[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brite adipocytes are inducible energy-dissipating cells expressing UCP1 which appear within white adipose tissue of healthy adult individuals. Recruitment of these cells represents a potential strategy to fight obesity and associated diseases. Using human Multipotent Adipose-Derived Stem cells, able to convert into brite adipocytes, we show that arachidonic acid strongly inhibits brite adipocyte formation via a cyclooxygenase pathway leading to secretion of PGE2 and PGF2α. Both prostaglandins induce an oscillatory Ca++ signaling coupled to ERK pathway and trigger a decrease in UCP1 expression and in oxygen consumption without altering mitochondriogenesis. In mice fed a standard diet supplemented with ω6 arachidonic acid, PGF2α and PGE2 amounts are increased in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and associated with a decrease in the recruitment of brite adipocytes. Our results suggest that dietary excess of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in Western diets, may also favor obesity by preventing the “browning” process to take place.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a well-known inhibitor of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, due to its ability to inhibit ceramide synthases (CerS) activity. In mammals, this toxin triggers broad clinical symptoms with multi-organ dysfunction such as hepatotoxicity or pulmonary edema. The molecular mechanism of CerS inhibition by FB1 remains unknown. Due to the existence of six mammalian CerS isoforms with a tissue-specific expression pattern, we postulated that the organ-specific adverse effects of FB1 might be due to different CerS isoforms. The sphingolipid contents of lung and liver were compared in normal and FB1-exposed piglets (gavage with 1.5 mg FB1/kg body weight daily for 9 days). The effect of the toxin on each CerS was deduced from the analysis of its effects on individual ceramide (Cer) and sphingomyelin (SM) species. As expected, the total Cer content decreased by half in the lungs of FB1-exposed piglets, while in contrast, total Cer increased 3.5-fold in the livers of FB1-exposed animals. Our data also indicated that FB1 is more prone to bind to CerS4 and CerS2 to deplete lung and to enrich liver in d18:1/C20:0 and d18:1/C22:0 ceramides. It also interact with CerS1 to enrich liver in d18:1/C18:0 ceramides. Cer levels were counterbalanced by those of SM. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the specificity of the effects of FB1 on tissues and organs is due to the effects of the toxin on CerS4, CerS2, and CerS1.
Archive für Toxikologie 08/2014; · 5.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and aging are characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and muscle protein synthesis. Intramuscular ceramide accumulation has been implicated in insulin resistance during obesity. We aimed to measure IS, muscle ceramide level, protein synthesis, and activation of intracellular signaling pathways involved in translation initiation in male Wistar young (YR, 6-month) and old (OR, 25-month) rats receiving a low- (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. A corresponding cellular approach using C2C12 myotubes treated with palmitate to induce intracellular ceramide deposition was taken. A decreased ability of adipose tissue to store lipids together with a reduced adipocyte diameter and a development of fibrosis were observed in OR after the HFD. Consequently, OR fed the HFD were insulin resistant, showed a strong increase in intramuscular ceramide level and a decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased eIF2α phosphorylation. The accumulation of intramuscular lipids placed a lipid burden on mitochondria and created a disconnect between metabolic and regulating pathways in skeletal muscles of OR. In C2C12 cells, palmitate-induced ceramide accumulation was associated with a decreased protein synthesis together with upregulated eIF2α phosphorylation. In conclusion, a reduced ability to expand adipose tissues was found in OR, reflecting a lower lipid buffering capacity. Muscle mitochondrial activity was affected in OR conferring a reduced ability to oxidize fatty acids entering the muscle cell. Hence, OR were more prone to ectopic muscle lipid accumulation than YR, leading to decreased muscle protein anabolism. This metabolic change is a potential therapeutic target to counter sarcopenic obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolites of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids notably omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have become important biomarkers of lipid products. Especially the arachidonic acid-derived F2-isoprostanes are the classic in vivo biomarker for oxidative stress in biological systems. In recent years other isoprostanes from eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, adrenic and α-linolenic acids have been evaluated namely F3-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F1-phytoprostanes, respectively. These have been gaining interest as complementary specific biomarkers in human diseases. Refined extraction methods, robust analysis and elucidation of chemical structures have improved the sensitivity of detection in biological tissues and fluids. Previously the main reliable instrumentation for measurement was gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), but now the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunological techniques are gaining much attention. In this review, the types of prostanoids generated from non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of some important omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and biological samples that have been determined by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS are discussed
