[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC), median survival from the time patients develop bone metastasis is classically described being inferior to 6 months. We investigated the subcategory of patients having an inaugural skeletal-related-event revealing NSCLC. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of bone involvement on overall survival and to determine biological and tumoral prognosis factors on OS and PFS. An analysis of the subgroup of solitary bone metastasis patients was also performed.
In a population of 1208 lung cancer patients, 55 consecutive NSCLC patients revealed by inaugural bone metastasis and treated between 2003 and 2010, were retrospectively analysed. Survival was measured with a Kaplan-Meyer curve. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Stepwise Cox proportional hazard regression model. A p value of less than 0,05 was considered statistically significant.
Estimated incidence of revealing bone metastasis is 4,5% among newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Median duration of skeletal symptoms before diagnosis was 3 months and revealing bone site was located on axial skeleton in 70% of the cases. Histology was adenocarcinoma (78%), with small primary tumors Tx-T1-2 accounting for 71% of patients. Rate of second SRE is 37%.Median overall survival was 8.15 months, IQR [5-16 months], mean survival 13.4 months, and PFS was 3.5 months. In multivariate analysis, variables significantly associated with shortened survival were advanced T stage (HR=2.8; p=0.004), weight loss>10% (HR=3.1; p=0.02), inaugural spinal epidural metastasis (HR 2.5; p=0.0036), elevated C-reactive protein (HR=4.3; p=0.002) and TTF-1 status (HR=2.42; p=0.004). Inaugural spinal epidural metastasis is a very strong adverse pronostic factor in these cases, with a 3 months median survival. Single bone metastasis patients showed prolonged survival of 14.2 months versus 7.6 months, only in univariate analysis (HR=0.42; p=0.0059).
Prognosis of lung cancer patients with inaugural SRE remains pejorative. Accurately estimating the survival of this population is helpful for bone surgical decision-making at diagnosis. The trend for a higher proportion of adenocarcinoma in NSCLC patients should result with an increasing number of patients with inaugural SRE at diagnosis.
BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):416. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-416 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy is the standard of care for the initial treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. However, the majority of these patients live long enough to experience disease progression despite castration. This scenario is defined as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and has a poor outcome and limited options for treatment. First-line treatment after hormonal therapy failure include secondary hormonal manipulation and docetaxel. Advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CRPC have translated into a recent increase in the number of effective systemic agents, and some of them have been already approved as first and second-line treatment. Despite these advances, the median survival in the first-line setting of metastatic CRPC is approximately 20 months and in the postdocetaxel setting is approximately 15 months. Promising and necessary new therapies in Phase III trials include hormonal agents, new cytotoxics agents, as well as other immunotherapeutics and antiprostate-specific membrane antigen therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Little is known on factors predicting sunitinib toxicity. Recently, the condition of low muscle mass, named sarcopenia, was identified as a significant predictor of toxicity in metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) patients treated with sorafenib. We investigated whether sarcopenia could predict early dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurrence in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib.
Consecutive mRCC patients treated with sunitinib were retrospectively reviewed. A DLT was defined as any toxicity leading to dose reduction or treatment discontinuation. Body composition was evaluated using CT scan obtained within 1 month before treatment initiation.
Among 61 patients eligible for analysis, 52.5% were sarcopenic and 32.8% had both sarcopenia and a body mass index (BMI)<25 kg m−2. Eighteen patients (29.5%) experienced a DLT during the first cycle. Sarcopenic patients with a BMI<25 kg m−2 experienced more DLTs (P=0.01; odds ratio=4.1; 95% CI: (1.3–13.3)), more cumulative grade 2 or 3 toxicities (P=0.008), more grade 3 toxicities (P=0.04) and more acute vascular toxicities (P=0.009).
Patients with sarcopenia and a BMI<25 kg m−2 experienced significantly more DLTs during the first cycle of treatment.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2013; 108(5). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.58 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Sorafenib displays major interpatient pharmacokinetic variability. It is unknown whether the pharmacokinetics of sorafenib influence its toxicity.
