Hirotake Kasuga

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (27)102.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Protein-energy wasting (PEW) or malnutrition is common in this population, and is associated with increasing risk of mortality. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) has been developed as a tool to assess the nutritional risk, and is associated with mortality not only in elderly patients but also in ESRD patients. However, whether the GNRI could predict the mortality due to CVD remains unclear in this population. We investigated the prognostic value of GNRI at initiation of hemodialysis (HD) therapy for CVD mortality in a large cohort of ESRD patients. Serum albumin, body weight, and height for calculating GNRI were measured in 1568 ESRD patients. Thereafter, the patients were divided into quartiles according to GNRI levels [quartile 1 (Q1): <84.9; Q2: 85.0-91.1; Q3: 91.2-97.2; and Q4: >97.3], and were followed up for up to 10 years. GNRI levels independently correlated with serum C-reactive-protein levels (β=-0.126, p<0.0001). Rates of freedom from CVD mortality for 10 years were 57.9%, 73.3%, 80.8%, and 89.2% in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively (p<0.0001). The GNRI was an independent predictor of CVD mortality (hazard ratio 3.42, 95% confidence interval 2.05-5.70, p<0.0001 for Q1 vs. Q4). C-index was also greater in an established CVD risk model with GNRI (0.749) compared to that with albumin (0.730), body mass index (0.732), and alone (0.710). Similar results were observed for all-cause mortality. GNRI at initiation of HD therapy could predict CVD mortality with incremental value of the predictability compared to serum albumin and body mass index in ESRD patients.
    Journal of Cardiology 12/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ESRD treated with dialysis is associated with increased left ventricular hypertrophy, which, in turn, is related to high mortality. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists improve survival in patients with chronic heart failure; however, the effects in patients undergoing dialysis remain uncertain. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized trial with 158 patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist and undergoing peritoneal dialysis with and without (control group) spironolactone for 2 years. As a primary endpoint, rate of change in left ventricular mass index assessed by echocardiography improved significantly at 6 (P=0.03), 18 (P=0.004), and 24 (P=0.01) months in patients taking spironolactone compared with the control group. Rate of change in left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly at 24 weeks with spironolactone compared with nontreatment (P=0.02). The benefits of spironolactone were clear in patients with reduced residual renal function. As secondary endpoints, renal Kt/V and dialysate-to-plasma creatinine ratio did not differ significantly between groups during the observation period. No serious adverse effects, such as hyperkalemia, occurred. In this trial, spironolactone prevented cardiac hypertrophy and decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, without significant adverse effects. Further studies, including those to determine relative effectiveness in women and men and to evaluate additional secondary endpoints, should confirm these data in a larger cohort.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 12/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cardiac valve calcification is seen frequently in patients undergoing dialysis. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level also is reported to predict future cardiovascular events. We investigated the association among valve calcification, CRP level, and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease who were just beginning hemodialysis (HD) therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 1,290 consecutive patients who just started HD therapy were enrolled and were followed up to 10 years. PREDICTOR: Patients were divided into 3 groups according to number of calcified valves: those without valve calcification, those with calcification in a single (aortic or mitral) valve, and those with calcification in both valves. They also were divided into tertiles according to CRP level. OUTCOMES: Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. MEASUREMENTS: Echocardiography and CRP measurement were performed within 1 month after beginning HD therapy. RESULTS: During follow-up (median, 51 months), 335 (25.9%) patients died, including 156 (12.1%) of cardiovascular disease. The adjusted HR for cardiovascular mortality was 2.80 (95% CI, 1.63-4.81) for 2 calcifications versus 0 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the risk of cardiovascular mortality was 3.66-fold higher in patients with calcifications in both valves (highest tertile of CRP) compared with patients without valve calcification (lowest tertile of CRP; P < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: Precise medical treatments or therapeutic interventions were not evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Valve calcification and elevated CRP levels were not only related to additively increased risk of mortality, but also improved the prediction of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease who had just begun HD therapy.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2012; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-energy wasting and chronic inflammation are prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We investigated the combination of serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and body mass index (BMI) at initiation of hemodialysis therapy as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Japanese ESRD patients. A total of 1,228 consecutive Japanese ESRD patients on hemodialysis therapy were enrolled and followed for up to 10 years. Patients were divided into quartiles according to levels of albumin, CRP and BMI. Furthermore, to clarify the joint role of these factors, albumin <3.5 g/dl, CRP >4.0 mg/l and BMI <19.6 were defined as risk factors using receiver operating characteristic analysis; thereafter, patients were divided into groups according to the positive number of these factors. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for lower serum albumin, elevated CRP and lower BMI for 10-year all-cause mortality were 1.97, 3.13 and 2.61, respectively. Regarding the combination of these variables, adjusted HRs for mortality were 2.31, 4.28 and 8.07, respectively, in patients having any one factor, any two factors and all three factors. The C-index for an established risk model with these three positive markers was the most accurate for predicting mortality (0.768), as compared to other models with one or two markers. Similar results were seen for CVD mortality. Serum albumin, CRP and BMI at the start of hemodialysis therapy were able to individually stratify the risk of long-term mortality in ESRD patients. Furthermore, a combination of these variables could more accurately predict mortality.