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described "lipid rafts" in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD-Chol non-specifically delivered to the cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid autacoids derived from n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are some of the earliest signals triggered by an inflammatory reaction. They are acting also as essential regulators of numerous biological processes in physiological conditions. With regards to their importance, a robust and rapid procedure to quantify a large variety of PUFA metabolites, applicable to diverse biological components needed to be formulated. We have developed a simple methodology using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowing quantification of low-level of PUFA metabolites including bioactive mediators, inactive products and pathway biomarkers. Solid phase extraction was used for samples preparation with an extraction yield of 80% ranging from 65% to 98%. The method was optimized to obtain a rapid (8.5min) and accurate separation of 26 molecules, with a very high sensitivity of detection and analysis (0.6-155pg). When applied to biological samples, the method enabled characterization of eicosanoids and docosanoids production in epithelial cells or foam macrophages stimulated with LPS, in biological fluids and tissues from mouse models of peritonitis or infectious colitis. Our results demonstrate that this new method can be used in cultured cells, in fluids and in colonic tissues to quantify pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving PUFA metabolites mediators.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 06/2013; 932C:123-133. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is proposed to result from impaired skeletal muscle lipid oxidative capacity. However, there is no evidence indicating that muscle lipid oxidative capacity is impaired in healthy otherwise insulin-resistant individuals.Objective:The objective of the study was to assess muscle lipid oxidative capacity in young, nonobese, glucose-tolerant, insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive individuals.Design and Volunteers:In 13 insulin-sensitive [by Matsuda index (MI) (22.6 ± 0.6 [SE] kg/m(2)); 23 ± 1 years; MI 5.9 ± 0.1] and 13 insulin-resistant (23.2 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); 23 ± 3 years; MI 2.2 ± 0.1) volunteers, skeletal muscle biopsy, blood extraction before and after an oral glucose load, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were performed.Main Outcome Measures:Skeletal muscle mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio, oxidative phosphorylation protein content, and citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were assessed. Muscle lipids and palmitate oxidation ((14)CO(2) and (14)C-acid soluble metabolites production) at 4 [1-(14)C]palmitate concentrations (45-520 μM) were also measured.Results:None of the muscle mitochondrial measures showed differences between groups, except for a higher complex V protein content in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive volunteers (3.5 ± 0.4 vs 2.2 ± 0.4; P = .05). Muscle ceramide content was significantly increased in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive individuals (P = .04). Total palmitate oxidation showed a similar concentration-dependent response in both groups (P = .69). However, lipid oxidative efficiency (CO(2) to (14)C-acid soluble metabolites ratio) was enhanced in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive individuals, particularly at the highest palmitate concentration (0.24 ± 0.04 vs 0.12 ± 0.02; P = .02).Conclusions:We found no evidence of impaired muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity in young, nonobese, glucose-tolerant, otherwise insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive individuals. Enhanced muscle lipid oxidative efficiency in insulin resistance could be a potential mechanism to prevent further lipotoxicity.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2013; · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nutrients influence non alcoholic fatty liver disease. Essential fatty acids deficiency promotes various syndromes including hepatic steatosis through increased de novo lipogenesis. The mechanisms underlying such increased lipogenic response remain unidentified. METHODS: We used wild-type mice and mice lacking Liver X Receptors to perform a nutrigenomic study that aimed at examining the role of these transcription factors. RESULTS: We showed that, in the absence of Liver X Receptors, essential fatty acids deficiency does not promote steatosis. Consistent with this, Liver X Receptors are required for the elevated expression of genes involved in lipogenesis in response to essential fatty acids deficiency. CONCLUSION: This work identifies for the first time the central role of Liver X Receptors in steatosis induced by essential fatty acids deficiency.