We analyzed the severity and kinetics of sorafenib-induced toxicities in unselected consecutive patients with cancer, as well as their relationship with biological, clinical, and pharmacokinetic parameters. Toxicity was recorded bimonthly. Sorafenib plasma concentrations were assessed by liquid chromatography.
For 83 patients (median age, 62 years; range, 21-84 years), median sorafenib 12-hour area under the curve (AUC(0-12)) was 52.8 mg · h/L (range: 11.8-199.6). A total of 51 patients (61%) experienced grade 3-4 toxicities, including hand-foot skin reactions (23%), asthenia (18%), and diarrhea (11%). Sorafenib AUC(0-12) preceding grade 3-4 toxicities was significantly higher than that observed in the remaining population (61.9 mg · h/L vs. 53 mg · h/L). In 25 patients treated with fixed doses of sorafenib for the first 4 months, median dose-normalized AUC(0-12) on day 120 was significantly lower than on day 15 (63 vs. 102 mg · h/L). The incidence of hypertension and hand-foot skin reactions significantly decreased over time.
Sorafenib AUC(0-12) decreases over time, similarly to the incidence of hypertension and hand-foot skin reactions. Monitoring of sorafenib plasma concentrations may help to prevent acute severe toxicities and detect patients with suboptimal exposure at disease progression.
The Oncologist 07/2012; 17(9):1204-12. DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0439 · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ambulatory chemotherapy is patient friendly but may result in toxicity-induced unscheduled hospitalizations (TIUHs). This emerging issue may increase health care costs. We studied the cost effectiveness of a hospital-home monitoring program based on systematic iterative telephone calls after chemotherapy.
We retrospectively evaluated the rates of chemotherapy-induced unscheduled hospitalizations in patients who were treated in August 2008. Patients were contacted by telephone 1 day before chemotherapy and on the second and eighth days after undergoing chemotherapy. Costs associated with TIUHs were calculated and compared with those of a cohort concomitantly treated using the standard follow-up procedure.
A total of 259 patients entered the hospital-home monitoring program. They were compared with 86 patients who had similar characteristics but underwent the standard treatment and follow-up procedure. Inclusion in the hospital-home monitoring program resulted in patients experiencing TIUHs approximately half as frequently as patients in the other group (2.4% v 4.9%; P < .01). Patients in the program experienced TIUHs for a median length of stay of 4 days, representing a nonsignificant reduction in duration of hospitalization (P not significant). Consequently, through a two-fold reduction in TIUH annual incidence, this program represents a reduction in unscheduled hospitalizations per year of 383 days, decreasing hospital costs by €201.468 ($292,468) per year.
The hospital-home monitoring program is a cost-effective strategy for offering ambulatory chemotherapy treatment to patients with cancer. This program has become our standard procedure for ambulatory chemotherapy in patients with cancer.
Journal of Oncology Practice 07/2012; 8(4):205-10. DOI:10.1200/JOP.2011.000447
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin is well documented in selected patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma (BTC), but little is known on the feasibility of systemic treatments in patients with a performance status (PS) of 2. We retrospectively examined the medical records of consecutive BTC patients with a PS of 2 receiving gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) plus oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks from January 2003 to December 2011 in our institution. Body composition was analysed by computed tomography scan to detect sarcopenia. The primary evaluation criterion was safety. The secondary evaluation criteria were the response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Twenty-eight patients (median age: 63 years, range 41-83) received a total of 175 cycles (median per patient: 6, range 2-12). Ten patients (35.7%) had sarcopenia on the pretreatment computed tomography scan. The most frequent toxicities were thrombocytopenia (grades 2-4: n=4, 14.3%), peripheral neuropathy (grades 2-3: n=9, 32.1%) and cholangitis (n=4, 14.3%). The best response was a partial response in 10.7% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI): 0-22.2] and stable disease in 42.9% of patients. The median PFS and OS were 4.6 (95% CI: 2.5-6.3) and 7.5 (95% CI: 5.2-9.5) months, respectively. The median PFS and OS were significantly longer in patients without sarcopenia: 7.0 months (95% CI: 4.4-8.0) vs. 2.2 months (95% CI: 2.0-2.5), P less than 0.01, and 10.4 months (95% CI: 7.5-11.6) vs. 4.9 months (95% CI: 3.7-5.2), P less than 0.01, respectively. In our experience, gemcitabine-oxaliplatin was feasible and induced effective palliation in PS2 patients with advanced BTC. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous reports suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) could decrease the activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) antagonists against acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), possibly through serotonin accumulation for 5-HT3 receptors.
