[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactoferrin is an 80 kDa bilobal, iron binding glycoprotein which is primarily antimicrobial in nature. The hydrolysis of lactoferrin by various proteases in the gut produces several functional fragments of lactoferrin which have varying molecular sizes and properties. Here, bovine lactoferrin has been hydrolyzed by trypsin, the major enzyme present in the gut, to produce three functional molecules of sizes approximately 21 kDa, 38 kDa and 45 kDa. The molecules have been purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and identified using N-terminal sequencing, which reveals that while the 21 kDa molecule corresponds to the N2 domain (21LF), the 38 kDa represents the whole C-lobe (38LF) and the 45 kDa is a portion of N1 domain of N-lobe attached to the C-lobe (45LF). The iron binding and release properties of 21LF, 38LF and 45LF have been studied and compared. The sequence and structure analysis of the portions of the excision sites of LF from various species have been done. The antibacterial properties of these three molecules against bacterial strains, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes were investigated. The antifungal action of the molecules was also evaluated against Candida albicans. This is the first report on the antimicrobial actions of the trypsin cleaved functional molecules of lactoferrin from any species.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90011. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is a virulent pathogenic bacterium that is resistant to most currently available antibiotics. Therefore, the design of drugs for the treatment of infections caused by A. baumannii is urgently required. Dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR) is an important enzyme which is involved in the biosynthetic pathway that leads to the production of L-lysine in bacteria. In order to design potent inhibitors against this enzyme, its detailed three-dimensional structure is required. DHDPR from A. baumannii (AbDHDPR) has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Here, the preliminary X-ray crystallographic data of AbDHDPR are reported. The crystals were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 as the precipitating agent The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.0, b = 100.8, c = 147.6 Å, and contained four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The complete structure determination of AbDHDPR is in progress.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 06/2013; 69(Pt 6):653-6. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein which displays a wide array of modes of action to execute its primary antimicrobial function. It contains various antimicrobial peptides which are released upon its hydrolysis by proteases. These peptides display a similarity with the antimicrobial cationic peptides found in nature. In the current scenario of increasing resistance to antibiotics, there is a need for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. In this context, the structural and functional perspectives on some of the antimicrobial peptides found in N-lobe of lactoferrin have been reviewed. This paper provides the comparison of lactoferrin peptides with other antimicrobial peptides found in nature as well as interspecies comparison of the structural properties of these peptides within the native lactoferrin.
International Journal of Peptides 01/2013; 2013:390230.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chitinases are known to hydrolyze chitin polymers into smaller chitooligosaccharides. Chitinase from bacterium Serratia proteamaculans (SpChiD) is found to exhibit both hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities. SpChiD belongs to family 18 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH-18). The recombinant SpChiD was crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was determined at 1.49 Å resolution. The structure was refined to an R-factor of 16.2%. SpChiD consists of 406 amino acid residues. The polypeptide chain of SpChiD adopts a (β/α)8 triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel structure. SpChiD contains three acidic residues, Asp149, Asp151 and Glu153 as part of its catalytic scheme. While both Asp149 and Glu153 adopt single conformations, Asp151 is observed in two conformations. The substrate binding cleft is partially obstructed by a protruding loop, Asn30 - Asp42 causing a considerable reduction in the number of available subsites in the substrate binding site. The positioning of loop, Asn30 - Asp42 appears to be responsible for the transglycosylation activity. The structure determination indicated the presence of sulfone Met89 (SMet89). The sulfone methionine residue is located on the surface of the protein at a site where extra domain is attached in other chitinases. This is the first structure of a single domain chitinase with hydrolytic and transglycosylation activities.
International journal of biochemistry and molecular biology. 01/2013; 4(4):166-78.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most highly prescribed drugs in the world. Their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic actions may be beneficial; however, they are associated with severe side effects including gastrointestinal injury and peptic ulceration. Though several approaches for limiting these side effects have been adopted, like the use of COX-2 specific drugs, comedication of acid suppressants like proton pump inhibitors and prostaglandin analogs, these alternatives have limitations in terms of efficacy and side effects. In this paper, the mechanism of action of NSAIDs and their critical gastrointestinal complications have been reviewed. This paper also provides the information on different preventive measures prescribed to minimize such adverse effects and analyses the new suggested strategies for development of novel drugs to maintain the anti-inflammatory functions of NSAIDs along with effective gastrointestinal protection.
Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:258209. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactoferrin is an iron-binding diferric glycoprotein present in most of the exocrine secretions. The major role of lactoferrin, which is found abundantly in colostrum, is antimicrobial action for the defense of mammary gland and the neonates. Lactoferrin consists of two equal halves, designated as N-lobe and C-lobe, each of which contains one iron-binding site. While the N-lobe of lactoferrin has been extensively studied and is known for its enhanced antimicrobial effect, the C-lobe of lactoferrin mediates various therapeutic functions which are still being discovered. The potential of the C-lobe in the treatment of gastropathy, diabetes, and corneal wounds and injuries has been indicated. This review provides the details of the proteolytic preparation of C-lobe, and interspecies comparisons of its sequence and structure, as well as the scope of its therapeutic applications.
