[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insomnia is a very frequent complaint that periodically or permanently affects up to 60% of the general population. Valuable therapeutic options rely on pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of insomnia complaints. Zolpidem is one of the most popular hypnotic drugs used to treat insomnia. The drug was synthesized by Synthélabo Recherche in the early 1980s and has proved to be a suitable and well-tolerated drug, especially with regard to efficacy in sleep initiation. The present review focuses on an alternate delivery form of zolpidem, Edluar™, a new sublingual formulation of zolpidem that has been developed for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. Studies have shown that Edluar has a faster sleep-induction effect, whereas it did not differ from the oral formulation in terms of sleep maintenance or side effects. This review also discusses the mechanism of action of zolpidem and its pharmacokinetic profile in comparison to Edluar. Efficacy studies in specific settings (such as non-nightly use or use in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy) and particular safety issues encountered with zolpidem use are also discussed.
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 02/2012; 12(2):141-53. · 2.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two investigations aimed to define the pharmacokinetic profile of a modified-release preparation of zaleplon (SKP-1041).
Protocol SOM001 was a 5-way crossover, double-blind, randomized trial comparing three novel modified-release formulations of zaleplon 15 mg (SKP-1041A, SKP-1041B, SKP-1041C) to placebo and immediate-release zaleplon 10 mg. Protocol SOM002 was a randomized, crossover, open-label trial to compare the pharmacokinetics of SKP-1041B after day and night administration. In SOM001, study drug was administered at 9:00 a.m. (fasted); blood samples were obtained beginning 1 h predose through 12 h postdose. In study SOM002, study drug was administered at 9:00 a.m. or 10:30 p.m.; blood samples were obtained beginning 1 h predose through 12 h postdose. Subjects were 19 (SOM001) and 23 (SOM002) healthy adults between ages 20-46.
Dose-normalized total AUCs for modified-release preparations A, B, C and immediate-release zaleplon were not significantly different; peak plasma concentrations were similar for A and B, and both were significantly higher than C. Time to peak plasma concentration for A, B, and C were 4-5 h compared to 1.5 h for immediate-release zaleplon; mean terminal phase half-life was in the range 1-2 h for A, B and immediate-release zaleplon. No significant differences were noted between day and night administration in the SOM002 study.
Zaleplon, 15 mg, in a novel, modified-release formulation (SKP-1041) had a time to peak plasma concentrations at 4-5 h postdose compared to 1.5 h for immediate-release zaleplon, 10 mg. The pharmacokinetic profile suggests this formulation may be useful for treating middle-of-the-night awakening.
Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 09/2011; 32(9):489-97. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benzodiazepine effects on cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4)-induced panic attack (PA) in humans are incompletely characterized, in particular on the neurofunctional level. This work explores the effects of lorazepam on brain activity and behavioral and physiological symptoms related to CCK-4-induced PA in healthy volunteers. Twenty-one male volunteers received 1 mg of lorazepam or placebo orally, 2 hours before an injection of 0.9% saline solution followed by 50 µg of CCK-4 during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and heart rate recording. Panic attacks were defined using the panic symptom scale (PSS). In addition, the Y1-STAI (state anxiety) and the Bond & Lader Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used. Eleven subjects were classified as panickers. CCK-4 induced behavioral anxiety and cardiovascular effects along with cerebral activation in anxiety-related brain regions. Overall, lorazepam did not significantly modify the anxiogenic and cardiovascular effects of CCK-4. Regarding CCK-4-induced brain activation, lorazepam did not reduce activity in the insulae and cingulate gyrus of panickers. One milligram of lorazepam was not sufficient to reverse strong panicogenic effects, but decreased brain activity in the case of mild anxiety.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 05/2010; 25(1):52-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intranasal sumatriptan (administered using a novel bi-directional powder delivery device) and study its effects on quantitative electroencephalography in patients with migraine. The safety profiles of the two formulations were also compared.