Chemonaive cancer patients receiving SSRI and antiemetic agents, including the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron and the neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonist aprepitant for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (etoposide-platinum), were matched to control patients for the following variables: age, gender, primary tumor, past history of gestational emesis, chronic intake of benzodiazepines and/or corticosteroids, chronic alcohol intake, and aprepitant use. The primary evaluation criterion was the occurrence of acute vomiting during the first two cycles of treatment.
Forty-four patients were eligible for this analysis. The proportion of patients, who experienced at least one episode of grade ≥ 1 acute vomiting in patients receiving SSRI, compared to patients who did not, was significantly higher (59.1 vs. 22.7%, respectively, p = 0.03, odds ratio 4.72, 95% confidence interval 1.13-22.88). Grade ≥ 2 acute vomiting was also significantly more frequent in patients receiving SSRI, even after the implementation of aprepitant to antiemetic prophylaxis (41.2 vs. 5.9%, p = 0.04).
Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that SSRI decrease the antiemetic activity of the 5-HT3 serotonin antagonist ondansetron, resulting in higher rates of acute vomiting in cancer patients despite adequate antiemetic prophylaxis. Adding the NK1 antagonist aprepitant do not counterbalance the deleterious effect of SSRI, probably due to the synergistic effects of SSRI and NK1 antagonists on serotonin transmission.
Supportive Care in Cancer 05/2012; 20(9):2235-9. DOI:10.1007/s00520-012-1503-y · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorafenib induces frequent dose limiting toxicities (DLT) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sarcopenia has been associated with poor performance status and shortened survival in cancer patients.
The characteristics of Child Pugh A cirrhotic patients with HCC receiving sorafenib in our institution were retrospectively analyzed. Sorafenib plasma concentrations were determined at each visit. Toxicities were recorded during the first month of treatment, and sarcopenia was determined from baseline CT-scans.
Forty patients (30 males) were included. Eleven (27.5%) were sarcopenic. Eighteen patients (45%) experienced a DLT during the first month of treatment. Sarcopenic patients experienced significantly more DLTs than non-sarcopenic patients did (82% versus 31%, p = 0.005). Grade 3 diarrhea was significantly more frequent in sarcopenic patients than in non-sarcopenic patients (45.5% versus 6.9%, p = 0.01), but not grade 3 hand foot syndrome reaction (9% versus 17.2%, p = 1). On day 28, median sorafenib AUC (n = 17) was significantly higher in sarcopenic patients (102.4 mg/l.h versus 53.7 mg/l.h, p = 0.013).
Among cirrhotic Child Pugh A patients with advanced HCC, sarcopenia predicts sorafenib exposure and the occurrence of DLT within the first month of treatment.
PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e37563. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0037563 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abiraterone acetate and cabazitaxel have shown an overall survival benefit in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer following docetaxel failure. Both have been approved in this indication. The search, follow-up and characterisation of circulating tumor cells should help for the response evaluation and the choice between the two treatments. Recently, alpharadin (radium-223 chloride) has demonstrated also an overall survival advantage in a large phase III trial. Other hormone therapies as MDV3100 or TAK700 are very promising. In undifferentiated cancers with neuroendocrine features, etoposide and platinum salts combinations have shown low efficiency.