    American Journal of Nephrology 07/2012; 36(2):136-43. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with diabetes have been regarded as being at the highest risk of cardiovascular disease. We therefore investigated the relationship between diabetes and the incidence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in new haemodialysis patients. We enrolled 1,513 ESRD patients who had just begun haemodialysis therapy. They were divided into two groups: those with (n = 739) and those without diabetes (n = 774). The endpoint was the development of PAD, defined as ankle brachial pressure index ≤ 0.9 or toe brachial pressure index <0.7 in patients with an ankle brachial pressure index >0.9. According to the Kaplan-Meier method, the 10 year event-free rate for development of PAD and lower limb amputation was significantly lower in the diabetes group than in the non-diabetes group (60.3% vs 82.8%, HR 2.99, 95% CI 2.27, 3.92, p<0.0001 and 93.9% vs 98.9%, HR 5.59, 95% CI 2.14, 14.7, p = .0005 for PAD and lower limb amputation, respectively). In patients with diabetes, quartile analysis of HbA1c levels showed that the highest quartile group (≥ 6.8% [51 mmol/mol]) had significant development of PAD and lower limb amputation compared with lower quartile groups (PAD HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.17, 2.28, p = .0038; lower limb amputation HR 2.99, 95% CI 1.17, 7.70, p = .023). Diabetes was a strong predictor of PAD after initiation of haemodialysis therapy in patients with ESRD. In addition, higher HbA1c levels were associated with increased risk of developing PAD and requiring limb amputation in such diabetic populations.
    Diabetologia 02/2012; 55(5):1304-9. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) have been widely recognized as a marker of systemic atherosclerosis. We examined whether ABPI and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) predict individual cardiovascular events in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). We prospectively followed-up 445 HD patients undergoing both ABPI and baPWV measurements for up to 5 years. They were divided into 2 groups [group with ABPI > 0.9 to ≤ 1.3 (n = 328) and group with ABPI ≤ 0.9 or >1.3 (n = 117)] and were also divided into tertiles according to the baPWV level (T1: <1850 cm/s; T2: 1850-2310 cm/s and T3: ≥ 2310 cm/s). During the follow-up period (mean 43 ± 17 months), 206 cardiovascular events [cardiac event: 125 (28.1%), cerebrovascular events: 39 (8.8%), and peripheral arterial events: 42 (9.4%)] occurred, and 36 (8.1%) and 42 (9.4%) patients experienced cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths, respectively. Cox multivariable analysis showed that presence of ABPI ≤ 0.9 or >1.3 was a significant predictor of cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.78, 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.27-2.49, p = 0.0008], cerebrovascular event (HR 1.95, 95%CI 1.13-3.36, p = 0.017), peripheral arterial event (HR 3.64, 95%CI 2.10-6.29, p < 0.0001), composite endpoint of cardiovascular events (HR 2.22, 95%CI 1.64-2.99, p < 0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.42, 95%CI 1.44-4.06, p = 0.0008) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.03-2.25, p = 0.037). However, baPWV did not predict cardiovascular events on multivariate analysis. ABPI but not baPWV is useful for risk stratification of systemic atherosclerotic morbidity and mortality in HD patients. Furthermore, ABPI could predict not only individual peripheral arterial events but also cardiac and cerebrovascular events.
