[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e15295. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TEM-1 beta-lactamase confers bacterial resistance to penicillin antibiotics and has acquired mutations that permit the enzyme to hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins or to avoid inactivation by beta-lactamase inhibitors. However, many of these substitutions have been shown to reduce activity against penicillin antibiotics and/or result in loss of stability for the enzyme. In order to gain more information concerning the tradeoffs associated with active site substitutions, a genetic selection was used to find second site mutations that partially restore ampicillin resistance levels conferred by an R244A active site TEM-1 beta-lactamase mutant. An L201P substitution distant from the active site that enhanced ampicillin resistance levels and increased protein expression levels of the R244A TEM-1 mutant was identified. The L201P substitution also increases the ampicillin resistance levels and restores expression levels of a poorly expressed TEM-1 mutant with a core-disrupting substitution. In vitro thermal denaturation of purified protein indicated that the L201P mutation increases the T(m) value of the TEM-1 enzyme. The X-ray structure of the L201P TEM-1 mutant was determined to gain insight into the increase in enzyme stability. The proline substitution occurs at the N-terminus of an alpha-helix and may stabilize the enzyme by reducing the helix dipole, as well as by lowering the conformational entropy cost of folding due to the reduced number of conformations available in the unfolded state. Collectively, the data suggest that L201P promotes tolerance of some deleterious TEM-1 mutations by enhancing the protein stability of these mutants.
Journal of Molecular Biology 10/2008; 384(1):151-64. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantifying the binding energy in DNA-protein interactions is of critical importance to understand transcriptional regulation. Based on a simple computational model, this study describes a high-throughput percentage-of-binding strategy to measure the binding energy in DNA-protein interactions between the Shewanella oneidensis ArcA two-component transcription factor protein and a systematic set of mutants in an ArcA-P (phosphorylated ArcA) binding site. The binding energies corresponding to each of the 4 nt at each position in the 15-bp binding site were used to construct a position-specific energy matrix (PEM) that allowed a reliable prediction of ArcA-P binding sites not only in Shewanella but also in related bacterial genomes.
Nucleic Acids Research 09/2008; 36(15):4863-71. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arc two-component system is a global regulator controlling many genes involved in aerobic/anaerobic respiration and fermentative metabolism in Escherichia coli. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 contains a gene encoding a putative ArcA homolog with ~81% amino acid sequence identity to the E. coli ArcA protein but not a full-length arcB gene.
To understand the role of ArcA in S. oneidensis, an arcA deletion strain was constructed and subjected to both physiological characterization and microarray analysis. Compared to the wild-type MR-1, the mutant exhibited impaired aerobic growth and a defect in utilizing DMSO in the absence of O2. Microarray analyses on cells grown aerobically and anaerobically on fumarate revealed that expression of 1009 genes was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the mutation. In contrast to E. coli ArcA, the protein appears to be dispensable in regulation of the TCA cycle in S. oneidensis. To further determine genes regulated by the Arc system, an ArcA recognition weight matrix from DNA-binding data and bioinformatics analysis was generated and used to produce an ArcA sequence affinity map. By combining both techniques, we identified an ArcA regulon of at least 50 operons, of which only 6 were found to be directly controlled by ArcA in E. coli.
These results indicate that the Arc system in S. oneidensis differs from that in E. coli substantially in terms of its physiological function and regulon while their binding motif are strikingly similar.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive gene collection for S. oneidensis was constructed using the lambda recombinase (Gateway) cloning system. A total of 3584 individual ORFs (85%) have been successfully cloned into the entry plasmids. To validate the use of the clone set, three sets of ORFs were examined within three different destination vectors constructed in this study. Success rates for heterologous protein expression of S. oneidensis His- or His/GST-tagged proteins in E. coli were approximately 70%. The ArcA and NarP transcription factor proteins were tested in an in vitro binding assay to demonstrate that functional proteins can be successfully produced using the clone set. Further functional validation of the clone set was obtained from phage display experiments in which a phage encoding thioredoxin was successfully isolated from a pool of 80 different clones after three rounds of biopanning using immobilized anti-thioredoxin antibody as a target. This clone set complements existing genomic (e.g., whole-genome microarray) and other proteomic tools (e.g., mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis), and facilitates a wide variety of integrated studies, including protein expression, purification, and functional analyses of proteins both in vivo and in vitro.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(8):e2983. · 3.73 Impact Factor