Jürgen Lademann

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (399)952.32 Total impact

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    Journal of Biomedical Optics 05/2015; 20(5):51013. DOI:10.1117/1.JBO.20.5.051013 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Biomedical Optics 05/2015; 20(5):51006. DOI:10.1117/1.JBO.20.5.051006 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to ultraviolet and infrared irradiation, which are known to facilitate cutaneous photoaging, immunosuppression, or tumour emergence due to formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, potentially similar effects of visible light on the human skin are still poorly characterized. Using a blue-violet light irradiation source and aiming to characterize its potential influence on the antioxidant status of the human skin, the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was measured noninvasively in nine healthy volunteers using resonance Raman spectroscopy following irradiation. The dose-dependent significant degradation of carotenoids was measured to be 13.5% and 21.2% directly after irradiation at 50 J/cm² and 100 J/cm² (P < 0.05). The irradiation intensity was 100 mW/cm². This is above natural conditions; the achieved doses, though, are acquirable under natural conditions. The corresponding restoration lasted 2 and 24 hours, respectively. The degradation of cutaneous carotenoids indirectly shows the amount of generated free radicals and especially reactive oxygen species in human skin. In all volunteers the cutaneous carotenoid concentration dropped down in a manner similar to that caused by the infrared or ultraviolet irradiations, leading to the conclusion that also blue-violet light at high doses could represent a comparably adverse factor for human skin.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 02/2015; 2015:1-7. DOI:10.1155/2015/579675 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Multi-beam optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method of non-invasive skin imaging allowing the evaluation of tissue at high level of lateral and axial resolution. It permits the horizontal and vertical evaluation of the extent of diseases.Objective Herein, we aimed to validate diagnosing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) by OCT using a newly developed scoring system (‘Berlin Score’-BS). This was based on the predetermined criteria such as dark border underneath the tumour and ovoid structures. Their frequency and distribution in subtypes of BCC were evaluated.Methods The study was conducted in two phases, in which the experience of examiner differed. A total of 127 BCC and 50 other skin diseases were examined. In phase one, students performed the evaluation of skin lesions using the BS, while in phase two an expert performed the scoring in a different subset of patients.ResultsApplication of BS by students revealed sensitivity and specificity of 92.8% (95% CI 85.4–96.8) and 24.1% (95% CI 11.0–43.4) when reaching the lower threshold BS≥8. The most common BCC subtypes were superficial (28.7%) and nodular (22.6%) BCC. Second phase was carried out to verify collected data by a dermatological specialist and expert in using OCT. Increased sensitivity and specificity for OCT amounted to 96.6% (95% CI 80.4–99.8) and 75.2% (95% CI 52.5–90.9). Thereby 88% of all diagnoses were correctly classified confirmed by histopathology.Conclusion Multi-beam optical coherence tomography revealed to be a fast and promising device for assessing lesions by means of BS. Both students, who benefit from practice in handling OCT, and experts are able to perform this procedure. However, experience and training in the interpretation markedly increased sensitivity and specificity of the BS in our study. Moreover, redefinition and refining of the criteria seems necessary and may further increase the diagnostic value of OCT for NMSC.
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/jdv.12935 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy and postpartum adaptation cause an increased formation of free radicals. This is associated with various perinatological diseases, e.g. necrotising enterocolitis. The human body has developed a protective system in the form of the antioxidative potential. The present study was the first to investigate the kinetics of the cutaneous antioxidative status in pregnant women and newborns using a non-invasive spectroscopic method. Eighteen pregnant women and their babies took part in the study. A light-emitting diode-based compact scanner system was used for quick non-invasive measurements of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin based on reflection spectroscopy. It could be shown that the antioxidative status of the expectant mothers significantly declined during labour (p < 0.001) and on day 1 after delivery (p < 0.01). Compared to the mothers, the newborns exhibited a significantly higher cutaneous carotenoid concentration on both day 1 (p < 0.01) and 5 (p < 0.01) after delivery. These results suggest that the oxidative stress due to postpartum adaptation is counteracted by an enhanced reservoir of carotenoid antioxidants in the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The peripartum cutaneous carotenoid level of mothers declines continuously, whereas term newborns show very high cutaneous antioxidant values. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing interest and recent developments in nanotechnology pose previously unparalleled challenges in understanding the effects of nanoparticles on living tissues. Despite significant progress in in vitro cell and tissue culture technologies, observations on particle distribution and tissue responses in whole organisms are still indispensable. In addition to a thorough understanding of complex tissue responses which is the domain of expert pathologists, the localization of particles at their sites of interaction with living structures is essential to complete the picture. In this review we will describe and compare different imaging techniques for localizing inorganic as well as organic nanoparticles in tissues, cells and subcellular compartments. The visualization techniques include well-established methods, such as standard light, fluorescence, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy as well as more recent developments, such as light and electron microscopic autoradiography, fluorescence lifetime imaging, spectral imaging and linear unmixing, superresolution structured illumination, Raman microspectroscopy and X-ray microscopy. Importantly, all methodologies described allow for the simultaneous visualization of nanoparticles and evaluation of cell and tissue changes that are of prime interest for toxicopathologic studies. However, the different approaches vary in terms of applicability for specific particles, sensitivity, optical resolution, technical requirements and thus availability, and effects of labeling on particle properties. Specific bottle necks of each technology are discussed in detail. Interpretation of particle localization data from any of these techniques should therefore respect their specific merits and limitations as no single approach combines all desired properties.
    Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 01/2015; 6:263-80. DOI:10.3762/bjnano.6.25 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: UV irradiation leads to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An imbalance between the antioxidant system and ROS can lead to cell damage, premature skin aging or skin cancer. To counteract these processes, antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are contained in many cosmetics. To improve and optimize cell/ tissue penetration properties of the lipophilic CoQ10, ultra-small lipid nanoparticles (usNLC) were developed. The antioxidant effectiveness of CoQ10-loaded usNLC compared to conventional nanocarriers was investigated in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy investigations of the carriers additionally loaded with nile red showed a clear uptake into cells and their distribution within the cytoplasm. By use of the XTT cell viability test, CoQ10 concentrations of 10 to 50μg/ ml were shown to be non-toxic, and the antioxidant potential of 10 μg/ml CoQ10 loaded usNLC in the HaCaT cells was analyzed via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy after cellular exposure to UVA (1J/ cm(2)) and UVB (18mJ/ cm(2)) irradiation. In comparison to the CoQ10-loaded conventional carriers, usNLC-CoQ10 demonstrated the strongest reduction of the radical formation; reaching up to 23% compared to control cells without nanocarrier treatment. Therefore, usNLC-CoQ10 are very suitable to increase the antioxidant potential of skin. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 12/2014; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2014.12.008 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle-skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.
    Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 12/2014; 5:2363-73. DOI:10.3762/bjnano.5.245 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) requires targeting of a maximum number of skin antigen-presenting cells as non-invasive as possible on small skin areas. In two clinical trials, we introduced cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) as a safe method for TCI. Here, using ex vivo human skin, we demonstrate that one CSSS procedure removed only 30% of stratum corneum, but significantly increased the penetration of 200nm polystyrene particles deep into vellus and intermediate hair follicles from where they could not been retrieved by conventional tape stripping. Two subsequent CSSS had no striking additional effect. CSSS increased particle penetration in superficial stratum corneum and induced Langerhans cell activation. Formulation in amphiphilic ointment or massage did not substantially influence the interfollicular penetration profiles. Hair follicle targeting by CSSS could become a highly effective tool for TCI when combined with carrier-based delivery and is gaining new attention as our understanding on the hair follicle immune system increases.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Dermatology 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/exd.12589 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cutaneous carotenoid concentration correlates with the overall antioxidant status of a person and can be seen as biomarker for nutrition and lifestyle. 50 high school students were spectroscopically measured for their cutaneous carotenoid concentrations initially in a static phase, followed by an intervention phase with biofeedback of their measured values, living a healthy lifestyle and on healthy food this time. The volunteers showed higher carotenoid concentrations than found in previous studies. A significant correlation of healthy lifestyle habits and a high antioxidant status could be determined. Subjects improved their nutritional habits and significantly increased their carotenoid concentration during intervention. Follow-up five months later showed a consolidation of the increase. The investigations show that a healthy diet and a well-balanced lifestyle correlate with a high cutaneous antioxidant concentration and that spectroscopic biofeedback measurement of cutaneous carotenoids as part of an integrated prevention program is a feasible and effective means to raise the health awareness in adolescents. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    Journal of Biophotonics 11/2014; 7(11-12). DOI:10.1002/jbio.201300134 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: UV irradiation is one of the most harmful exogenous factors for the human skin. In addition to the development of erythema, free radicals, i.e. reactive oxygen species (ROS), are induced under its influence and promote the development of oxidative stress in the skin. Several techniques are available for determining the effect of UV irradiation. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) measures the reduction of the carotenoid concentration, while electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy enables the analysis of the production of free radicals. Depending on the method, the skin parameters are analysed in vivo or ex vivo. The present study provides a critical comparison between in vivo and ex vivo investigations on the ROS formation and carotenoid depletion caused by UV irradiation in human skin. The oxygen content of tissue was also determined. It was shown that the antioxidant status measured in the skin samples in vivo and ex vivo was different. The depletion in the carotenoid concentration in vivo exceeded the value determined ex vivo by a factor of about 1.5, and the radical formation after UV irradiation was significantly greater in vivo by a factor of 3.5 than that measured in excised human skin, which can be explained by the lack of oxygen ex vivo.