Gwang Il An

Kyungpook National University, Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea

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Publications (22)54.48 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: By developing a new bi-modal radioactive tracer that emits both luminescence and nuclear signals, a trimodal liposome for optical, nuclear, and MR imaging is efficiently prepared. Fast clearance of the radiotracer from reticuloendothelial systems enables vivid tumor imaging with minimum background.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 02/2014; · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-mono/dimethylated TE2A tetraazamacrocycles (MM-TE2A and DM-TE2A) were synthesized in high yields. Both Cu-MM/DM-TE2A complexes showed increased kinetic stability compared to that of Cu-TE2A, whereas Cu-DM-TE2A showed even higher in vitro stability than that of Cu-ECB-TE2A. MM-TE2A and DM-TE2A were quantitatively radiolabeled with 64Cu ions and showed rapid clearance from the body to emerge as a potential efficient bifunctional chelator.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 07/2013; · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new tetraazamacrocyclic bifunctional chelator, TE2A-Bn-NCS was synthesized in high overall yield from cyclam. An extra functional group (NCS) was introduced to N-atom of TE2A for specific conjugation with antibody. The Cu complex of TE2A-Bn-NCS showed high kinetic stability in acidic decomplexation and cyclic voltammetry studies. X-ray structure determination of Cu-TE2A-Bn-NH2 complex confirmed octahedral geometry, in which copper atom is strongly coordinated by four macrocyclic nitrogens in equatorial positions and two carboxylate oxygen atoms occupy the elongated axial positions. Trastuzumab was conjugated with TE2A-Bn-NCS and then radiolabeled with 64Cu quantitatively at room temperature within 10 min. Biodistribution studies showed that the 64Cu-labeled TE2A-Bn-NCS-trastuzumab conjugates maintain high stability in physiological conditions, and NIH3T6.7 tumors were clearly visualized up to 3 days by 64Cu-immuno-positron emission tomgraphy imaging in animal models.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 07/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is generally encouraging, a diagnostic dilemma is posed when an increasing level of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is noted, without detection of a recurrent tumor using conventional imaging tools such as the iodine-131 whole-body scanning (the [(131)I] scan) or neck ultrasonography (US). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of [(124)I]-PET/CT and [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT in terms of accurate detection of both iodine- and non-iodine-avid recurrence, compared with that of conventional imaging such as the [(131)I] scan or neck ultrasonography (US). Between July 2009 and June 2010, we prospectively studied 19 DTC patients with elevated thyroglobulin levels but who do not show pathological lesions when conventional imaging modalities are used. All involved patients had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine (RI) treatment, and who had been followed-up for a mean of 13 months (range, 6-21 months) after the last RI session. Combined [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT and [(124)I]-PET/CT data were evaluated for detecting recurrent DTC lesions in study patients and compared with those of other radiological and/or cytological investigations. Nine of 19 patients (47.4%) showed pathological [(18)F]-FDG (5/19, 26.3%) or [(124)I]-PET (4/19, 21.1%) uptake, and were classed as true-positives. Among such patients, disease management was modified in six (66.7%) and disease was restaged in seven (77.8%). In particular, the use of the described imaging combination optimized planning of surgical resection to deal with locoregional recurrence in 21.1% (4/19) of patients, who were shown to be disease-free during follow-up after surgery. Our results indicate that combination of [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT and [(124)I]-PET/CT affords a valuable diagnostic method that can be used to make therapeutic decisions in patients with DTC who are tumor-free on conventional imaging studies but who have high Tg levels.