Journal of Hepatology 01/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e58224. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal environment during early developmental stages plays a seminal role in the establishment of adult phenotype. Using a rabbit model, we previously showed that feeding dams with a diet supplemented with 8% fat and 0.2% cholesterol (HH diet) from the prepubertal period and throughout gestation induced metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Here, we examined the effects of the HH diet on feto-placental phenotype at 28 days post-coïtum (term = 31days) in relation to earlier effects in the blastocyst (Day 6). At 28 days, both male and female HH fetuses were intrauterine growth retarded and dyslipidemic, with males more affected than females. Lipid droplets accumulated in the HH placentas' trophoblast, consistent with the increased concentrations in cholesteryl esters (3.2-fold), triacylglycerol (2.5-fold) and stored FA (2.12-fold). Stored FA concentrations were significantly higher in female compared to male HH placentas (2.18-fold, p<0.01), whereas triacylglycerol was increased only in HH males. Trophoblastic lipid droplet accumulation was also observed at the blastocyst stage. The expression of numerous genes involved in lipid pathways differed significantly according to diet both in term placenta and at the blastocyst stage. Among them, the expression of LXR-α in HH placentas was reduced in HH males but not females. These data demonstrate that maternal HH diet affects the blastocyst and induces sex-dependent metabolic adaptations in the placenta, which appears to protect female fetuses from developing severe dyslipidemia.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83458. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) α and β and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) are transcription factors that belong to class II nuclear receptors. They drive the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid homeostasis and therefore are important targets for the prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). LXRs and PPARα are regulated by endogenous ligands, oxysterols and fatty acid derived molecules respectively. In the liver, pharmacological activation of LXRs leads to the over-expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis, while PPARα is critical for fatty acid catabolism in nutrient deprivation. Even if these two nuclear receptors seemed to play opposite parts, recent studies have highlighted that PPARα also influence the expression of genes involved in fatty acids synthesis. In this study, we used pharmacological approaches and genetically engineered mice to investigate the cross-talk between LXRs and PPARα in the regulation of genes responsible for lipogenesis. We first investigated the effect of T0901317 and fenofibrate, two synthetic agonists of LXRs and PPARα, respectively. As expected, T0901317 and fenofibrate induce expression of genes involved LXR-dependent and PPARα-dependent lipogenic responses. Considering such overlapping effect, we then tested whether LXR agonist may influence PPARα driven response and vice versa. We show that the lack of PPARα does not influence the effects of T0901317 on lipogenic genes expression. However, PPARα deficiency prevents the up-regulation of genes involved in ω-hydroxylation that are induced by the LXR agonist. In addition, over-expression of lipogenic genes in response to fenofibrate is decreased in LXR knockout mice as well as the expression of PPARα target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Altogether, our work provides in vivo evidence for a central interconnection between nuclear receptors that drive hepatic lipid metabolism in response to oxysterol and fatty acids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with all features of the metabolic syndrome. Although deposition of excess triglycerides within liver cells, a hallmark of NAFLD, is associated with a loss of insulin sensitivity, it is not clear which cellular abnormality arises first. We have explored this in mice overexpressing carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP). On a standard diet, mice overexpressing ChREBP remained insulin sensitive, despite increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis/fatty acid esterification and resultant hepatic steatosis (simple fatty liver). Lipidomic analysis revealed that the steatosis was associated with increased accumulation of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). In primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes, ChREBP overexpression induced expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) into MUFAs. SFA impairment of insulin-responsive Akt phosphorylation was therefore rescued by the elevation of Scd1 levels upon ChREBP overexpression, whereas pharmacological or shRNA-mediated reduction of Scd1 activity decreased the beneficial effect of ChREBP on Akt phosphorylation. Importantly, ChREBP-overexpressing mice fed a high-fat diet showed normal insulin levels and improved insulin signaling and glucose tolerance compared with controls, despite having greater hepatic steatosis. Finally, ChREBP expression in liver biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was increased when steatosis was greater than 50% and decreased in the presence of severe insulin resistance. Together, these results demonstrate that increased ChREBP can dissociate hepatic steatosis from insulin resistance, with beneficial effects on both glucose and lipid metabolism.