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Dermatology 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/exd.12605 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) has emerged as a tool for in vivo assessment of cutaneous conditions. In particular, its use in wound healing assessment has increasingly moved into focus. In this context, the application of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) for wound treatment has recently become one of the most innovative therapeutic modalities. We analyzed wound healing parameters such as area decline and histomorphological characteristics of tissue repair in six subjects with vacuum-generated wounds on the forearm with a four-armed design: (A) no treatment, (B) treatment with TTP, (C) treatment with octenidine, and (D) sequential treatment with TTP and octenidine. Assessment of the wounds was conducted during six visits over the course of two weeks. The wounds were analyzed by photography and CLSM. TTP treatment led to a more rapid area decline that was statistically significant in comparison to other treatment groups. Besides mild pain, it was well tolerated. Morphologically, wound healing was found to initiate from the edges with the formation of dendritic structures consisting of keratinocytes. CLSM is a valuable tool for assessing the dynamics of wound healing. TTP, for reasons that still need to be investigated, can accelerate wound repair.
    Laser Physics Letters 09/2014; 11(11):115701. DOI:10.1088/1612-2011/11/11/115701 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days.
    Nanoscale Research Letters 09/2014; 9(1):524. DOI:10.1186/1556-276X-9-524 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 μg/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20°C). Penetration should be increased by a) further increase in solubility and b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol(®) 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2 months at 4°C and room temperature. Storage at 40°C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol(®) 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2014.07.002 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resonance Raman spectroscopy and multi-photon tomography were used in vivo to analyse the influence of sun exposure on the cutaneous carotenoids and collagen/elastin fibers. Comparing Berlin (low sun exposure) and Monegasque (high sun exposure) volunteers, it could be demonstrated that extended sun exposure significantly reduces the cutaneous carotenoids and collagen/elastin concentration (p < 0.05). The tendency towards correlation (R(2) = 0.41) between the dermal collagen/elastin (SAAID) and carotenoids confirms the important role of antioxidants in the protection against sun-induced negative effects. The application of sunscreen was shown to be effective, protecting cutaneous carotenoids and collagen/elastin from being damaged subsequent to sun exposure. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
    Journal of Biophotonics 09/2014; 7(9). DOI:10.1002/jbio.201300171 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections decreased considerably after the discovery of antibiotics. Nevertheless, because of the rising rate of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains, the search for new bactericidal agents has again become a crucial topic in clinical medicine. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have a huge potential in dermatology and wound care management because of their ability to release silver ions (Ag(+) ions) in a prolonged and sustained way. However, negative effects of silver on the patient's cells should not be underestimated. Furthermore, it has been controversially discussed whether AgNP are responsible for nanoparticle-specific outcomes or not. In this study, we investigated the effects of AgNP on human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) in order to better understand the mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to improve the use of this highly reactive biocide in wound healing. We found that most of the cells with internalized AgNP displayed the typical morphological signs of apoptosis. The cell viability assay (XTT) showed concentration-dependent toxic effects of the AgNP towards HaCaT cells. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by AgNP was investigated in cell suspensions by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In order to distinguish between the effects of Ag(+) ions released during AgNP storage and those of Ag(+) ions released after nanoparticle application, we compared AgNP stored under air (O2) with AgNP stored under argon (Ar). Dispersions of AgNP stored under Ar have a low content of Ag(+) ions because of the absence of oxygen which is needed for oxidative dissolution. The results show that Ag(+) ions released during particle storage are responsible for most of the ROS produced during 1h incubation with the cells. AgNP (Ar) also induced intracellular ROS but to a much smaller extent compared to AgNP (O2). These findings highlight the complexity of experiments to assess the toxicity of AgNP and suggest the possibility of reducing AgNP toxic effects by storing AgNP formulations and even silver-containing wound dressing under an inert gas atmosphere.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2014.07.012 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    Chun-Sik Choe, Jürgen Lademann, Maxim E Darvin
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    ABSTRACT: Human skin pre-treated with petrolatum was analyzed in vivo using confocal Raman microscopy in order to determine the penetration depth of the oil into the skin. The broad Raman peak (2820–3030 cm−1) measured in vivo on human skin in the high wavenumber region exhibits two prominent main Raman peaks at 2880 cm−1 and 2935 cm−1 that originated from cutaneous lipids and keratin and two main peak shoulders at 2850 cm−1 and 2980 cm−1 that originated from lipids and keratin, respectively. Topical application of petrolatum oil onto the skin gives rise to an increase of the intensity of the broad lipid–keratin Raman peak (2820–3030 cm−1). Herewith, not only the intensity of the lipid part but also of the keratin part is increased, making the normalization to keratin and the determination of the petrolatum penetration profile erroneous. To solve this problem, the Gaussian-function-based deconvolution method is introduced in analyzing the Raman spectrum of the lipid–keratin peak and the least square method is applied for analyzing the petrolatum penetration profile. Results obtained in vivo show that the petrolatum oil does not penetrate deeper than 10 µm into intact human skin.