    Atherosclerosis 12/2011; 219(2):643-7. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived protein with antiatherogenic properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the potential association between adiponectin and carotid arteriosclerosis in patients with predialysis CKD. We enrolled 95 CKD patients without dialysis and 81 non-CKD patients. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque score (PS) in the common carotid artery were measured using an ultrasound system. Carotid arteriosclerosis was defined as IMT >1.2 mm and/or PS >5.0 mm. The prevalence of CKD was independently associated with carotid arteriosclerosis after adjustment for other risk factors. Higher adiponectin levels were observed in CKD patients compared with non-CKD patients. Adiponectin levels were not independently correlated with the presence of carotid arteriosclerosis in all subjects. To evaluate the association between adiponectin and carotid arteriosclerosis among a CKD population, we divided the CKD patients into 2 groups according to a cutoff level of adiponectin determined by ROC analysis. The prevalence of carotid arteriosclerosis was significantly higher in the low-adiponectin group than in the high-adiponectin group among CKD patients. After adjusting for other risk factors, low levels of adiponectin were independently correlated with carotid arteriosclerosis in CKD patients. Our data document that adiponectin is associated with increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis in a predialysis CKD population.
    American Journal of Nephrology 07/2011; 34(3):249-55. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, the population of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is <4% of the total number of patients with end-stage renal disease. Few systemic analyses have examined why the number of PD patients has not increased in Japan. We organized a registry to analyze PD patients and retrospectively investigated 561 PD patients (about 5% of all Japanese PD patients) from 13 hospitals in the Tokai area for 3 years from 2005. We investigated background, physical status, laboratory data, status of PD therapy, and the occurrence of PD-related complications, and analyzed reasons for withdrawal from PD. Nutrition did not change significantly during our observation. Urinary volume showed continued decreases after the introduction period. In contrast, PD fluid demand and ultrafiltration volume were significantly increased. For calcium metabolism, multiple phosphate binders were required after the second year of PD therapy. Early drop-out within 3 years after starting PD therapy comprised 50.9% of total withdrawals, with PD-related peritonitis as the most common reason, mainly caused by Gram-positive organisms. Incidence of peritonitis was 42.8 months/patient. Culture-negative results were obtained for 32% of peritonitis cultures. Diabetes affects the prognosis of PD therapy, but not the incidence of peritonitis. We examined clinical status over 3 years in the Tokai area. The results suggest that the incidence of peritonitis needs to be decreased to prevent early withdrawal of PD patients. Education systems to decrease the incidence of peritonitis and techniques to decrease culture-negative results might be important for improving the prognosis of peritonitis.
    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 06/2011; 15(5):727-37. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endovascular treatment (ET) is widely used for thrombotic complications of vascular access (VA) for hemodialysis. We evaluated the effectiveness of both ET and surgical interventions for thrombotic complications. We studied 533 patients who underwent surgical procedures (a total of 879 procedures) and 54 patients who received ET (a total of 156 procedures) for VA obstruction (endovascular group; group 1). The 533 patients who underwent surgical procedures were further divided into two groups: the surgical balloon-angioplasty group (the thrombus was surgically removed and the stenotic lesions were dilated by balloon angioplasty; 189 procedures; group 2) and the surgical repair group (the stenotic lesions were bypassed with additional graft diversion or creation of a new access; 690 procedures; group 3). The three groups were evaluated for VA patency. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the 2-yr patency for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 11.1%, 11.5%, and 34.0% (p<0.0001). The 2-yr patency rates in patients in whom arteriovenous grafts were used were 5.9% (group 1), 9.2% (group 2), and 22.8% (group 3) (p<0.0001), whereas in patients with arteriovenous fistulae they were 33.7% (group 1), 35.7% (group 2), and 59.8% (group 3) (p=0.0005). A surgical approach may cause difficulty in creating a new VA, because useful access vessels are limited. Our results indicate surgical balloon-angioplasty and ET provide the same patency. ET is less invasive and can be repeated, which makes it beneficial for the patients. We concluded ET could be considered as the first-line treatment for thrombotic complications.
