[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously identified the pyrazolobenzothiazine scaffold as a promising chemotype against hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase, a validated and promising anti-HCV target. Herein we describe the design, synthesis, enzymatic and cellular characterization of new pyrazolobenzothiazines as anti-HCV inhibitors. The binding site for a representative derivative was mapped to NS5B palm site I employing a mutant counter screen assay, thus validating our previous in silico predictions. Derivative 2b proved to be the best selective anti-HCV derivative within the new series, exhibiting IC50 value of 7.9 µM against NS5B polymerase and antiviral effect (EC50 = 8.1 µM, EC90 = 23.3 µM) coupled with the absence of any antimetabolic effect (CC50 >224 µM, SI >28) in a cell based HCV replicon system assay. Significantly, microscopic analysis showed that, unlike the parent compounds, derivative 2b did not show any significant cell morphological alterations. Furthermore, since most of the pyrazolobenzothiazines tested altered cell morphology, this undesired aspect was further investigated by exploring possible perturbation of lipid metabolism during compound treatment.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2014; · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) is a crucial and unique component of the HCV RNA replication machinery and a validated target for drug discovery. Multiple crystal structures of NS5B inhibitor complexes have facilitated the identification of novel compound scaffolds through in silico analysis. With the goal of discovering new NS5B inhibitor leads, HCV NS5B crystal structures bound with inhibitors in the palm and thumb allosteric pockets in combination with ligands with known inhibitory potential were explored for a comparative pharmacophore analyses. The energy-based and 3D QSAR based pharmacophore models were validated using enrichment analysis and the six models thus developed were employed for high-throughput virtual screening and docking to identify non-peptidic leads. The hits derived at each stage were analyzed for diversity based on the six pharmacophore models, followed by molecular docking and filtering based on their interaction with NS5B amino acids in the binding pocket and 3D QSAR predictions. The resulting 10 hits displaying diverse scaffold were then screened employing biochemical and cell based NS5B and anti-HCV inhibition assays. Of these, two molecules H-5 and H-6 were the most promising exhibiting IC50 values of 28.8 µM and 47.3 µM against NS5B polymerase and anti-HCV inhibition of 96% and 86% at 50 µM, respectively. The identified leads comprising of benzimidazole (H-5) and pyridine (H-6) scaffolds thus constitute prototypical molecules for further optimization and development as NS5B inhibitors.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 01/2014; · 4.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of new flurbiprofen hydrazide derivatives 2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N′-[(substituted phenyl/5-nitro-2-furyl)methylene]propanehydrazide (3a–k), 2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl)propanamide (4a–b, 4d–k), 2-[2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl) propanoyl]-N-substituted hydrazinecarbothioamide (5a–h) and 2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N′-[(3-methyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidene]propanehydrazide (6a–b, 6e and 6g) has been synthesized in this study. All synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against various bacterial and fungal strains. Additionally, compounds were evaluated for the ability to inhibit Hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase. The most active 4-thiazolidinone compound was 4k (SGK119) with 67.0 % and thiosemicarbazide compound was 5d (SGK123) with 69.50 % inhibition at 200 μM against hepatitis C virus NS5B RNA polymerase. Anticancer activity of the selected compounds (3i, 3j, 3h, 4d, 4i and 6b) was determined at a single dose towards the full panel of 60 human cancer cell lines by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). 2-(2-Fluoro-4-biphenylyl)-N-[2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl]propanamide 4d, containing thiazolidinone ring, demonstrated the most marked effect with 20.80 % growth percent on leukaemia cancer cell line SR at 10−5 M. The results demonstrated that none of the compounds tested have anticandidal and antifungal activities, but two of them (4a and 4i) showed antibacterial inhibition against Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively.