Biochemistry research international. 01/2013; 2013:271641.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a member of a large group of mammalian heme peroxidases that include myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO). The LPO is found in exocrine secretions including milk. It is responsible for the inactivation of a wide range of micro-organisms and hence, is an important component of defense mechanism in the body. With the help of hydrogen peroxide, it catalyzes the oxidation of halides, pseudohalides and organic aromatic molecules. Historically, LPO was isolated in 1943, nearly seventy years ago but its three-dimensional crystal structure has been elucidated only recently. This review provides various details of this protein from its discovery to understanding its structure, function and applications. In order to highlight species dependent variations in the structure and function of LPO, a detailed comparison of sequence, structure and function of LPO from various species have been made. The structural basis of ligand binding and distinctions in the modes of binding of substrates and inhibitors have been analyzed extensively.
International journal of biochemistry and molecular biology. 01/2013; 4(3):108-128.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several plant-derived allergens have been identified which result in the formation of immunoglobulin E antibodies. Primarily, these allergens belong to the protein families including seed storage proteins, structural proteins and pathogenesis-related proteins. Several allergens are also reported from flower bulbs which cause contact dermatitis. Such symptoms are highly common with the bulb growers handling different species of Narcissus. Narcissus toxicity is also reported if the bulbs are consumed accidentally. The present study aimed to characterize the protein from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta responsible for its allergenic response. A 13 kDa novel allergenic protein, Narcin was isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The protein was further purified by anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation. The allergenicity of the protein was measured by cytokine production using flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Further estimation of total IgE was performed by ELISA method. This novel protein was found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus induce allergy by elevating total IgE level. The novel protein, Narcin isolated from Narcissus tazetta was found to exhibit allergenic properties.
International journal of biochemistry and molecular biology. 01/2013; 4(2):95-101.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are part of the innate immune system. The 19 kDa Short PGRP (PGRP-S) is one of the four mammalian PGRPs. The concentration of PGRP-S in camel (CPGRP-S) has been shown to increase considerably during mastitis. The structure of CPGRP-S consists of four protein molecules designated as A, B, C and D forming stable intermolecular contacts, A-B and C-D. The A-B and C-D interfaces are located on the opposite sides of the same monomer leading to the the formation of a linear chain with alternating A-B and C-D contacts. Two ligand binding sites, one at C-D contact and another at A-B contact have been observed. CPGRP-S binds to the components of bacterial cell wall molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN) from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It also binds to fatty acids including mycolic acid of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previous structural studies of binary complexes of CPGRP-S with LPS and stearic acid (SA) have shown that LPS binds to CPGRP-S at C-D contact (Site-1) while SA binds to it at the A-B contact (Site-2). The binding studies using surface plasmon resonance showed that LPS and SA bound to CPGRP-S in the presence of each other. The structure determination of the ternary complex showed that LPS and SA bound to CPGRP-S at Site-1 and Site-2 respectively. LPS formed 13 hydrogen bonds and 159 van der Waals contacts (distances ≤4.2 Å) while SA formed 56 van der Waals contacts. The ELISA test showed that increased levels of productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ due to LPS and SA decreased considerably upon the addition of CPGRP-S.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53756. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidences of infections caused by an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii are very common in hospital environments. It usually causes soft tissue infections including urinary tract infections and pneumonia. It is difficult to treat due to acquired resistance to available antibiotics is well known. In order to design specific inhibitors against one of the important enzymes, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii, we have determined its three-dimensional structure. Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (AbPth) is involved in recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs which are produced in the cell as a result of premature termination of translation process. We have also determined the structures of two complexes of AbPth with cytidine and uridine. AbPth was cloned, expressed and crystallized in unbound and in two bound states with cytidine and uridine. The binding studies carried out using fluorescence spectroscopic and surface plasmon resonance techniques revealed that both cytidine and uridine bound to AbPth at nanomolar concentrations. The structure determinations of the complexes revealed that both ligands were located in the active site cleft of AbPth. The introduction of ligands to AbPth caused a significant widening of the entrance gate to the active site region and in the process of binding, it expelled several water molecules from the active site. As a result of interactions with protein atoms, the ligands caused conformational changes in several residues to attain the induced tight fittings. Such a binding capability of this protein makes it a versatile molecule for hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNAs having variable peptide sequences. These are the first studies that revealed the mode of inhibitor binding in Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases which will facilitate the structure based ligand design.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e67547. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria associated with hospital acquired infections. This bacterium possesses a variety of resistance mechanisms which makes it more difficult to control the bacterium with conventional drugs, and, so far no effective drug treatment is available against it. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase is an important enzyme, which maintains the total nucleotide triphosphate pool inside the cell by the transfer of γ -phosphate from NTPs to NDPs. The role of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk) has also been observed in pathogenesis in other organisms. However, intensive studies are needed to decipher its other putative roles in Acinetobacter baumannii. In the present study, we have successfully cloned the gene encoding Ndk and achieved overexpression in bacterial host BL-21 (DE3). The overexpressed protein is further purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chromatography.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-S) is a member of the mammalian innate immune system. PGRP-S from Camelus dromedarius (CPGRP-S) has been shown to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN). Its structure consists of four molecules A, B, C and D with ligand binding clefts situated at A-B and C-D contacts. It has been shown that LPS, LTA and PGN bind to CPGRP-S at C-D contact. The cleft at the A-B contact indicated features that suggested a possible binding of fatty acids including mycolic acid of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, binding studies of CPGRP-S were carried out with fatty acids, butyric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, stearic acid and mycolic acid which showed affinities in the range of 10(-5)M to 10(-8)M. Structure determinations of the complexes of CPGRP-S with above fatty acids showed that they bound to CPGRP-S in the cleft at the A-B contact. The flow cytometric studies showed that mycolic acid induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN- by CD3+ T cells. The concentrations of cytokines increased considerably with increasing concentrations of mycolic acid. However, their levels decreased substantially on adding CPGRP-S.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 11/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a hemeprotein catalyzing the oxidation of thiocyanate and I(-) into antimicrobials and small aromatic organics after being itself oxidized by H(2)O(2). LPO is excreted by the lungs, mammary glands, found in saliva and tears and protects mammals against bacterial, fungal and viral invasion. The Fe(II) form binds CO which inactivates LPO like many other hemeproteins. We present the 3-dimensional structure of CO-LPO at 2.0Å resolution and infrared (IR) spectra of the iron-bound CO stretch from pH 3 to 8.8 at 1 cm(-1) resolution. The observed Fe-C-O bond angle of 132° is more acute than the electronically related Fe(III), CN-LPO with a Fe-C-N angle of 161°. The orientations of the two ligands are different with the oxygen of CO pointing towards the imidazole of distal His109 while the nitrogen of CN points away, the Fe(II) moves towards His109 while the Fe(III) moves away; both movements are consistent with a hydrogen bond between the distal His109 and CO, but not to the nitrogen of CN-LPO. The IR spectra of CO-LPO exhibit two major CO absorbances with pH dependent relative intensities. Both crystallographic and IR data suggest proton donation to the CO oxygen by His109 with a pK ≈ 4; close to the pH of greatest enzyme turnover. The IR absorbance maxima are consistent with a first order correlation between frequency and Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential at pH 7; both band widths at half-height correlate with electron density donation from Fe(II) to CO as gauged by the reduction potential.
The Protein Journal 08/2012; 31(7):598-608. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidoglycan (PGN) consists of repeating units of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc), which are cross-linked by short peptides. It is well known that PGN forms a major cell wall component of bacteria making it an important ligand for the recognition by peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) of the host. The binding studies showed that PGN, GlcNAc, and MurNAc bind to camel PGRP-S (CPGRP-S) with affinities corresponding to dissociation constants of 1.3 × 10(-9), 2.6 × 10(-7), and 1.8 × 10(-7) M, respectively. The crystal structure determinations of the complexes of CPGRP-S with GlcNAc and MurNAc showed that the structures consist of four crystallographically independent molecules, A, B, C, and D, in the asymmetric unit that exists as A-B and C-D units of two neighboring linear polymers. The structure determinations showed that compounds GlcNAc and MurNAc bound to CPGRP-S at the same subsite in molecule C. Both GlcNAc and MurNAc form several hydrogen bonds and extensive hydrophobic interactions with protein atoms, indicating the specific nature of their bindings. Flow cytometric studies showed that PGN enhanced the secretions of TNF-α and IL-6 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The introduction of CPGRP-S to the PGN-challenged cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells reduced the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. This showed that CPGRP-S inhibited PGN-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and down-regulated macrophage-mediated inflammation, indicating its potential applications as an antibacterial agent.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(26):22153-64. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) of type 1 are plant toxins that eliminate adenine base selectively from the single stranded loop of rRNA. We report six crystal structures, type 1 RIP from Momordica balsamina (A), three in complexed states with ribose (B), guanine (C) and adenine (D) and two structures of MbRIP-1 when crystallized with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (E) and 2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (2'-dATP) (F). These were determined at 1.67Å, 1.60Å, 2.20Å, 1.70Å, 2.07Å and 1.90Å resolutions respectively. The structures contained, (A) unbound protein molecule, (B) one protein molecule and one ribose sugar, (C) one protein molecule and one guanine base, (D) one protein molecule and one adenine base, (E) one protein molecule and one ATP-product adenine molecule and (F) one protein molecule and one 2'-dATP-product adenine molecule. Three distinct conformations of the side chain of Tyr70 were observed with (i) χ(1)=-66°and χ(2)=165° in structures (A) and (B); (ii) χ(1)=-95° and χ(2)=70° in structures (C), (D) and (E); and (iii) χ(1)=-163° and χ(2)=87° in structure (F). The conformation of Tyr70 in (F) corresponds to the structure of a conformational intermediate. This is the first structure which demonstrates that the slow conversion of DNA substrates by RIPs can be trapped during crystallization.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2012; 1824(4):679-91. · 4.66 Impact Factor