The Journal of clinical investigation 05/2012; 122(6):2176-94. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition contribute to obesity-related insulin resistance (IR). Studies have shown that deficiency of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) protects against the IR induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We aimed to evaluate the relationship between HFD-related inflammation and lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and liver. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Wild-type (WT) and TNFα-deficient (TNFα-KO) mice were subjected to an HFD for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate IR. Inflammatory status was assessed by measuring plasma and tissue transcript levels of cytokines. Lipid intermediate concentrations were measured in plasma, muscle and liver. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport, synthesis and oxidation was analyzed in adipose tissue, muscle and liver. RESULTS: HFD induced a higher body weight gain in TNFα-KO mice than in WT mice. The weight of epididymal and abdominal adipose tissues was twofold lower in WT mice than in TNFα-KO mice, whereas liver weight was significantly heavier in WT mice. IR, systemic and adipose tissue inflammation, and plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels were reduced in TNFα-KO mice fed an HFD. TNFα deficiency improved fatty acid metabolism and had a protective effect against lipid deposition, inflammation and fibrosis associated with HFD in liver but had no impact on these markers in muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that in an HFD context, TNFα deficiency reduced hepatic lipid accumulation through two mechanisms: an increase in adipose tissue storage capacity and a decrease in fatty acid uptake and synthesis in the liver.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 03/2012; · 4.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes are of increasing interest as alternative mode of cell-to-cell communication. We previously reported that exosomes secreted by human SOJ-6 pancreatic tumor cells induce (glyco)protein ligand-independent cell death and inhibit Notch-1 pathway, this latter being particularly active during carcinogenesis and in cancer stem cells. Therefore, we asked whether exosomal lipids were key-elements for cell death and hypothesized that cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains were privileged sites of exosome interactions with tumor cells. To address these questions and based on the lipid composition of exosomes from SOJ-6 cells (Ristorcelli et al. (2008) FASEB J. 22; 3358-3369) enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin (lipids forming liquid-ordered phase, Lo) and depleted in phospholipids (lipids forming liquid-disordered phase, Ld), we designed Synthetic Exosome-Like Nanoparticles (SELN) with ratios Lo/Ld from 3.0 to 6.0 framing that of SOJ-6 cell exosomes. SELN decreased tumor cell survival, the higher the Lo/Ld ratio, the lower the cell survival. This decreased survival was due to activation of cell death with inhibition of Notch pathway. FRET analyses indicated fusions/exchanges of SELN with cell membranes. Fluorescent SELN co-localized with the ganglioside GM1 then with Rab5A, markers of lipid microdomains and of early endosomes, respectively. These interactions occurred at lipid microdomains of plasma and/or endosome membranes where the Notch-1 pathway matures. We thus demonstrated a major role for lipids in interactions between SELN and tumor cells, and in the ensued cell death. To our knowledge this is the first report on such effects of lipidic nanoparticles on tumor cell behavior. This may have implications in tumor progression.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47480. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in lifestyle are suspected to have strongly influenced the current obesity epidemic. Based on recent experimental, clinical, and epidemiological work, it has been proposed that some food contaminants may exert damaging effects on endocrine and metabolic functions, thereby promoting obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this work, we investigated the effect of one suspicious food contaminant, bisphenol A (BPA), in vivo. We used a transcriptomic approach in male CD1 mice exposed for 28 days to different doses of BPA (0, 5, 50, 500, and 5,000 μg/kg/day) through food contamination. Data analysis revealed a specific impact of low doses of BPA on the hepatic transcriptome, more particularly on genes involved in lipid synthesis. Strikingly, the effect of BPA on the expression of de novo lipogenesis followed a nonmonotonic dose-response curve, with more important effects at lower doses than at the higher dose. In addition to lipogenic enzymes (Acc, Fasn, Scd1), the expression of transcription factors such as liver X Receptor, the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and the carbohydrate responsive element binding protein that govern the expression of lipogenic genes also followed a nonmonotonic dose-response curve in response to BPA. Consistent with an increased fatty acid biosynthesis, determination of fat in the liver showed an accumulation of cholesteryl esters and of triglycerides. Conclusion: Our work suggests that exposure to low BPA doses may influence de novo fatty acid synthesis through increased expression of lipogenic genes, thereby contributing to hepatic steatosis. Exposure to such contaminants should be carefully examined in the etiology of metabolic diseases such as NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (Hepatology 