The pharmacokinetics of intranasal sumatriptan (10 mg and 20 mg) administered using a novel breath-actuated bi-directional powder delivery device were compared with subcutaneous sumatriptan (6 mg), along with an investigation of their effects on the electroencephalogram (EEG) following glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) challenge in 12 patients with migraine using a randomized, three-way cross-over design.
Following intranasal delivery, median t(max) was 20 min with both doses compared with 10 min after the subcutaneous dose. Mean +/- SD values for C(max) were 96 +/- 25, 11 +/- 7 and 16 +/- 6 ng/ml for subcutaneous, intranasal 10 mg and intranasal 20 mg formulations, respectively. Values for area under the curve were also lower with the intranasal doses. Intranasal and subcutaneous sumatriptan induced similar EEG changes characterized by reduced theta-power and increased beta-power. The majority of study participants were free of pain according to the headache severity score with all treatments from 15 min through to 8 h post-dose. All treatments were well tolerated and there were no reports of bitter aftertaste after intranasal delivery. Sumatriptan was rapidly absorbed after intranasal administration using the new device. Using the GTN challenge, sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally at a dose of 20 mg by the new device had effects similar to those of subcutaneous sumatriptan on EEG and reported headache pain, despite much lower systemic exposure.
Administration of sumatriptan intranasally at doses of 10 mg and 20 mg by the breath actuated bi-directional powder delivery device results in rapid absorption. Delivery to target sites beyond the nasal valve induced a similar EEG profile to subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg and prevented migraine attacks in patients following GTN challenge. Intranasal administration of sumatriptan powder with the breath actuated bi-directional powder delivery device was well tolerated.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 10/2009; 61(9):1219-28. · 2.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of prolonged-release melatonin 2 mg (PRM) on sleep and subsequent daytime psychomotor performance in patients aged > or =55 years with primary insomnia, as defined by fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. Patients (N = 40) were treated nightly single-blind with placebo (2 weeks), randomized double-blind to PRM or placebo (3 weeks) followed by withdrawal period (3 weeks). Sleep was assessed by polysomnography, all-night sleep electroencephalography spectral analysis and questionnaires. Psychomotor performance was assessed by the Leeds Psychomotor Test battery. By the end of the double-blind treatment, the PRM group had significantly shorter sleep onset latency (9 min; P = 0.02) compared with the placebo group and scored significantly better in the Critical Flicker Fusion Test (P = 0.008) without negatively affecting sleep structure and architecture. Half of the patients reported substantial improvement in sleep quality at home with PRM compared with 15% with placebo (P = 0.018). No rebound effects were observed during withdrawal. In conclusion, nightly treatment with PRM effectively induced sleep and improved perceived quality of sleep in patients with primary insomnia aged > or =55 years. Daytime psychomotor performance was not impaired and was consistently better with PRM compared with placebo. PRM was well tolerated with no evidence of rebound effects.
International clinical psychopharmacology 08/2009; 24(5):239-49. · 3.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human models of anxiety are useful to develop new effective anxiolytics. The objective of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that a single dose of lorazepam modifies brain activation during an anxiety challenge. Eighteen healthy male subjects underwent fMRI associated with a challenge based on the anticipation of aversive electrical stimulations after pretreatment, either with placebo or with 1.0 mg of oral lorazepam. Anxiety was rated before fMRI and after, referring to the threat condition periods, using State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton scales. The conditioning procedure induced anxiety, as indicated by clinical rating score changes. Lorazepam did not modify anxiety rating as compared to placebo. Lorazepam reduced cerebral activity in superior frontal gyrus, anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. The current finding provides the first evidence of the modulatory effects of an established anxiolytic agent on brain activation related to anticipatory anxiety.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 06/2009; 24(5):701-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of aging on the inhibitory function are largely described in the neuroimaging literature but little data is available on the beginning of this age-related impairment.
