univariable analyses. We developed and validated a prognostic score for overall survival (OS) based on mutational status and standard clinical variables. PATIENTS AND METHODS
We genotyped ASXL1 and up to 18 other genes including epigenetic (TET2, EZH2, IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A), splicing (SF3B1, SRSF2, ZRSF2, U2AF1), transcription (RUNX1, NPM1, TP53), and signaling (NRAS, KRAS, CBL, JAK2, FLT3) regulators in 312 patients with CMML. Genotypes and clinical variables were included in a multivariable Cox model of OS validated by bootstrapping. A scoring system was developed using regression coefficients from this model.ResultsASXL1 mutations (P < .0001) and, to a lesser extent, SRSF2 (P = .03), CBL (P = .003), and IDH2 (P = .03) mutations predicted inferior OS in univariable analysis. The retained independent prognostic factors included ASXL1 mutations, age older than 65 years, WBC count greater than 15 ×10(9)/L, platelet count less than 100 ×10(9)/L, and anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dL in female patients, < 11g/dL in male patients). The resulting five-parameter prognostic score delineated three groups of patients with median OS not reached, 38.5 months, and 14.4 months, respectively (P < .0001), and was validated in an independent cohort of 165 patients (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONA new prognostic score including ASXL1 status, age, hemoglobin, WBC, and platelet counts defines three groups of CMML patients with distinct outcomes. Based on concordance analysis, this score appears more discriminative than those based solely on clinical parameters.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2013; · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Darbepoetin (DAR), with or without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), has proved effective in treating anemia in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but its effects on quality of life (QoL) and exercise functioning are less well established. In this phase II study (no. NCT00443339), lower-risk MDS patients with anemia and endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) level <500 IU/L received DAR 500 μg once every 2 weeks for 12 weeks, with G-CSF added at week 12 in non-responders. Physical performance was assessed with the 6-min walking test and, for fit patients, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)). QoL was evaluated using SF-36 and FACT-An tests. In 99 patients, erythroid response rate according to IWG 2006 criteria was 48 and 56 % at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Addition of G-CSF rescued 22 % of non-responders. In 48 % of the responders, interval between darbepoetin injections could be increased for maintenance treatment. Serum EPO level was the only independent predictive factor of response at 12 weeks, and its most discriminant cutoff value was 100 IU/L. QoL and VO(2max) showed improvement over time in responders, compared with non-responders. With a median follow-up of 52 months, median response duration was not reached, and 3-year cumulative incidence of acute myeloid leukemia and overall survival (OS) was 14.5 and 70 %, respectively. Baseline transfusion dependence, International Prognostic Score System (IPSS), and Revised IPSS accurately predicted OS from treatment onset. Tolerance of darbepoetin was good. In conclusion, this regimen of darbepoetin every 2 weeks yielded high response rates and prolonged response duration. Objective improvement in exercise testing and in patient-reported QoL confirms the clinical relevance of anemia correction with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
Annals of Hematology 01/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large proportion of lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) respond to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), but most responses are transient. We updated a previously reported cohort of lower-risk MDS patients treated with ESA and analyzed outcomes after ESA failure. In 120 patients with primary resistance and 66 patients with relapse after an initial response to ESA, the 5-year cumulative incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after failure was 18.9% and 11.6%, respectively (P=0.20). Median overall survival (OS) after failure was 40.1 and 44.9 months (P=0.35), respectively. We further categorized patients as 'early failures' (including resistance and relapse after <6 months of response), or 'later failures' (that is, relapse after 6 months). The 5-year cumulative incidence of AML and median OS after failure in early and later failure were 21.6% and 9% (P=0.02) and 36.7 and 54.3 months (P=0.02), respectively. Early failure to ESA and a baseline diagnosis of refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-1 were independent prognostic factors for AML progression and, along with trisomy 8, for shorter OS. Median OS from treatment onset was 40, 90.7 and 65.8 months in early failure, later failure and no relapse, respectively (P=0.001). Lower-risk MDS with early failure to ESA have a relatively unfavorable outcome, and should be offered alternative treatments.Leukemia advance online publication, 1 February 2013; doi:10.1038/leu.2013.16.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 01/2013; · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While in RARS-T, JAK2V617F mutation is common and associated with good prognosis, the clinical and prognostic impact of this mutation in other MDS is unknown. We collected data from 132 non-RARS-T MDS with known JAK2V617F mutation status. JAK2V617F mutation was significantly correlated with lower progression to AML (p<.0011) and better overall survival (OS, p=.011). OS difference persisted after matching on age, sex, IPSS and % marrow blast (p=.031). Thus, in MDS other than RARS-T, JAK2V617F mutation may be associated with favorable outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cohort of MDS patients was examined for mutations affecting 4 splice genes (SF3B1, SRSF2, ZRSR2, and U2AF35) and evaluated in the context of clinical and molecular markers. Splice gene mutations were detected in 95 of 221 patients. These mutations were mutually exclusive and less likely to occur in patients with complex cytogenetics or TP53 mutations. SF3B1(mut) patients presented with lower hemoglobin levels, increased WBC and platelet counts, and were more likely to have DNMT3A mutations. SRSF2(mut) patients clustered in RAEB-1 and RAEB-2 subtypes and exhibited pronounced thrombocytopenias. ZRSR2(mut) patients clustered in International Prognostic Scoring System intermediate-1 and intermediate-2 risk groups, had higher percentages of bone marrow blasts, and more often displayed isolated neutropenias. SRSF2 and ZRSR2 mutations were more common in TET2(mut) patients. U2AF35(mut) patients had an increased prevalence of chromosome 20 deletions and ASXL1 mutations. Multivariate analysis revealed an inferior overall survival and a higher AML transformation rate for the genotype ZRSR2(mut)/TET2(wt) (overall survival: hazard ratio = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4-7.7; P = .006; AML transformation: hazard ratio = 3.6; 95% CI, 2-4.2; P = .026). Our results demonstrate that splice gene mutations are among the most frequent molecular aberrations in myelodysplastic syndrome, define distinct clinical phenotypes, and show preferential associations with mutations targeting transcriptional regulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 71-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with asthenia, weight loss, fever, cognitive impairment and shortness of breath. Physical examination showed hemiparesis and cerebellar ataxia. There was no superficial lymphadenopathy. Blood tests showed raised levels of C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were negative. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) showed intense uptake within a right apical nodule and intense and diffuse uptake of FDG in the lungs without corresponding structural CT abnormality. Lung biopsy showed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL). FDG-PET findings in IVLBCL and causes of diffuse FDG lung uptake with and without CT abnormalities are discussed.
Cancer Imaging 01/2012; 12(1):7-12. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied a retrospective cohort of 282 higher-risk MDS treated with azacitidine, including 32 patients who concomitantly received an ESA for a median of 5.8 months after azacitidine onset. Forty-four percent of ESA and 29% of no-ESA patients reached HI-E (p=0.07); 48% and 20% achieved transfusion independence (p=0.01). Median OS was 19.6 months in the ESA and 11.9 months in the no-ESA groups (p=0.04). Addition of an ESA significantly improved OS (p=0.03) independently of azacitidine schedule and duration, and of our proposed azacitidine risk score (Blood 2011;117:403-11). Adding an ESA to azacitidine in higher-risk MDS should be studied prospectively.
Leukemia research 12/2011; 36(4):397-400. · 2.36 Impact Factor