    The journal of vascular access 11/2010; 12(1):63-6. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac failure is directly affected by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and particularly LV systolic dysfunction is strongly associated with survival in ESRD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) measured at the time of initiation of hemodialysis (HD) in incident HD patients. 1254 consecutive ESRD patients who electively started HD therapy were screened by echocardiography within 1 month after its inception. They were divided into five groups according to LVEF levels with a decrease of 0.1 each and were followed up for up to 7 years. Survival was examined with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Among the 1254 patients, LVEF levels ≥0.6, 0.5 to 0.6, 0.4 to 0.5, 0.3 to 0.4, and <0.3 were seen in 842 (67.1%), 247 (19.7%), 107 (8.5%), 41 (3.3%), and 17 (1.4%) patients, respectively. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 7-year event-free rates from cardiovascular death were 84.2, 83.7, 73.6, 59.4, and 30.9% in order of groups with decreasing LVEF of 0.1 each, respectively. Seven-year event-free rates from all-cause death were 69.2, 61.7, 57.1, 45.9, and 23.1% in the respective groups. Even after adjustment for other risk factors, decreasing LVEF was a strong independent predictor for cardiovascular death. Reduced LVEF on starting HD therapy could stratify risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in ESRD patients. Screening by echocardiography at start of HD therapy might be recommended to predict prognosis in patients with ESRD.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2010; 5(10):1793-8. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1), -beta(2), and -beta(3) are involved in control of wound repair and development of fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is stimulated by all TGF-beta isoforms and is abundant in glomerulosclerosis and other fibrotic disorders. CTGF is hypothesized to mediate profibrotic effects of TGF-beta(1) or to facilitate interaction of TGF-beta(1) with its receptor, but its interactions with TGF-beta isoforms in nonpathological conditions are unexplored so far. Tissue repair and remodeling may recapitulate gene transcription at play in organogenesis. To further delineate the relationship between CTGF and TGF-beta, we compared expression patterns of CTGF and TGF-beta isoforms in rat and human glomerulogenesis and in various human glomerulopathies. CTGF mRNA was present in the immediate precursors of glomerular visceral and parietal epithelial cells in the comma- and S-shaped stages, but not in earlier stages of nephron development. During the capillary loop and maturing glomerular stages and simultaneous with the presence of TGF-beta(1), -beta(2), and -beta(3) protein, CTGF mRNA expression was maximal and present only in differentiating glomerular epithelial cells. CTGF protein was also present on precursors of mesangium and glomerular endothelium, suggesting possible paracrine interaction. Concomitant with the presence of TGF-beta(2) and -beta(3) protein, and in the absence of TGF-beta(1), CTGF mRNA and protein expression was restricted to podocytes in normal adult glomeruli. However, TGF-beta(1) and CTGF were again coexpressed, often with TGF-beta(2) and -beta(3), in particular in podocytes in proliferative glomerulonephritis and also in mesangial cells in diabetic nephropathy and IgA nephropathy (IgA NP). Coordinated expression of TGF-beta isoforms and of CTGF may be involved in normal glomerulogenesis and possibly in maintenance of glomerular structure and function at adult age. Prolonged overexpression of TGF-beta(1) and CTGF is associated with development of severe glomerulonephritis and glomerulosclerosis.
    AJP Renal Physiology 09/2010; 299(3):F545-58. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression increases the risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has also been reported to be associated with mortality risk in the general population. We conducted a prospective study to estimate the independent impact of depression and alexithymia on long-term mortality. A total of 230 hemodialysis outpatients, with a mean age of 56.3 +/- 9.6 years, completed a batch of self-report measures including the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Survival status was confirmed every 6 months for up to 5 years. The presence of depression and alexithymia was defined by a BDI-II score of > or =14 and a TAS-20 score of > or =61, respectively. During the follow-up period, 27 deaths were confirmed. Both depression and alexithymia were associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality; the age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for depression was 2.36 (95% CI: 1.08-5.15; p = 0.03) and that for alexithymia was 4.29 (95% CI: 1.95-9.42; p < 0.001). Depression lost its statistical significance after controlling for alexithymia, whereas alexithymia remained significant even after adjusting for the baseline depression, health status (the summary scores of the SF-36), marital status and clinical covariates (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio = 3.62; 95% CI: 1.32-9.93; p = 0.01). Alexithymia is a strong independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients.
    Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 01/2010; 79(5):303-11. · 9.38 Impact Factor
  • Nihon Toseki Igakkai Zasshi 01/2010; 43(3):297-301.