    Laser Physics 08/2014; 24(10):105601. DOI:10.1088/1054-660X/24/10/105601 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.
    Quantum Electronics 07/2014; 44(7):646. DOI:10.1070/QE2014v044n07ABEH015488 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) which may exist as radicals or nonradicals, as well as reactive sulfur species and reactive carbon species, play a major role in aging processes and in carcinogenesis. These reactive molecule species (RMS), often referred to as 'free radicals' or oxidants, are partly by-products of the physiological metabolism. When RMS concentrations exceed a certain threshold, cell compartments and cells are injured and destroyed. Endogenous physiological mechanisms are able to neutralize RMS to some extent, thereby limiting damage. In the skin, however, pollutants and particularly UV irradiation are able to produce additional oxidants which overload the endogenous protection system and cause early aging, debilitation of immune functions, and skin cancer. The application of antioxidants from various sources in skin care products and food supplements is therefore widespread, with increasingly effective formulations being introduced. The harmful effects of RMS (aside from impaired structure and function of DNA, proteins, and lipids) are: interference with specific regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways in cell metabolism, resulting in chronic inflammation, weakening of immune functions, and degradation of tissue. Important control mechanisms are: MAP-kinases, the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the antagonistic transcription factors nuclear factor-κB and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), and, especially important, the induction of matrix metalloproteinases which degrade dermal connective tissue. Recent research, however, has revealed that RMS and in particular ROS/RNS are apparently also produced by specific enzyme reactions in an evolutionarily adapted manner. They may fulfill important physiologic functions such as the activation of specific signaling chains in the cell metabolism, defense against infectious pathogens, and regulation of the immune system. Normal physiological conditions are characterized by equilibrium of oxidative and antioxidative mechanisms. The application of antioxidants in the form of 'cosmeceuticals' or systemic 'nutraceuticals' should aim to support a physiologically balanced oxidation status in the skin. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 06/2014; 27(6):316-332. DOI:10.1159/000360092 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past decades, encouraging progress has been made in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSI). However, as SSI still occur today, strategic prevention measures such as standardized skin antisepsis must be implemented and rigorously promoted. Recent discoveries in skin physiology necessitate the development of novel antiseptic agents and procedures in order to ameliorate their efficacy. In particular, alternate target structures in the skin need to be taken into consideration for the development of the next generation of antiseptics. Recent investigations have shown that a high number of microorganisms are located within and in the close vicinity of the hair follicles. This suggests that these structures are an important reservoir of bacterial growth and activity in human skin. To date, it has not been fully elucidated to what extent conventional liquid antiseptics sufficiently target the hair follicle-related microbial population. Modern technologies such as tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) have been tested for their potential antiseptic efficiency by reducing the bacterial load in the skin and in the hair follicles. First experiments using liposomes to deliver antiseptics into the hair follicles have been evaluated for their potential clinical application. The present review evaluates these two innovative methods for their efficacy and applicability in preoperative skin antiseptics. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 06/2014; 27(6):283-292. DOI:10.1159/000357387 · 1.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
952.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2014
    • University of Greifswald
      • Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2003–2012
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • • Ruminant and Swine Clinic
      • • Institute of Pharmacy
      • • Division of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1999–2012
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      • Department of Chemistry
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2011
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      • Biophotonik und Lasertechnologie
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany
  • 2007
    • Dupont
      Delaware, Ohio, United States
  • 1997
    • Universität der Bundeswehr München
      • Institut für Physik
      Neubiberg, Bavaria, Germany