Medicinal Chemistry Research 12/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that the 6-aminoquinolone chemotype is a privileged scaffold to obtain antibacterial and antiviral agents. Herein we describe the design, synthesis, enzymatic and cellular characterization of new 6-aminoquinolone derivatives as potent inhibitors of NS5B polymerase, an attractive and viable therapeutic target to develop safe anti-HCV agents. The 6-amino-7-[4-(2-pyridinyl)-1-piperazinyl] quinolone derivative 8 proved to be the best compound of this series, exhibiting IC50 value of 0.069 μM against NS5B polymerase and selective antiviral effect (EC50 = 3.03 µM, EC90 =13.5 μM) coupled with the absence of any cytostatic effect (CC50 >163 µM, SI >54) in a HCV subgenomic replicon system. These results clearly indicate that the 6-aminoquinolone scaffold is worthy of further investigation in the context of NS5B-targeted HCV drug discovery programs.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase is an important and attractive target for the development of anti-HCV drugs. Here we report on the design, synthesis and evaluation of twenty-four novel allosteric inhibitors bearing the 4-thiazolidinone scaffold as inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase. Eleven compounds tested were found to inhibit HCV NS5B with IC50 values ranging between 19.8 and 64.9 μM. Compound 24 was the most active of this series with an IC50 of 5.6 μM. A number of these derivatives further exhibited strong inhibition against HCV 1b and 2a genotypes in cell based antiviral assays. Molecular docking analysis predicted that the thiazolidinone derivatives bind to the NS5B thumb pocket-II (TP-II). Our results suggest that further optimization of the thiazolidinone scaffold may be possible to yield new derivatives with improved enzyme- and cell-based activity.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 09/2013; 69C:931-941. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase is a key target for anti-HCV therapeutics development. Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of anti-NS5B polymerase activity of a molecular hybrid of our previously reported lead compounds 1 (IC50=7.7μM) and 2 (IC50=10.6μM) as represented by hybrid compound 27 (IC50=6.7μM). We have explored the optimal substituents on the terminal phenyl ring of the 3-phenoxybenzylidene moiety in 27, by generating a set of six analogs. This resulted in the identification of compound 34 with an IC50 of 2.6μM. To probe the role of stereochemistry towards the observed biological activity, we synthesized and evaluated the d-isomers 41 (IC50=19.3μM) and 45 (IC50=5.4μM) as enantiomers of the l-isomers 27 and 34, respectively. The binding site of compounds 32 and 34 was mapped to palm pocket-I (PP-I) of NS5B. The docking models of 34 and 45 within the PP-I of NS5B were investigated to envisage the molecular mechanism of inhibition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an attractive target for the development of novel and selective inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication. To identify novel structural hits as anti-HCV agents, we performed structure-based virtual screening of our in-house library followed by rational drug design, organic synthesis, and biological testing. These studies led to the identification of pyrazolobenzothiazine scaffold as a suitable template for obtaining novel anti-HCV agents targeting the NS5B polymerase. The best compound of this series was the meta-fluoro-N-1-phenyl pyrazolobenzothiazine derivative 4a, which exhibited an EC50 = 3.6 μM, EC90 = 25.6 μM, and CC50 > 180 μM in the Huh 9-13 replicon system, thus providing a good starting point for further hit evolution.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of novel N-(3-substituted aryl/alkyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidene)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides 2a-e were synthesized by the addition of ethyl a-bromoacetate and anhydrous sodium acetate in dry ethanol to N-(substituted aryl/alkylcarbamothioyl)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoro-methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzene sulfonamides 1a-e, which were synthesized by the reaction of alkyl/aryl isothiocyanates with celecoxib. The structures of the isolated products were determined by spectral methods and their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activities evaluated. The compounds