ABSTRACT: To evaluate if Level I and II axillary nodes are included in the standard breast tangential fields, and to calculate the dose administered.
In 35 patients treated with conservative surgery and axillary dissection, three clips were surgically positioned: one at the beginning of Level I, one between Level I and II, and another at the end of Level II. The breast was irradiated with two tangential fields. On simulation films, the volume between the clips was scored as "entirely included" or "not entirely included" in the treatment fields. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed; CT data were imported into a treatment planning system, and three-dimensional plans were devised. Axillary Levels I and II were delineated on CT slices on the basis of anatomic landmarks. Fields and isodose curves previously obtained were superimposed to calculate the dose administered to the first two axillary node levels and to 90% of both volumes.
On X-rays, the volume between clips corresponding to Level I was completely included in the medial field in 66.7% of cases and in the lateral field in 63.7% of cases, whereas the volume of Level II was entirely included in the medial field in 54.5% of cases and in the lateral field in 45.4% of cases. The median dose administered to Level I and II was 38.58 Gy +/- 11.01 (range 3.46-47.14) and 20.65 Gy +/- 14.07 (range 0.95-38.94), respectively. The median dose to 90% of both volumes of Level I and II was 6.75 Gy +/- 14.01 (range 1.9-39) and 1.75 Gy +/- 9.72 (range 0.8-29), respectively.
The standard tangential fields do not entirely include Levels I and II axillary nodes.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 10/2001; 51(1):69-73. · 4.11 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the incidence of nodal failure in a subgroup of patients who had T1-T2 breast cancer and four or more positive nodes. Sixty-four 5 patients ranging in age from 29 to 73 years (median, 51) received conservative surgery followed by radiotherapy to the breast between November 1980 and May 1995. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 56 patients, 27 of whom were also treated with tamoxifen, which was used alone in 5 patients. Three patients received no adjuvant treatment. Sixty-two patients are evaluable for regional node failure. There were 10 nodal failures, 4 in the axillary and 6 in the supraclavicular regions, in 9 patients, at a median of 56.5 and 27 months, respectively. There was no internal mammary node failure. Median follow-up was 72.6 months. The 10-year probability of developing axillary and supraclavicular failure is 13.9 +/- 7.7% and 10.5 +/- 4.1%, respectively. Prognosis was better for patients with axillary and breast recurrence and worse when relapse was in the supraclavicular region. On the basis of our results and data already published in premenopausal patients, we believe that radiotherapy to the supraclavicular region should be considered in patients with four or more positive axillary nodes, after a complete dissection.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2000; 23(3):217-21. · 2.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of a conditioning regimen designed to overcome the increased risk of rejection and relapse associated with T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplants.
Fifty-four patients with acute leukemia received an allogeneic T-depleted bone marrow transplant from an HLA-matched (n=52) or one locus mismatched (n=2) sibling donor between June 1989 and November 1993. Nineteen acute myeloid leukemia patients and 17 acute lymphoid leukemia patients were in complete remission, and 11 acute myeloid leukemia patients and 7 acute lymphoid leukemia patients were in relapse. Patients were preconditioned with hyperfractionated total body irradiation of 1.2 Gy three times a day on days -9 to -6 (total 14.4 Gy), 10 mg/kg thiotepa on day -5, 4 mg/kg rabbit antithymocyte globulin on days -4 to -1, and 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide on days -3 and -2.
All patients were fully engrafted at a median of 15 days after transplant. No patient rejected the transplant or developed acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Of 19 patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission, 14 survive. Four of the 11 patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relapse survive. Twelve acute myeloid leukemia patients died (three of relapse, eight of toxicity, one of other causes). Eleven of 24 patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (one treated in relapse) are alive in complete remission; the other 13 died (nine of relapse, four of toxicity). Interstitial pneumonia, the main cause of toxic death, occurred in 9.26% of total patients. The median follow-up time at this writing is 30 months.
The absence of rejection and graft-versus-host disease and the relatively low relapse and toxicity rates are evidence for the efficacy of our conditioning regimen.
The cancer journal from Scientific American 2(6):330-4.