[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤ 1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the only large trial of AgPT.
ELBW infants (n=1974) were randomized to AgPT or conservative phototherapy at age 12 to 36 h. The effect of AgPT on outcomes (death, impairment, profound impairment, death or impairment (primary outcome), and death or profound impairment) at 18 to 22 months of corrected age was related to BW stratum (501 to 750 g; 751 to 1000 g) and baseline severity of illness using multilevel regression equations. The probability of benefit and of harm was directly assessed with Bayesian analyses.
Baseline illness severity was well characterized using mechanical ventilation and FiO(2) at 24 h age. Among mechanically ventilated infants ≤ 750 g BW (n=684), a reduction in impairment and in profound impairment was offset by higher mortality (P for interaction <0.05) with no significant effect on composite outcomes. Conservative Bayesian analyses of this subgroup identified a 99% (posterior) probability that AgPT increased mortality, a 97% probability that AgPT reduced impairment, and a 99% probability that AgPT reduced profound impairment.
Findings from the only large trial of AgPT suggest that AgPT may increase mortality while reducing impairment and profound impairment among the smallest and sickest infants. New approaches to reduce their serum bilirubin need development and rigorous testing.
Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 05/2012; 32(9):677-84. DOI:10.1038/jp.2012.64 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:Evaluate the efficacy of phototherapy (PT) devices and the outcomes of extremely premature infants treated with those devices.Study Design:This substudy of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network PT trial included 1404 infants treated with a single type of PT device during the first 24±12 h of treatment. The absolute (primary outcome) and relative decrease in total serum bilirubin (TSB) and other measures were evaluated. For infants treated with one PT type during the 2-week intervention period (n=1223), adjusted outcomes at discharge and 18 to 22 months corrected age were determined.Result:In the first 24 h, the adjusted absolute (mean (±s.d.)) and relative (%) decrease in TSB (mg dl(-1)) were: light-emitting diodes (LEDs) -2.2 (±3), -22%; Spotlights -1.7 (±2), -19%; Banks -1.3 (±3), -8%; Blankets -0.8 (±3), -1%; (P<0.0002). Some findings at 18 to 22 months differed between groups.Conclusion:LEDs achieved the greatest initial absolute reduction in TSB but were similar to Spots in the other performance measures. Long-term effects of PT devices in extremely premature infants deserve rigorous evaluation.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 12 April 2012; doi:10.1038/jp.2012.39.
Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 04/2012; 33(2). DOI:10.1038/jp.2012.39 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was a two-center, stratified, parallel-group randomized trial comparing the effects of aggressive vs. conservative phototherapy on brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) latencies in infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW, ≤ 1,000 g).
BAER latencies of 751-1,000 g birth-weight infants were shorter by 0.37 ms (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.02, 0.73) for wave V, 0.39 ms (0.08, 0.70) for wave III, and 0.33 ms (0.01, 0.65) for wave I after aggressive phototherapy at one center. Interwave intervals did not differ significantly. Similar nonsignificant trends were recorded for 501-750 g birth-weight infants. At the other participating center, no significant differences were recorded, cautioning against overgeneralizing these results.
The effects of bilirubin on the auditory pathway in ELBW infants depend on a complex interaction of bilirubin exposure, newborn characteristics, and clinical management.
Aggressive phototherapy was initiated sooner and continued at lower bilirubin levels than conservative phototherapy. A total of 174 ELBW infants were enrolled in the study; 111 infants were successfully tested at 35 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA); 57 died; and 6 were not successfully tested.
Pediatric Research 01/2012; 71(1):77-84. DOI:10.1038/pr.2011.17 · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare risk-adjusted outcomes at 18- to 22-month-corrected age for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who never received phototherapy (NoPTx) to those who received any phototherapy (PTx) in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network randomized trial of Aggressive vs. Conservative Phototherapy.
Outcomes at 18 to 22-month-corrected age included death, neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) and Bayley Scales Mental Developmental Index (MDI). Regression models evaluated the independent association of PTx with adverse outcomes controlling for centre and other potentially confounding variables.
Of 1972 infants, 216 were NoPTx and 1756 were PTx. For the entire 501- to 1000-g-BW cohort, PTx was not independently associated with death or NDI (OR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.60-1.20), death or adverse neurodevelopmental endpoints. However, among infants 501-750 g BW, the rate of significant developmental impairment with MDI < 50 was significantly higher for NoPTx (29%) than PTx (12%) (p = 0.004).
Phototherapy did not appear to be independently associated with death or NDI for the overall ELBW group. Whether PTx increases mortality could not be excluded because of bias from deaths before reaching conservative treatment threshold. The higher rate of MDI < 50 in the 501- to 750-g-BW NoPTx group is concerning and consistent with NRN Trial results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of retinopathy is lower in preterm infants with exposure to reduced levels of oxygenation than in those exposed to higher levels of oxygenation. However, it is unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate to minimize retinopathy without increasing adverse outcomes.