were also tested for gastric toxicity and selected compound 1a was screened for its anticancer activity against 60 human tumor cell lines. These investigations revealed that compound 1a exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and further did not cause tissue damage in liver, kidney, colon and brain compared to untreated controls or celecoxib. Compounds 1c and 1d displayed modest inhibition of HCV NS5B RdRp activity. In conclusion, N-(ethylcarbamothioyl)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide (1a) may have the potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase is a key target for the development of anti-HCV drugs. Here we report on the identification of novel allosteric inhibitors of HCV NS5B through a combination of structure-based virtual screening and in vitro NS5B inhibition assays. One hundred and sixty thousand compounds from the Otava database were virtually screened against the thiazolone inhibitor binding site on NS5B (thumb pocket-2, TP-2), resulting in a sequential down-sizing of the library by 2.7 orders of magnitude to yield 59 NS5B non-nucleoside inhibitor (NNI) candidates. In vitro evaluation of the NS5B inhibitory activity of the 59 selected compounds resulted in a 14% hit rate, yielding 8 novel structural scaffolds. Of these, compound 1 bearing a 4-hydrazinoquinazoline scaffold was the most active (IC(50) = 16.0 μM). The binding site of all 8 NNIs was mapped to TP-2 of NS5B as inferred by a decrease in their inhibition potency against the M423T NS5B mutant, employed as a screen for TP-2 site binders. At 100 μM concentration, none of the eight compounds exhibited any cytotoxicity, and all except compound 8 exhibited between 40 and 60% inhibition of intracellular NS5B polymerase activity in BHK-NS5B-FRLuc reporter cells. These inhibitor scaffolds will form the basis for future optimization and development of more potent NS5B inhibitors.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 09/2012; 58C:258-264. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structure-based studies led to the identification of a constrained derivative of S-trityl-l-cysteine (STLC) scaffold as a candidate inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase. A panel of STLC derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their activity against HCV NS5B. Three STLC derivatives, 9, F-3070, and F-3065, were identified as modest HCV NS5B inhibitors with IC(50) values between 22.3 and 39.7 μM. F-3070 and F-3065 displayed potent inhibition of intracellular NS5B activity in the BHK-NS5B-FRLuc reporter and also inhibited HCV RNA replication in the Huh7/Rep-Feo1b reporter system. Binding mode investigations suggested that the STLC scaffold can be used to develop new NS5B inhibitors by further chemical modification at one of the trityl phenyl group.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 03/2012; 49:191-9. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase is a key target for anti-HCV therapeutics development. Here we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of α,γ-diketo acids (DKAs) as NS5B polymerase inhibitors. We initiated structure-activity relationship (SAR) optimization around the furan moiety of compound 1a [IC(50) = 21.8 μM] to achieve more active NS5B inhibitors. This yielded compound 3a [IC(50) = 8.2 μM] bearing the 5-bromobenzofuran-2-yl moiety, the first promising lead compound of the series. Varying the furan moiety with thiophene, thiazole and indazole moieties resulted in compound 11a [IC(50) = 7.5 μM] bearing 3-methylthiophen-2-yl moiety. Finally replacement of the thiophene ring with a bioisosteric phenyl ring further improved the inhibitory activity as seen in compounds 21a [IC(50) = 5.2 μM] and 24a [IC(50) = 2.4 μM]. Binding mode of compound 24a using glide docking within the active site of NS5B polymerase will form the basis for future SAR optimization.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 08/2011; 46(10):5138-45. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B is an essential component of the viral replication machinery and an important target for antiviral intervention. Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, was evaluated and characterized for its anti-NS5B activity in vitro and in HCV replicon cells.
Recombinant NS5B, HCV replicase and Huh-7 cells harbouring the subgenomic HCV replicon of genotype 1b were employed for biochemical and mechanistic investigations.