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    ABSTRACT: Colonic perforation is a rare but life-threatening complication of colonoscopy. We evaluated the incidence of colonic perforation that resulted from colonoscopy in patients who underwent hemodialysis compared with those who did not have this procedure (controls). Data from a total of 15,098 consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy from January 2001 to December 2008 in Nagoya Kyoritsu Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 1106 hemodialysis patients and 13,992 controls. The incidence of colonic perforation, patient characteristics, and locations of perforation during colonoscopy were compared between the 2 groups. Furthermore, perforated mucosa samples from colons were examined by pathology analysis. Colonic perforations occurred in 5 hemodialysis patients and 3 controls. The incidence of colonic perforation was markedly higher in the hemodialysis group than in the control group (0.45% vs 0.02%; odds ratio, 21.17; 95% confidence interval, 5.05-88.73; P < .0001). Even after multivariate analysis of age, sex, and patients who received polypectomies, hemodialysis still was associated independently with the risk of colonic perforation during colonoscopy (odds ratio, 19.91; 95% confidence interval, 4.61-85.93; P < .0001). Pathologic examination of perforated mucosa was performed in 3 hemodialysis patients and 3 control patients. beta2-microglobulin deposition was observed in all 3 hemodialysis patients. In contrast, beta2-microglobulin deposition was not detected in control patients. There is a higher risk of colonic perforation during colonoscopy among patients who received hemodialysis compared with those who did not. beta2-microglobulin deposition might have a role in perforation in patients who receive hemodialysis.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 10/2009; 8(1):55-9. · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - GASTROINTEST ENDOSCOP. 01/2009; 69(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating CD34-positive (CD34(+)) cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitor cells, are believed to contribute to vascular homeostasis. Here we determine the prognostic value of CD34(+) cell measurements in 216 chronic hemodialysis patients. A total of 43 cardiovascular events and 13 deaths occurred over an average 23 months follow-up in this cohort. A cutoff number for circulating CD34(+) cells was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to maximize the power of the CD34(+) cell count in predicting future cardiovascular events. Based on this, 93 patients were categorized as having low and 123 patients as having high numbers of CD34(+) cells, determined by flow cytometry at the time of enrollment. Both cumulative cardiovascular event-free survival and all-cause survival were significantly less in the group of patients with low numbers of CD34(+) cells. By multivariate analyses, a low level of circulating CD34(+) cells was an independent and significant predictor for both cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Our study shows that a reduced number of circulating CD34(+) cells is significantly associated with vascular risks and all-cause mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis. These cells may be a useful biomarker.
    Kidney International 11/2008; 74(12):1603-9. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cystic (PC) lesions are not necessarily rare, and it is important to diagnose whether PC lesions are neoplastic such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) because of its malignant potential. Reports on PC lesions in hemodialysis (HD) patients are remarkably limited. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and characteristics of PC lesions in HD patients. We reviewed 1012 consecutive HD patients and 11,100 patients (controls) without renal disease who underwent transabdominal ultrasonography between January 2003 and December 2005. Patients' sex ratio (female-to-male) was less, and the age was older in HD patients. Clinical findings of these patients were examined. The prevalence both of PC lesions and IPMNs was significantly higher in HD patients than in controls (9.3% vs 1.3% and 2.8% vs 0.2%, P < 0.0001). The incidence of IPMNs in HD patients with PC lesions was higher than that in controls with PC lesions (29.8% vs 17.0%, P = 0.021). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratios of PC lesions and IPMNs were 6.38 (95% confidence interval, 4.82-8.45) and 9.39 (95% confidence interval, 5.36-16.49) in HD patients compared with controls. The prevalence of PC lesions in HD patients is higher, and HD patients with PC lesions have high prevalence of IPMNs.
    Pancreas 10/2008; 38(2):175-9. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major risk for long-term survivors receiving hemodialysis (HD), with coronary events being the leading cause of mortality. A total of 88 consecutive patients on HD (121 lesions) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) were compared with 78 patients on HD (95 lesions) who received bare metal stents (BMS) in the preceding 1 year. The primary endpoint was angiographic restenosis defined as > or =50% diameter stenosis at 6-8 months follow-up after PCI. The angiographic restenosis rate at follow-up was 22.2% in the SES group and 24.4% in the BMS group. No difference was detected in the restenosis rate between the 2 groups (p=0.73). When including both HD and non-HD patients, the independent predictors for restenosis after SES implantation were treatment with HD (hazard ratio (HR) 3.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-7.95; p=0.016), incidence of hyperlipidemia (HR 3.93; 95%CI 1.12-13.7; p=0.032), coronary calcification (HR 2.78; 95%CI 1.12-6.91; p=0.027), and implantation of multi-stents (HR 4.14; 95%CI 1.70-10.1; p=0.0017). Even if treated with SES, patients with end-stage renal failure on HD are at high risk of restenosis after PCI.