In this study, we described the cortical activation of middle-aged (mean age +/- standard error to the mean, 51.7 +/- 3.1) subjects compared to young (26.8 +/- 3.4) and elderly subjects (62.8 +/- 3) while they performed a color-matched Stroop task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The task consisted in identifying the printing color of a word regardless of its meaning. Three conditions were defined depending on the meaning of this word; neutral (no meaning), congruent (color name matching the printing color), incongruent (color name mismatching the printing color), with interference effect in the latter.
Middle-aged subjects were as slow as elderly compared to young for all conditions and both were less accurate than young subjects during interference condition. Elderly showed an activity more bilateral and greater in the parietal lobule, the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, VLPFC) during both congruent and incongruent conditions compared to young. Middle-aged showed an intermediary level of activity between those of elderly and young subjects in the left DLPFC, VLPFC and parietal lobule only during incongruent condition.
These results suggested that the age-related impairment of the inhibitory process could already occur around the age of 50 years and consist in an increase of the activity in the left prefrontal and parietal cortex before increasing more and becoming bilateral around the age of 60 years.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 05/2009; 24(10):1062-71. · 2.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of paliperidone extended-release on sleep architecture in patients with schizophrenia-related insomnia were evaluated in this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients received paliperidone extended-release 9 mg/day or matching placebo during the 14-day double-blind phase. Sleep architecture and sleep continuity were evaluated using polysomnograms. Subjective sleep measures were evaluated daily using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Efficacy and safety were also assessed. Thirty-six patients (17 on paliperidone extended-release, 19 on placebo; mean age 32.2 years) completed the study. Paliperidone extended-release treatment vs. placebo resulted in clinically and statistically significant differences in sleep measurements from baseline to endpoint including a reduction in: persistent sleep latency (41 min), sleep onset latency (35 min), number of awakenings after sleep onset (7), time awake in bed (50 min), and stage 1 sleep duration (12 min); prolongation in: total sleep time (53 min), sleep period time (42 min), stage 2 sleep duration (51 min), and rapid eye movement sleep duration (18 min); and an increase in sleep efficiency index (11%). Paliperidone extended-release, compared with placebo, did not exacerbate daytime somnolence and improved symptoms of schizophrenia. Paliperidone extended-release was well tolerated and improved sleep architecture and sleep continuity in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and concomitant insomnia.
International Clinical Psychopharmacology 10/2007; 22(5):299-308. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to get insight into the central effects of TC-1734 (renamed AZD3480), a selective agonist at the neuronal nicotinic receptor of the alpha4beta2 subtype.
Electroencephalography (EEG) techniques and computerized cognitive tests were performed in young, healthy male volunteers during two double-blind and placebo-controlled studies: a rising single dose crossover study (from 2 to 320 mg) and a rising repeated dose study with a parallel group design (50, 100, and 200 mg).
In contrast to acute administration, administration of AZD3480 over 10 days produced statistically significant enhancement of several cognitive measures (attention and episodic memory) compared to placebo. Regarding EEG data, AZD3480 showed acceleration of the alpha centroid and of the alpha peak in the single-dose study. This EEG profile of the acceleration type was confirmed in the repeated dose study on both day 1 and day 10, with the greatest effect observed with the highest dose. The EEG pattern shown for AZD3480 was consistent with that previously described with other drugs known to improve attention and vigilance (including nicotine). In addition, subjects dosed with AZD3480 showed a statistically significant increase in mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitude at 50 and 200 mg while reducing MMN latency (200 mg only), suggesting an improvement of pre-attentional mechanisms.