Analysis of ATA activity in vitro yielded equipotent inhibition of recombinant NS5B and HCV replicase in the submicromolar range (50% inhibition concentration [IC(50)] approximately 150 nM). Biochemical and mechanistic studies revealed a bimodal mechanism of ATA inhibition with characteristics of pyrophosphate mimics and non-nucleoside inhibitors. Molecular modelling and competition displacement studies were consistent with these parameters, suggesting that ATA might bind to the benzothiadiazine allosteric pocket 3 of NS5B or at its catalytic centre. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed mode of ATA inhibition with respect to both RNA and UTP substrates. Under single-cycle assay conditions, ATA inhibited HCV NS5B initiation and elongation from pre-bound RNA, but with > or =fivefold decreased potency compared with continuous polymerization conditions. The IC(50) value of ATA for the native replicase complex was 145 nM. In HCV replicon cells, ATA treatment ablated HCV RNA replication (50% effective concentration =75 nM) with concomitant decrease in NS5B expression and no apparent cytotoxic effects.
This study identified ATA as a potent anti-NS5B inhibitor and suggests that its unique mode of action might be exploited for structural refinement and development of novel anti-NS5B agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B is essential for viral RNA replication and is therefore a prime target for development of HCV replication inhibitors. Here, we report the identification of a new class of HCV NS5B inhibitors belonging to the coumestan family of phytoestrogens. Based on the in vitro NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibition in the low micromolar range by wedelolactone, a naturally occurring coumestan, we evaluated the anti-NS5B activity of four synthetic coumestan analogues bearing different patterns of substitutions in their A and D rings, and observed a good structure-activity correlation. Kinetic characterization of coumestans revealed a noncompetitive mode of inhibition with respect to nucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) substrate and a mixed mode of inhibition towards the nucleic acid template, with a major competitive component. The modified order of addition experiments with coumestans and nucleic acid substrates affected the potencies of the coumestan inhibitors. Coumestan interference at the step of NS5B-RNA binary complex formation was confirmed by cross-linking experiments. Molecular docking of coumestans within the allosteric site of NS5B yielded significant correlation between their calculated binding energies and IC(50) values. Coumestans thus add to the diversifying pool of anti-NS5B agents and provide a novel scaffold for structural refinement and development of potent NS5B inhibitors.
Nucleic Acids Research 04/2008; 36(5):1482-96. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 2 decades of intensive research has focused on defining replication mechanisms of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), the etiologic agent of AIDS. The delineation of strategies for combating this viral infection has yielded many innovative approaches toward this end. HIV-1 is a lentivirus in the family retroviridae that is relatively small with regard to both structure and genome size, having a diploid RNA genome of approximately 9 kb, with only three major genes and several gene products resulting from alternate splicing and translational frameshifting. Most marketed drugs for treating AIDS are inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase or protease enzymes, but new targets include the integrase enzyme, cell surface interactions that facilitate viral entry, and also virus particle maturation and assembly. The emergence of drug-resistant variants of HIV-1 has been the main impediment to successful treatment of AIDS. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop novel treatment strategies targeting multiple stages of the virus life-cycle. Research efforts aimed at developing successful means for combating HIV-1 infection have included development of peptide inhibitors of HIV-1. This article summarizes past and current endeavors in the development of peptides that inhibit replication of HIV-1 and the role of peptide inhibitors in the search for new anti-HIV drugs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a quest to identify novel compounds targeting HCV viral replicase, we evaluated a new series of 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (18 compounds). Our in vitro NS5B RdRp inhibition analysis with a series of 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylic acid (2-(5-nitro-2-furyl/substituted phenyl)-4-thiazolidinone-3-yl) amides (1-7) yielded IC50 values ranging between 45-75 microM. Of these, lead compound 6: 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylic acid(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-thiazolidinone-3-yl)amide exhibited an IC50 value of 48 microM and inhibited NS5B non-competitively with respect to UTP and exhibited a mixed mode of inhibition with respect to RNA. Molecular docking of thiazolidinone derivatives within the allosteric site of NS5B yielded significant correlation between their calculated binding affinity and IC50 values. Taken together, these data suggest that the 4-thiazolidinone scaffold may be optimized for generating new analogues with improved anti-NS5B potency.
Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2008; 13:3857-68. · 3.29 Impact Factor