We performed a randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to compare target ranges of oxygen saturation of 85 to 89% or 91 to 95% among 1316 infants who were born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation. The primary outcome was a composite of severe retinopathy of prematurity (defined as the presence of threshold retinopathy, the need for surgical ophthalmologic intervention, or the use of bevacizumab), death before discharge from the hospital, or both. All infants were also randomly assigned to continuous positive airway pressure or intubation and surfactant.
The rates of severe retinopathy or death did not differ significantly between the lower-oxygen-saturation group and the higher-oxygen-saturation group (28.3% and 32.1%, respectively; relative risk with lower oxygen saturation, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.06; P=0.21). Death before discharge occurred more frequently in the lower-oxygen-saturation group (in 19.9% of infants vs. 16.2%; relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.60; P=0.04), whereas severe retinopathy among survivors occurred less often in this group (8.6% vs. 17.9%; relative risk, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.73; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the rates of other adverse events.
A lower target range of oxygenation (85 to 89%), as compared with a higher range (91 to 95%), did not significantly decrease the composite outcome of severe retinopathy or death, but it resulted in an increase in mortality and a substantial decrease in severe retinopathy among survivors. The increase in mortality is a major concern, since a lower target range of oxygen saturation is increasingly being advocated to prevent retinopathy of prematurity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00233324.)
New England Journal of Medicine 05/2010; 362(21):1959-69. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0911781 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of clinical status on the association between total plasma bilirubin and unbound bilirubin on death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months corrected age in extremely low birth weight infants.
Total plasma bilirubin and unbound bilirubin were measured in 1101 extremely low birth weight infants at 5 +/- 1 days of age. Clinical criteria were used to classify infants as clinically stable or unstable. Survivors were examined at 18-22 months corrected age by certified examiners. Outcome variables were death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss, and death prior to follow-up. For all outcomes, the interaction between bilirubin variables and clinical status was assessed in logistic regression analyses adjusted for multiple risk factors.
Regardless of clinical status, an increasing level of unbound bilirubin was associated with higher rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss and death before follow-up. Total plasma bilirubin values were directly associated with death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss, and death before follow-up in unstable infants, but not in stable infants. An inverse association between total plasma bilirubin and death or cerebral palsy was found in stable infants. CONCLUSIONs: In extremely low birth weight infants, clinical status at 5 days of age affects the association between total plasma bilirubin and death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months of corrected age. An increasing level of UB is associated a higher risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes regardless of clinical status. Increasing levels of total plasma bilirubin are directly associated with increasing risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in unstable, but not in stable infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less).
We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or conservative phototherapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death or neurodevelopmental impairment determined for 91% of the infants by investigators who were unaware of the treatment assignments.
Aggressive phototherapy, as compared with conservative phototherapy, significantly reduced the mean peak serum bilirubin level (7.0 vs. 9.8 mg per deciliter [120 vs. 168 micromol per liter], P<0.01) but not the rate of the primary outcome (52% vs. 55%; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.02; P=0.15). Aggressive phototherapy did reduce rates of neurodevelopmental impairment (26%, vs. 30% for conservative phototherapy; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.99). Rates of death in the aggressive-phototherapy and conservative-phototherapy groups were 24% and 23%, respectively (relative risk, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.22). In preplanned subgroup analyses, the rates of death were 13% with aggressive phototherapy and 14% with conservative phototherapy for infants with a birth weight of 751 to 1000 g and 39% and 34%, respectively (relative risk, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.34), for infants with a birth weight of 501 to 750 g.
Aggressive phototherapy did not significantly reduce the rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment alone was significantly reduced with aggressive phototherapy. This reduction may be offset by an increase in mortality among infants weighing 501 to 750 g at birth. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00114543.)
New England Journal of Medicine 11/2008; 359(18):1885-96. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0803024 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) would not decrease death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in infants enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Preemie iNO Trial (PiNO) trial, nor improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in the follow-up group.
Infants <34 weeks of age, weighing <1500 g, with severe respiratory failure were enrolled in the multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. NDI at 18 to 22 months corrected age was defined as: moderate to severe cerebral palsy (CP; Mental Developmental Index or Psychomotor score Developmental Index <70), blindness, or deafness.
Of 420 patients enrolled, 109 who received iNO (52%) and 98 who received placebo (47%) died. The follow-up rate in survivors was 90%. iNO did not reduce death or NDI (78% versus 73%; relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19), or NDI or Mental Developmental Index <70 in the follow-up group. Moderate-severe CP was slightly higher with iNO (RR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.01-5.75), as was death or CP in infants weighing <1000 g (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43).
In this extremely ill cohort, iNO did not reduce death or NDI or improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. Routine iNO use in premature infants should be limited to research settings until further data are available.
The Journal of pediatrics 08/2007; 151(1):16-22, 22.e1-3. DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.03.017 · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of sample dilution, peroxidase concentration, and chloride ion (Cl(-)) on plasma unbound bilirubin (B(f)) measurements made using a commercial peroxidase methodology (UB Analyzer) in a study population of ill, premature newborns.