Bulletin du cancer 04/2012; 99. DOI:10.1684/bdc.2012.1560 · 0.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progressing under sorafenib remain eligible for further systemic therapy. Little is known on the feasibility of systemic treatment beyond sorafenib in this setting. Consecutive HCC patients pre-treated with sorafenib received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m² and oxaliplatin 100 mg/m² every 14 days. Exclusion criteria included Child C cirrhosis, PS ≥ 3, creatinine clearance <20 ml/min, albumin <25 g/L and bilirubin > 54 μmol/L. Pre-treatment body composition was evaluated by CT scan to detect muscle wasting (sarcopenia). The primary evaluation criterion was safety. Secondary evaluation criteria were response rate, and progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Eighteen patients (median age: 64 years, range 25-77) received a total of 90 cycles (median per patient: 4, range 1-16). Eight patients (44.4 %) had a PS of 2, 5 (27.8 %) had Child-Pugh B cirrhosis and 13 (72.2 %) had a CLIP score >3. The most frequent toxicities were thrombocytopenia (grade 2-4: n = 7, 38.9 %) and peripheral neuropathy (grade 2-3: n = 7, 38.9 %). The overall response rate was 18.8 % (95 % CI: 0-37.9), and another 18.8 % of patients had stable disease. The median PFS and OS were 3.2 (95 % CI: 2.3-3.9) and 4.7 (95 % CI: 3.8-8.1) months, respectively. Overall survival was significantly longer in patients without sarcopenia [10.0 months (95 % CI: 7.0-13.8) vs. 3.0 months (95 % CI: 2.5-3.9), p < 0.001] and in patients with an ECOG PS < 2 [8.1 months (95 % CI: 7.0-13.8) vs. 3.8 months (95 % CI: 2.5-3.9), p = 0.017]. In our experience, gemcitabine-oxaliplatin was feasible and had detectable clinical activity in HCC patients pre-treated with sorafenib. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Medical Oncology 03/2012; 29(4):2793-9. DOI:10.1007/s12032-012-0208-x · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin has less haematological toxicity than cisplatin and carboplatin. The combination of pemetrexed, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab appeared well tolerated and active as second- or third-line treatment in a previous phase II study. Its role as first-line therapy remains to define.
From August 2008 to May 2011, consecutive chemo-naïve patients with stage IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) received pemetrexed 500mg/m(2), oxaliplatin 100mg/m(2) and bevacizumab 7.5mg/kg every 3 weeks for 6 cycles, in the outpatient setting. Maintenance therapy including pemetrexed and bevacizumab was given to patients with non-progressive disease. The primary evaluation criterion was safety. Secondary evaluation criteria were response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Thirty-eight patients (50% males, median age: 55 years, range 38-76) received a total of 199 cycles (median per patient: 6, range 2-6), plus 98 cycles of maintenance therapy. Twenty patients (52.6%) had a PS of 2, and 6 (15.8%) had brain metastases. The most frequent toxicities were hypertension (all grades: 42.1%) and peripheral neuropathy (grade 2-3: 21.1%). Haematological toxicities included grade 4 neutropenia, grade 3 anaemia and thrombopenia (5.3% each). Neither febrile neutropenia nor arterial thrombo-embolic event occurred. The objective response rate was 55.3% (95%CI: 39.5-71.1). The median PFS and OS were 6.2 (95%CI: 5.4-9.0) and 14.6 (95%CI: 9.8-19.5) months, respectively.
In this single centre experience, the combination of pemetrexed, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab was well tolerated and had promising activity as first-line therapy in unselected patients with stage IV non-squamous NSCLC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The only drug that improves survival in hepatocellular carcinoma is sorafenib. FOLFOX-4 regimen is safe and widely used in patients with colorectal cancer, yielding interesting results with little toxicity. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the safety and the effectiveness of FOLFOX-4 in cirrhotic or liver transplanted patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ineligible for sorafenib.
Thirty seven patients were enrolled in the study. The medical record of either cirrhotic patients or liver transplanted patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma receiving FOLFOX-4 regimen between November 1999 and March 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients received oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2) as a 2-hour infusion on day one, and leucovorin 200 mg/m(2) as a 2-hour infusion followed by bolus 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2) and a 48-hours infusion of 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m(2). Treatment was repeated every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable adverse effects occurred.