These early data in healthy subjects provide encouragement to consider development of AZD3480 as a novel agent for the treatment of cognitive decline in the elderly, including age-associated memory impairment and/or dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal models of diseases are widely used in the preclinical phase of drug development. They have a place in early human clinical psychopharmacology as well, in order to get early clues that contribute to establish the proof of concept (POC) already in healthy volunteers (HV). Different types of models are available (pharmacological or non-pharmacological provocation, models based on age-related characteristics). This review is focused on pharmacological models in HV, with the aim to identify the main issues raised by their use in pharmaceutical trials. The available models unevenly fulfil the requirements of face validity, sufficient response rate, test-retest consistence and responsiveness to reference drugs. Most of them have been developed in the purpose of pathophysiology studies, using rating instruments validated for clinical practice. Substantial progress could be made by adapting models to the specific requirements of pharmaceutical trials, including wider use of biomarkers. Characteristics that make models, as well as biomarkers, suitabLe for use in drug development are proposed. Despite obvious limitations, human models can significantly enhance the way phase I studies contribute to establish the POC, provided they are integrated into adapted phase I development plans. Their use as industrial tools for drug evaluation requires specific, dedicated development.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 06/2007; 21(3):272-82. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disturbances in integrative function have been consistentLy described in psychotic disorder; for instance, prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (startle-PPI) which is a marker of sensory gating, is deficient in persons with schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine produces in control subjects a spectrum of neurobehavioural symptoms like encountered in schizophrenia, and disrupts startle-PPI in animals. In the present study, we investigated in 12 healthy subjects whether ketamine would reduce sensory-gating in auditory responses at doses which produce psychotic symptoms. In a double-blind, crossover design loading doses of 0.024, 0.081 and 0.27 mg/kg or saline were employed, followed by maintenance infusion for 120 min. A passive paradigm has been developed which consisted in tone bursts, preceded or not by a (near-threshold) click at intervals of 100 ms or 500 ms. Brain electromagnetic activity imaging of the responses to sound stimuli has been carried out by way of a 148-channel magnetoencephalography-system. Actual evoked response amplitudes and underlying equivalent current dipole strengths have been compared to multi-electrode evoked potentials from the scalp. A click stimulus is capable to inhibit test responses under placebo at the 100 ms interval. During maintenance infusion of ketamine at steady-state (for >30 min) after 0.27 mg/kg, no such amplitude changes were observed anymore (p <0.05) and under these circumstances significant increases in Brief Psychiatric Rating scale and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms scores were evidenced (p < 0.001). Intermediate effects have been observed when the dose was lowered to 0.081 mg/kg. The present results have shown that ketamine may induce a psychotic-like clinical state associated with gating deficits in healthy subjects.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 05/2007; 21(3):321-37. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central activity of S 17092, a prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) inhibitor, was investigated by quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) in 48 young healthy men participating in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. S 17092 (100, 200, 400 or 600 mg) and placebo were administered once daily for 10 days in a rising multiple-dose scheme. EEG recordings were performed before and repeatedly from 0.5 to 24 h after dose on day 1 and day 10. PEP activity in plasma was also measured for the same periods. S 17092 appeared as a potent inhibitor of PEP activity at all doses, after both single and repeated administrations. EEG changes after acute doses were slight and of short duration, mainly characterized by increased relative alpha 1 power, suggesting a vigilance-promoting EEG profile. After repeated doses and more strikingly after a superimposed dose, increases in relative alpha 1 power were still present with additional increase in relative delta power and decreases in absolute fast alpha, fast beta, theta powers and total power at all doses. These EEG findings suggest that S 17092 might possess some mood-stabilizing potential in addition to its cognition-enhancing properties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbances are frequently encountered in alcohol-dependent patients. Drugs improving sleep during abstinence from alcohol may play an important role in the recovery process.
In the present study, the effects of acamprosate, a drug successfully used in maintaining abstinence following alcohol withdrawal, were assessed by polysomnographic recordings. A parallel double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in 24 male DSM-IV alcohol-dependent subjects aged 35.9+/-1.2 years. Treatments (2 tablets of 333 mg acamprosate vs placebo t.i.d.) were initiated 8 days before alcohol withdrawal and continued during the 15 days following alcohol withdrawal. Polysomnographic assessments were recorded during acute withdrawal (the first 2 nights following withdrawal) and during postwithdrawal abstinence (the last 2 nights of the trial).