2012)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles are known to be in complex with lipoproteins. As a result of this interaction, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) has been proposed as a potential entry factor for HCV; however, its implication in virus entry remains unclear. Here, we reinvestigated the role of the LDLR in the HCV life cycle by comparing virus entry to the mechanism of lipoprotein uptake. A small interfering RNA targeting the LDLR in Huh-7 cells reduced HCV infectivity, confirming that this receptor plays a role in the life cycle of HCV generated in cell culture. However, kinetics of internalization were much faster for lipoproteins than for infectious HCV particles. Furthermore, a decrease in HCV RNA replication was observed by blocking the LDLR with a specific antibody, and this was associated with an increase in the ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine in host cells. Nevertheless, a soluble form of the LDLR inhibited both HCV entry into the hepatocytes and its binding to the LDLR expressed on Chinese hamster ovary cells, suggesting a direct interaction between the HCV particle and the LDLR. Finally, we showed that modification of HCV particles by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) reduces HCV infectivity and increases HCV binding to LDLR. Importantly, LPL treatment also induced an increase in RNA internalization, suggesting that LDLR, at least in some conditions, leads to nonproductive internalization of HCV. Conclusion: The LDLR is not essential for infectious HCV particle entry, whereas the physiological function of this receptor is important for optimal replication of the HCV genome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the orchestrated process leading to mature erythrocytes, reticulocytes must synthesize large amounts of hemoglobin, while eliminating numerous cellular components. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that play an important role in this process of specific elimination. To understand the mechanisms of proteolipidic sorting leading to their biogenesis, we have explored changes in the composition of exosomes released by reticulocytes during their differentiation, in parallel to their physical properties. By combining proteomic and lipidomic approaches, we found dramatic alterations in the composition of the exosomes retrieved over the course of a 7-day in vitro differentiation protocol. Our data support a previously proposed model, whereby in reticulocytes the biogenesis of exosomes involves several distinct mechanisms for the preferential recruitment of particular proteins and lipids and suggest that the respective prominence of those pathways changes over the course of the differentiation process.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(39):34426-39. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) have been implicated in the inability of old muscles to properly respond to anabolic stimuli such as amino acids (AA) or insulin. Since fatty acids can modulate inflammation and IR in muscle cells, we investigated the effect of palmitate-enriched diet and oleate-enriched diet on inflammation, IR and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rate in old rats.
Twenty-four 25-month-old rats were fed either a control diet (OC), an oleate-enriched diet (HFO) or a palmitate-enriched diet (HFP) for 16 weeks. MPS using labeled amino acids and mTOR activation were assessed after AA and insulin anabolic stimulation to mimic postprandial state.
IR and systemic and adipose tissue inflammation (TNFα and IL1β) were improved in the HFO group. Muscle genes controlling mitochondrial β-oxidation (PPARs, MCAD and CPT-1b) were up-regulated in the HFO group. AA and insulin-stimulated MPS in the HFO group only, and this stimulation was related to activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway.
The age-related MPS response to anabolic signals was improved in rats fed an oleate-enriched diet. This effect was related to activation of muscle oxidative pathways, lower IR, and a decrease in inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human pathology, the "creeping fat" (CF) of the mesentery is unique to Crohn's disease (CD). CF is usually referred to as an ectopic extension of mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). However, since no animal model developing CF has ever been established, very little is known about this type of fat-depot expansion and its role in the development of the disease.
We developed and standardized an experimental protocol in mice that reproducibly induces CF development when a severe colonic inflammation is obtained by intracolonic instillation of DNBS.
Macro-microscopic observations revealed a fatty appearance of CF. Yet when compared to MAT from the same animals, CF contains very little triglycerides, few adipocytes, and we observed a very low expression and protein levels of both adipose markers (hormone-sensitive lipase, perilipin) and adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin). The decreased expression of perilipin in CF was also observed by immunohistochemistry. Conversely, the expression of proinflammatory and fibrous markers (Pref-1) was much higher in CF than in MAT. These observations were fully consistent with those made on CF recovered from five CD patients and compared with subcutaneous and mesenteric fat from the same patients.
Altogether, this work reports an original experimental mice model of CF. In this model we establish for the first time that CF only occurs in severe colonic inflammation and shows an inflammatory, fibrous but not an adipose pattern.