Patients had a Child-Pugh class A (n = 16), class B cirrhosis (n = 10) or a liver transplant (n = 11) and received 2 to 37 cycles of chemotherapy (total of 310 cycles). Two (5.4%) cirrhotic patients developed neutropenic sepsis and one (2.7%) toxic death occurred. At first assessment, five patients from Child-Pugh class A (33%) and two from Child-Pugh class B group (20%) achieved a radiological response and/or alpha foeto-protein decrease, and no patient achieved a complete response.
In conclusion, with a manageable toxicity profile in cirrhotic Child-Pugh class A-B or liver transplanted patients, the FOLFOX-4 regimen appears to be a feasible treatment option for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma unfit for sorafenib. These data need to be confirmed in a prospective study.
Investigational New Drugs 02/2012; 30(1):376-81. DOI:10.1007/s10637-010-9525-0 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactivation of tuberculosis is rare in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumours, and poorly documented in patients receiving molecular targeted therapy. We report on a patient with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma treated with temsirolimus, who developed respiratory symptoms and mild fever after 6 weeks of treatment. CT-scan and laboratory tests were consistent with reactivation of tuberculosis. The patient received anti-tuberculosis therapy including rifampicin, a potent CYP3A4/5 inducer. After introduction of rifampicin-based treatment, the patient experienced tumour progression, leaving questionable the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between rifampicin and temsirolimus, a substrate for CYP3A4.
Investigational New Drugs 12/2011; 29(6):1494-6. DOI:10.1007/s10637-010-9487-2 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorafenib, an orally active multi-kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is primarily metabolized both via cytochrome P450 3A4 isoform (CYP3A4) and UGT1A9. Due to the contribution of these two biotransformation pathways, sorafenib is considered to be less susceptible than other agents to CYP3A4 drug-drug interactions. This report discusses a clinically relevant pharmacokinetic CYP3A4 drug-drug interaction between sorafenib and felodipine in an 80-year-old Caucasian patient with HCC. On day 15, after the introduction of sorafenib (400 mg bid), sorafenib plasma concentration was at 3.6 mg/L. Felodipine (5 mg bid), an anti-hypertensive agent that is exclusively CYP3A4 substrate, was then introduced due to grade 2 sorafenib-related hypertension. On day 30, hypertension was well controlled. However, sorafenib plasma concentration was 3-fold greater (11.4 mg/L) and the patient experienced grade-3 anorexia. Since neither diarrhea nor cutaneous side effects were noticed at this time, sorafenib treatment was continued at the same daily dosage. On day 45, sorafenib plasma concentration was stable (10.8 mg/L) before declining on days 60 and 75 (7.0 mg/L and 7.4 mg/L, respectively), which was probably related to an occurrence of grade-2 diarrhea. This observation suggests a pharmacokinetic interaction involving CYP3A4 inhibition by felodipine. According to the Drug Interaction Probability Scale, this interaction was possible. Since hypertension is a common toxicity of sorafenib, clinicians should be aware of this possible interaction. The clinical relevance of pharmacokinetic interactions involving CYP3A4 inhibition in HCC patients receiving sorafenib is analyzed in this case report.
Investigational New Drugs 12/2011; 29(6):1511-4. DOI:10.1007/s10637-010-9514-3 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients treated with anti-VEGF agents are at increased risk for arterial thrombo-embolic events (ATEs). However, the pathophysiology of such acute vascular complications remains unclear. We report on a case of bowel infarction in a renal cancer patient treated with the anti-VEGF agent sunitinib. An abdominal CT-scan evidenced the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque located at the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery. In view of this report, we suggest that evaluation of the risk of ATE in patients receiving anti-VEGF agents should include not only age and past history of ATE as suggested by previous studies, but also assessment of atherosclerotic lesions on CT-scan.