    Journal of Korean medical science 09/2012; 27(9):1019-26. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract, however the invasive cystoscopy is still the standard technique for diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer. Herein, we radiolabel bladder cancer specific peptide with radioactive iodine ((131/124)I) and evaluate its potential as a new radiopharmaceutical for the non-invasive diagnosis of bladder cancer. A 9-mer bladder cancer specific peptide (BP) was conjugated with tyrosine and cyclized by disulfide bond formation to give Y-BP, which was further radioiodinated to give [(131/124)I]Y-BP in good radiochemical yield. The biodistribution data showed the high selectivity of [(124)I]Y-BP in HT1376 human bladder cancer xenograft models with a tumor-to-muscle ratio of 6.2. This tumor targeting was not observed in control B16F10 melanoma tumor models. In microPET studies, while the control scrambled peptide, [(124)I]Y-sBP, did not accumulate in either the bladder cancer or melanoma, [(124)I]Y-BP showed high tumor uptake only in animals with HT1376 bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, [(124)I]Y-BP showed superior bladder cancer uptake even compared to most commonly used cancer imaging tracer, [(18)F]FDG. The experimental results suggest the potential of [(124)I]Y-BP as a new radiopharmaceutical for the non-invasive diagnosis of bladder cancer with high binding affinity and selectivity.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 05/2012; 20(14):4330-5. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ethylene cross-bridged cyclam with two acetate pendant arms, ECB-TE2A, is known to form the most kinetically stable (64)Cu complexes. However, its usefulness as a bifunctional chelator is limited because of its harsh radiolabeling conditions. Herein, we report new cross-bridged cyclam chelator for the development of ultrastable (64)Cu-radiolabeled bioconjugates. Propylene cross-bridged TE2A (PCB-TE2A) was successfully synthesized in an efficient way. The Cu(II) complex of PCB-TE2A exhibited much higher kinetic stability than ECB-TE2A in acid decomplexation studies, and also showed high resistance to reduction-mediated demetalation. Furthermore, the quantitative radiolabeling of PCB-TE2A with (64)Cu was achieved under milder conditions compared to ECB-TE2A. Biodistribution studies strongly indicate that the (64)Cu complexes of PCB-TE2A cleared out rapidly from the body with minimum decomplexation.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 02/2012; 23(3):330-5. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of noninvasive imaging methods to bacterial infections is widely recognized. To obtain bacterial infection imaging with radioisotope-labeled nucleosides, bacterial thymidine kinase (tk) activities of Salmonella typhimurium with [(125)I]5-iodo-1-(2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-β-d-arabinofuranosyl)uracil ([(125)I]FIAU) or 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) were measured. The infection model in BALB/c mice was imaged with [(125)I]FIAU or [(18)F]FLT using small-animal Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET), respectively. The accumulated radioactivity of [(125)I]FIAU or [(18)F]FLT in the two strains showed a linearly increased pattern with increasing incubation time or bacterial numbers. The image clearly demonstrated a high uptake of [(125)I]FIAU and [(18)F]FLT in the bacterial infection site. [(18)F]FLT uptake in the infection site of was 7.286±2.405, whereas that in the uninfected site was 0.519±0.561. The relative activity ratio of the infected region in relation to the uninfected region was 2.98 at 4h after an injection with [(125)I]FIAU determined by biodistribution data. In conclusion, the bacterial tk activity was confirmed by the cellular uptake and imaging with [(125)I]FIAU or [(18)F]FLT. Therefore, a localized bacterial infection in living mice can be monitored using radioisotope-labeled nucleosides with a nuclear medicine imaging modality.
    International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 01/2012; 302(2):101-7. · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [(32)P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Radionuclides emitting high energy β(+)/β(-) particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [(32)P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Many radionuclides with high energetic β(+) or β(-) particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 04/2011; 38(3):321-9. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Small 12/2010; 6(24):2863-8. · 7.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescence probes that can detect Aβ (β-amyloid peptide) plaque are important tools for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 4-N-methylamino-4'-hydroxystilbene (SB-13) is one of the promising candidate molecules. We report here the synthesis of SB-13 derivatives that consist of various electron donating/withdrawing moieties and distinct size of N-substituents. The synthesized compounds were screened for detection of Aβ40 fibrils in vitro. Four compounds exhibited more than sixfold intensity increase, and they were further analyzed for detail bindings and Aβ plaque imaging. Among these molecules, compound 42 meets two critical requirements for imaging agent; high fluorescence responsiveness and strong binding affinity. This compound showed more than 25-fold increase with the dissociation constant of 1.13±0.37μM. In AD mouse brain tissue, 42 selectively stained Aβ plaque, more specifically peripheral regions of Aβ plaque. This finding demonstrated its potential use as brain-imaging agents for AD studies.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 11/2010; 18(22):7724-30. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: D-[18F]FMAU and L-[18F]FMAU are F-18 labeled nucleoside analogue which have been efficiently synthesized in order to be a PET imaging probe. D-[18F]FMAU and L-[18F]FMAU were compared as PET imaging agents using HSV1-TK gene expressing tumor-bearing mice. Their cellular uptake profiles were also compared using MCA and MCA-TK cell lines. D-[18F]FMAU demonstrated higher cellular uptake and higher accumulation in MCA-TK tumor regions than L-[18F]FMAU. On the other hand, L-[18F]FMAU showed higher MCA-TK/MCA ratio of %ID/g than that of D-[18F]FMAU. L-[18F]FMAU can be utilized as a good candidate for HSV1-TK PET imaging. It can be used for antiviral drug evaluation.
    Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society 11/2010; 31(11):3309-3312. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of structural differences between FIAU and FIRU on their ability to serve as a potential tracer for reporter gene imaging. To examine the characteristics of different configurations of FIAU and FIRU, a series of evaluations were done on HSV1-TK gene-expressing cells and on mice with HSV1-TK gene-expressing tumor. The results showed that, as an imaging agent for HSV1-TK-expressing cells, radiolabeled FIAU was more efficient for in vivo imaging than FIRU.
    Applied radiation and isotopes: including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine 06/2010; 68(6):971-8. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small animal PET scanning with <sup>18</sup>F-FDG has been increasingly used in the studies using murine tumor models. The aim of this study was to obtain multimodal tumor images with the use of small animal PET and clinical CT by using hardware guidance and a registration method. PET imaging studies were performed with a dedicated small animal PET scanner. Static PET images of mice with liver and lung tumors were scanned for 20 minute by the use of hardware guidance with 1% activity of the injected dose. The CT images obtained with the use of a clinical CT scanner can be used to improve the anatomical localization of uptake in PET images. <sup>124</sup>I -FIAU-PET was obtained from mice containing an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Contrast enhanced CT images were obtained at three hours after injection of contrast agent. The PET and CT images were fused using hardware fiducial markers that were manually identified in both data sets. The PET and CT images were precisely registered by the use of a small animal contour point in both data sets to perform a point-based rigid registration. The registered images in the HCC model and a lung metastatic tumor model showed good agreement of tumor region on the both PET and CT images. The use of PET and contrast enhanced CT allowed a precise and improved detection of tumors in liver and lung models. Multimodal imaging with small animal PET and clinical CT images was useful in the detection of metastatic tumors and this multimodal imaging registration method can improve the quantitative accuracy and interpretation of tracer.
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 07/2009; · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the positron emission radionuclides, (64)Cu, has been reported to be a particularly effective radioisotope in PET imaging study. This utility of (64)Cu depends on the chemical stability in water with proper energy and half-life as gamma-emitters. Hence, we tried to develop a simple method for producing this isotope using an old cyclotron model in our site (50MeV, Scantronics co.). In particular, we designed the equipments of enrich (64)Ni plating system and radioactive (64)Cu separation using plastic cartridge column; (64)Ni plating system on gold foil which located in the 13 degrees angle target toward beam irradiation. For the nuclear reaction of (64)Cu, it was applied to (64)Ni(p, n) (64)Cu at low energy under the degrader composed of Al and Ta foils. After beam irradiation, (64)Cu was identified by multichannel analyzer installed for a HPGe detector and its utility was certified by the microPET images of (64)Cu-ATSM (CT-26 tumor bearing mouse as reported previously). The image quality of (64)Cu was also very similar to that of (18)F radioisotope in microPET scanner. In conclusion, a method of (64)Cu production and its application was successfully established in old cyclotron having high energy.
    Applied radiation and isotopes: including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine 03/2009; 67(7-8):1190-4. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to identify selective ligands for the estrogen receptor subtypes ERα or ERβ to evaluate them as pharmaceutical targets in breast cancer. To develop ERβ-selective ligands as PET imaging agents, a series of aryl indazole estrogen analogues substituted at the C3 position with fluoroethyl and fluoropropyl groups were synthesized and evaluated for their relative binding affinities and selectivities for ERα vs ERβ. The fluoroethylated indazole estrogen (FEIE, 1i) and fluoropropylated indazole estrogen (FPIE, 1h) showed 41- fold and 17-fold ERβ/ERα selectivity, respectively. However, their binding affinities to ERα and ERβ were very low.
    Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society 06/2008; 29(6):1107-1114. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eight d-ribo-phytosphingosine derivatives were synthesized from d-ribo-phytosphingosine and diverse acyl chlorides with N,N-diisopropylethylamine in tetrahydrofuran for 1h at room temperature. Effect of these compounds on IR-induced cell death was evaluated on blood cancer cells (Jurkat). Among these, 3d showed the highest enhancement of radiosensitizing effect.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 01/2008; 17(23):6643-6. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society 12/2007; 28(12):2449-2453. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our pursuit to find an appropriate reporter probe for herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk), a carbocyclic nucleoside analogue, cis-1-[4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-yl]-5-[124I]iodouracil, has been efficiently synthesized. A Pd(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction together with organotin and exchange reactions for radiolabeling gave more than 80% radiochemical yield with greater than 95% radiochemical purity and 1.15 GBq/mumol specific activity. Biological data reveal that the analogue is stable in vitro, less toxic than ganciclovir (GCV), and selective to HSV1-tk-expressed cells based on micro positron emission tomography (microPET) image analyses. Thus, this new carbocyclic nucleoside, referred to in this paper as carbocyclic 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxy-5-iodouridine (carbocyclic d4IU) is a potential imaging probe for HSV1-tk.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2007; 50(24):6032-8. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-[18F]FMAU ([18F]1b) was prepared from the precursor 2-O-[(trifluoromethyl)-sulfonyl]-1,3,5-tri-Obenzoyl- α-L-ribofuranose, by coupling the radioactive fluoro-sugar with the corresponding silylated thymine in 4 steps. The final products, including the α and β anomers, were purified using reverse phase HPLC with an appropriate solvent (5% CH3CN/H2O) at a flow rate of 3.0 mL/min. The total elapsed time of synthesis was about 180-200 min from EOB. The α/β anomeric ratio of the compounds was about 1:9, and the radiochemical purity of the product (β-form) was >98% with decay-corrected yields of 25-35%. All radioactive samples were confirmed using co-injection with pure non-radioactive analogues in every step. In the cellular uptake in vitro test of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) gene expressed cells, the percent uptake of injected dose (%ID) of L- and D-FMAU was 37.28 and 65.86, respectively after 240 min incubation. However, the relative uptake (MCA-TK/MCA cellular uptake ratio) of L-FMAU was higher than that of D-FMAU (%ID of L-FMAU, 0.36 and D-FMAU, 0.93 after 240 min incubation in MCA cells). This means that L-FMAU will show better specific HSV1-TK gene expressed cell uptake for selective HSV1-TK gene imaging.
    Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society 12/2007; 28(12):2449-2453. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hereby report the synthesis of four fluorine-18 labeled tyrosine derivatives, 3-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)tyrosine ([(18)F]1, [(18)F]ortho-FET), 3-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl)tyrosine ([(18)F]2, [(18)F]ortho-FPT) O-methyl-[3-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)]tyrosine ([(18)F]3, [(18)F]MFET), and O-methyl-[3-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl)]tyrosine ([(18)F]4, [(18)F]MFPT). The fluorine-18 labeled tyrosine derivatives were prepared by the displacement reaction of the ethyl and propyl tosylates with K[(18)F]/K2.2.2 in acetonitrile under no-carrier-added (NCA) conditions, followed by hydrolysis with 4N HCl. The biological properties of labeled compounds were evaluated in rats bearing 9L tumor after an intravenous injection and PET image was obtained. The tumor/blood and tumor/brain ratios were 2.06, 2.92 for [(18)F]1, 2.25, 4.05 for [(18)F]2, 2.88, 1.90 for [(18)F]3, and 2.00, 2.60 for [(18)F]4 at 60 min post injection, respectively. The PET image showed localized accumulation of PET tracers in 9L glioma of the rat.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 02/2007; 17(1):200-4. · 2.34 Impact Factor