    Circulation Journal 02/2008; 72(1):56-60. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients receiving hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at high risk for death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Nicorandil, a hybrid compound of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener and nitric oxide donor, has been reported to improve the clinical prognosis of patients with IHD. This study sought to investigate the efficacy of oral nicorandil in reducing the risks for cardiovascular events (CVEs) and CVE-related death in patients receiving hemodialysis for ESRD after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for angina pectoris. For this retrospective chart review, we used data from telephone interviews and medical charts from 3 hospitals in Japan. Data from patients aged <80 years who were receiving hemodialysis for ESRD and who had undergone successful PCI for angina between January 1999 and December 2004 were included in the analysis. Patients were stratified based on status of nicorandil treatment before PCI, as follows: patients receiving nicorandil 5 mg PO TID (the recommended dosage in Japan) for >1 month before PCI (nicorandil group) or those who did not receive nicorandil (control group). We investigated 6-year follow-up data on the primary end point, defined as CVEs (ie, unplanned hospital admission for worsening anginal status, or CVE-related death). The secondary end point was CVE-related death. After the data were initially analyzed, we performed a propensity-matched analysis to minimize selection bias. Data from 356 patients were included in the study (235 men, 121 women; mean [SD] age, 69 [9] years; mean [SD] weight, 52.3 [9.1] kg; nicorandil group, 198 patients; control group, 158 patients). According to the estimated propensity scores, 107 patients from each group were matched. There were no differences between the 2 groups in the baseline characteristics. On propensity-matched patient analysis, the estimated rates of patients who were CVE-free at 6 years were 33.5% in the nicorandil group and 21.8% in the control group on Kaplan-Meier analysis (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.78; P < 0.002), and the rates of 6-year survival (ie, patients who did not experience CVE-related death) were 92.7% in the nicorandil group and 85.8% in the control group (HR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.07-0.89; P = 0.047). Cox multivariate analysis found that nico-randil treatment status was an independent predictor of CVEs (HR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.91; P = 0.028) and CVE-related death (HR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.14-0.78; P = 0.030). Results obtained in this retrospective study suggest the potential efficacy of nicorandil treatment in improving clinical outcomes in patients with IHD receiving hemodialysis following PCI.
    Clinical Therapeutics 02/2007; 29(1):110-22. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is beneficial for coronary artery disease (CAD) among the general population. However, its effects in patients who are on hemodialysis (HD) remain unclear. A prospective cohort study was performed to clarify whether PCI has a therapeutic advantage over medical therapy among HD patients with CAD. A follow-up study to 5 yr was conducted among 259 HD patients with ischemic heart disease. Mean follow-up was 39 mo. Patients were divided into three groups: 122 patients without significant stenosis, 88 patients who had significant stenosis and were treated with PCI, and 49 patients who had significant stenosis and were treated with medication only. The primary end point was cardiac death, and the secondary end point was all-cause death. The results showed that the 5-yr cardiac survival rate was 41.6% in the medication group, 77.1% in the PCI group (P = 0.0006), and 84.5% in the nonstenosis group (P < 0.0001). The 5-yr all-cause survival rate was 19.3% in the medication group, 48.4% in the PCI group (P = 0.004), and 64.3% in the nonstenosis group (P < 0.0001). Even after adjustment for other risk factors, effects of PCI on the risk for cardiac and all-cause death remained significant and independent (odds ratio 0.14; 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.25, P = 0.0006; and odds ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 0.54, P = 0.0062, respectively). Results were consistent when the therapeutic effect of PCI or medication was analyzed using propensity-matched patients. These data suggested that PCI could improve the prognosis of HD patients with CAD. PCI would be recommended for HD patients with CAD.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2006; 17(8):2322-32. · 8.99 Impact Factor