Investigational New Drugs 12/2011; 29(6):1497-9. DOI:10.1007/s10637-010-9500-9 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity that may occur in patients receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents such as bevacizumab and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Little is known about the characteristics of patients at risk for PRES under anti-VEGF agents. We carried out a comprehensive review of reports documenting the occurrence of PRES in patients receiving anti-VEGF agents. Twenty-six patients are described with a majority of females (73.1%). Almost a third of patients had a past history of hypertension. The most common symptoms included headache, visual disturbance and seizure. A vast majority of patients had hypertension at the diagnosis of PRES, and proteinuria was detectable each time it was investigated. Neurological outcome was favorable in all cases with a symptomatic treatment including blood pressure control. The risk of PRES is increased when blood pressure is poorly controlled and when proteinuria is detectable. The clinical course appears favorable with a symptomatic treatment. PRES is a potentially severe but manageable toxicity of anti-VEGF agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intra-patient variability in sorafenib pharmacokinetics has been poorly investigated to date. We hypothesized that sorafenib clearance could decrease over time, as seen with imatinib.
Sorafenib plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography, every 2 weeks, in consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with sorafenib. Sorafenib dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was determined from a population pharmacokinetics model, and its kinetics was analyzed in order to identify possible alterations of exposure over time.
Fifteen hepatocellular carcinoma patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, in whom sorafenib dosing remained unchanged from initiation of treatment to disease progression, were eligible for this analysis. Sorafenib AUC significantly decreased over time: the median AUC during the third month of treatment was lower than that observed after one month of treatment (43.0 vs. 60.3 mg/L.h, p = 0.008). Most importantly, median sorafenib AUC at the time of progression was almost two-fold lower than that observed after one month of therapy (33.2 vs. 60.3 mg/L.h, p = 0.007). These findings suggest an induction of expression of efflux transporters in the gut wall, or an induction of sorafenib metabolism.
In patients with progressive disease in whom exposure markedly decreased from baseline, sorafenib dose escalation could be considered, aiming to restore an adequate drug exposure and possibly anti-tumor activity.
Investigational New Drugs 10/2011; 30(5):2046-9. DOI:10.1007/s10637-011-9764-8 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorafenib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. By using a population approach, this study aimed to characterise its pharmacokinetics. Plasma concentration-time data (n = 372) from 71 patients under sorafenib were analysed using nonlinear mixed-effect modelling to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters, as well as relationships between these parameters and different covariates (demographic, biological). Simulations were done to compare different daily dosing regimens in a context of dose-escalation. A 1-compartment model with saturated absorption, first-order intestinal loss and elimination best described the pharmacokinetics of sorafenib. Absolute bioavailability significantly dropped with increasing daily doses of sorafenib. AUC increased less than proportionally with increasing doses [47.3 (41.3-63.3), 60.3 (56.3-64.4), 71.4 (51.3-99.1), 75.9 (45.5-100.9) mg/L.h for 400, 800, 1,200 and 1,600 mg/day, respectively]. According to the simulations, dividing the daily dose in three or four doses for daily dose >800 mg would significantly increase AUC compared with a twice daily dosing regimen (101.7 vs 81.6 mg/L.h for 400 mg q8h and 600 mg q12h respectively; 131.6 vs 91.5 mg/L.h for 400 mg q6h and 800 mg q12h, respectively). Thrice daily regimen may be most suitable in a context of dose-escalation (>800 mg/day) in non-responders to standard-dosing regimen.
Investigational New Drugs 10/2011; 30(5):1991-2000. DOI:10.1007/s10637-011-9760-z · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, pneumatosis intestinalis has been described in patients receiving bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to VEGF-A. Pneumatosis intestinalis is a condition characterized by subserosal and submucosal gas-filled cysts in the gastrointestinal tract. We report on pneumatosis intestinalis in patients receiving oral anti-VEGF agents. Patients shared the following characteristics: long-term (> 4 months) exposure to anti-VEGF agents, lack of other factors predisposing to pneumatosis intestinalis, and lack of recent surgical intervention. Taken together, these observations suggest that pneumatosis intestinalis is a probable class-effect of anti-VEGF agents.
Investigational New Drugs 10/2011; 29(5):1090-3. DOI:10.1007/s10637-010-9458-7 · 2.92 Impact Factor