Results show that, compared with placebo, acamprosate decreased wake time after sleep onset and increased stage 3 and REM sleep latency (all treatment effects with a p < 0.05 significance). Withdrawal effects themselves were also demonstrated as sleep efficiency (p < 0.01) and total sleep time (p < 0.05) were lower in abstinence nights versus withdrawal nights, whereas no significant treatment x withdrawal effect could be evidenced. Acamprosate was well tolerated during the entire course of the study.
The present study shows that acamprosate ameliorates both sleep continuity and sleep architecture parameters classically described as disturbed in alcohol-dependent patients. From a clinical perspective, it suggests that an 8-day acamprosate prewithdrawal treatment is well tolerated and can attenuate the sleep disturbances engendered by alcohol withdrawal in alcohol-dependent subjects.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 10/2006; 30(9):1492-9. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of this work was to study the functional markers of the clinical response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4). Twelve healthy male subjects were challenged with CCK-4 and simultaneously underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recording. Since anticipatory anxiety (AA) is an intrinsic part of panic disorder, a behavioral paradigm, using the threat of being administered a second injection of CCK-4, has been developed to investigate induced AA. The study was composed of three fMRI scans according to an open design. During first and second scan, subjects were injected with placebo and CCK-4, respectively. The third scan was the AA challenge. CCK-4 administration induced physiological and psychological symptoms of anxiety that met the criteria for a panic attack in 8 subjects, as well as cerebral activation in anxiety-related brain regions. Clinical and physiological response intensity was consistent with cerebral activity extent and robustness. fMRI proved more sensitive than clinical assessment in evidencing the effects of the AA challenge. The latter induced brain activation, different from that obtained on CCK-4 and during placebo injection, that was likely related to anxiety. The method applied in this study is suitable for the study of anxiety using fMRI.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests that drugs activating nicotine acetylcholine receptors might be promising therapy in cognitive decline seen in the elderly, including Alzheimer's disease. Ispronicline (TC-1734), a brain-selective alpha4beta2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, has shown memory-enhancing properties in rodents and a good tolerability profile. The safety and the full pharmacokinetic profile of TC-1734 and its N-desalkylated metabolite, TC-1784, were investigated in 2 phase I studies, and results are reported in this article. Study A used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design with a rising single-dose scheme (2-320 mg). Study B used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design with a rising multiple-dose scheme (doses: 50, 100, and 200 mg, once daily, x 10 days). Cmax of TC-1734 was reached around 1 to 2 hours postdose, and mean terminal half-life (t1/2) ranged from 3 to 5.3 hours (single doses) and from 2.7 to 8.8 hours (repeated doses). No accumulation of TC-1734 was observed after 10 days. Renal clearance appeared to be a minor method of elimination of TC-1734 and TC-1784. A high interindividual variability was noted for all parameters. Across the dose ranges explored, TC-1734 was safe and well tolerated. No changes of clinical significance were seen on laboratory and cardiovascular parameters. Adverse events were generally of mild to moderate intensity, with dizziness and headache being reported most frequently.
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2006; 46(7):715-26. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This randomized, open-label, crossover study was conducted to compare the effects of a 24-hr nicotine patch and a 16-hr nicotine patch on morning smoking urges and sleep quality of dependent smokers during a short period of cigarette abstinence. A total of 20 smokers (9 women and 11 men) smoking at least 20 cigarettes/day completed the two smoke-free study periods. For each period, cigarette abstinence started on the first evening and a nicotine patch was applied the next morning (for 16 or 24 hr), after baseline measures; a second patch was applied the next morning, 1 hr before the end of the experimental period. Smoking urges, mood and behavior self-reports, psychomotor performance, and polysomnographic recordings were compared between the two types of nicotine patch according to changes from baseline. Both patches decreased morning smoking urges, although results were significantly superior for the 24-hr patch. Furthermore, the 24-hr patch was more effective than the 16-hr patch in reducing the positive reinforcing dimension of smoking urges. Regarding polysomnographic recordings, the proportion of slow wave sleep was significantly increased from baseline with the 24-hr patch compared with the 16-hr patch. As for psychomotor performance measured through the critical flicker fusion test, significant improvement in morning alertness was observed in the 24-hr patch group. In conclusion, the 24-hr nicotine patch formulation is more effective than the 16-hr formulation in alleviating morning smoking urges and more specifically the positive reinforcing factor. The present findings do not support the idea that nicotine delivery during bedtime might disturb sleep, but rather it improves restorative sleep and postwaking arousal.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 05/2006; 8(2):193-201. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbance is a common symptom of tobacco withdrawal and might contribute to early relapse vulnerability in abstinent smokers. This study was designed to compare the effects on sleep of nicotine patches applied either for 24 h (Nicopatch) or 16 h (Nicorette).
During a short smoking cessation period (48 h), this open-label, randomised, two-period crossover study compared the effects on sleep of the two nicotine patches in 20 heavy smokers (9 women, 11 men). During each period, polysomnographic recordings were performed from 12 pm to 7 am for two consecutive nights (baseline and treatment nights). Smoking cessation started from 8 pm the day of the baseline sleep recordings, and treatments were applied around 8 am the following morning.
Compared to the 16-h nicotine patch, smokers who received the 24-h nicotine patch experienced significantly less microarousals, a greater proportion of slow wave sleep, a higher REM density and higher rapid eye movement (REM) beta activities.
The results of this study suggest that a 24-h nicotine patch is more efficient than a 16-h nicotine patch to alleviate tobacco withdrawal-induced sleep disturbances.
Sleep Medicine 04/2006; 7(2):147-54. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new nicotine lozenge ( Nicopass 1.5 mg) in reducing smoking urge after an overnight abstinence. Twenty-four moderate smokers participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period crossover trial. The results showed that 1.5 mg-nicotine lozenge is superior to placebo in reducing smoking urge (p = 0.0001). In addition, nicotine lozenge, but not placebo, significantly improved vigilance and psychomotor performances (p < 0.05) and displayed a cardiac chronotropic effect. Thus, the 1.5-mg nicotine lozenge appears as an effective aid to alleviate acute tobacco withdrawal symptoms in moderate smokers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most studies that investigated the next-day residual effects of hypnotic drugs on daytime driving performances were performed on healthy subjects and after a single drug administration.
In the present study, we further examine whether the results of these studies could be generalised to insomniac patients and after repeated drug administration.
Single and repeated (7 day) doses of zolpidem (10 mg), zopiclone (7.5 mg), lormetazepam (1 mg) or placebo were administered at bedtime in a crossover design to 23 patients (9 men and 14 women aged 38.8+/-2.0 years) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) primary insomnia. Driving tests were performed 9-11 h post-dose.
Results showed that treatment effects were evidenced for subjective sleep, for driving abilities, and for electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded before (resting EEG) and during the driving simulation test (driving EEG). Compared to placebo, zopiclone increased the number of collisions and lormetazepam increased deviation from speed limit and deviation from absolute speed, whereas zolpidem did not differentiate from placebo on these analyses. EEG recordings showed that in contrast to zolpidem, lormetazepam and zopiclone induced typical benzodiazepine-like alterations, suggesting that next-day poor driving performance could relate to a prolonged central nervous system effect of these two hypnotics.
The present results corroborate studies on healthy volunteers showing that residual effects of hypnotics increase with their half-lives. The results further suggest that drugs preserving physiological EEG rhythms before and during the driving simulation test 9-11 h post-dose, such as zolpidem, do not influence next-day driving abilities.