B(f) was measured with a UB Analyzer in 74 samples at the standard 42-fold sample dilution and compared with B(f) measured at a 2-fold sample dilution using a FloPro Analyzer. B(f) was measured at two peroxidase concentrations to determine whether the peroxidase steady state B(f) (B(fss)) measurements were significantly less than the equilibrium B(f) (B(feq)), in which case it was necessary to calculate B(feq) from the two B(fss) measurements. B(f) was also measured before and after adding 100 mmol/L Cl(-) to the UB Analyzer assay buffer.
B(feq) at the 42-fold dilution was nearly 10-fold less than but it correlated significantly with B(feq) at the 2-fold dilution (mean 8.2+/-5.2 nmol/L versus 73.5+/-70 nmol/L, respectively, p<0.0001; correlation r=0.6). The two UB Analyzer B(fss) measurements were significantly less than B(feq) in 42 of 74 (57%) samples, and Cl(-) increased B(feq) in 66 of 74 (89%) samples by a mean of 82+/-67%.
B(fss) measured by the UB Analyzer at the standard 42-fold sample dilution using assay buffer without Cl(-) and a single peroxidase concentration is significantly less than the B(feq) in undiluted plasma. Accurate B(f) measurements can be made only in minimally diluted serum or plasma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that 4-month-old infants have a decrease in heart rate, a component of the orienting reflex, in response to interesting auditory stimuli and an increase in heart rate to aversive auditory stimuli.
To compare the heart rate responses of former preterm and term infants at 4-5 months corrected age to a recording of NICU noises.
13 former preterm infants and 17 full-term infants were presented NICU noise and another noise of similar level and frequency content in random order. Heart rate 10s prior to the stimulus and for 20s during the stimulus was analyzed. Group differences in second by second heart rate changes in response to the two noise stimuli were compared by analysis of covariance.
Both the preterm and term newborns responded similarly to the NICU noise and the control noise. The preterm infants did not alter their heart rate in response to either stimulus. In contrast, the term infants displayed an orienting response to the second stimulus presented regardless of whether it was the NICU or control noise.
Former preterm infants at 4-5 months corrected age have reduced responsiveness to auditory stimulation in comparison to 4- to 5-month-old term infants. Furthermore, they did not respond to the NICU noise as an aversive stimulus.
Early Human Development 12/2006; 82(11):703-7. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.02.009 · 1.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare duration of ventilation to mortality and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes among extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 501-1000 g) infants.
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 5364 infants with a birthweight of 501 to 1000 g born at National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network centers from 1995 to 1998. The main outcome measures were: survival, duration of mechanical ventilation, and neurodevelopmental outcome.
Overall survival was 71%. The median duration of ventilation for survivors was 23 days; 75% were free of mechanical ventilation by 39 days, and 7% were ventilated for > or = 60 days. Of those ventilated for > or = 60 days, 24% survived without impairment. Of those ventilated for > or = 90 days, only 7% survived without impairment. Of those ventilated > or = 120 days, all survivors were impaired.
The prognosis for ELBW with protracted ventilation remains grim. The cohort who remain intubated have diminished survival and high rates of impairment. Parents of these infants should be informed of changes in prognosis as the time of ventilation increases.
Journal of Pediatrics 07/2005; 146(6):798-804. DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.047 · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the influence of medical complications, gestational age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the changes in anthropometric measures and severity of neurologic impairment from 6 to 54 months of age in premature and term infants.
This study was a prospective longitudinal study to determine predictors of patterns of growth and neurologic outcome in low-risk (n=137) and high-risk (n=96) preterm infants compared to full-term infants (n=136). Growth modeling analyses were used to evaluate factors that might influence patterns of physical growth and changes in neurologic status.
Medical risk level was a predictor of height and head circumference at 30 months and neurologic outcome. Gender was a predictor of weight gain. Medical risk level and gender predicted 13.8% and 32% of the variance in head circumference and neurologic scores, respectively.
Medical complications after birth and gender are stronger influences than gestational age on patterns of growth and neurologic outcome.
Journal of Perinatology 02/2002; 22(1):31-6. DOI:10.1038/sj.jp.7210590 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive sound is an acknowledged problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs); however, there is relatively little objective information about the effects of sound on the newborn. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems have been the most extensively studied systems. The patterns of response in these systems may be influenced by a variety of factors, including: the intensity of the sound, the infant's behavioral state, the infant's maturity and postnatal age, and the perinatal history. This article reviews the known cardiovascular, respiratory, and other physiological effects of sound on neonates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis among preterm infants of < or =32 weeks gestation by comparing the severity of illness and cost of RSV-related care during the two winter seasons before (1994 to 1995, 1995 to 1996) with the two seasons after initiation of prophylaxis (1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998).
Preterm infants of < or =32 weeks gestation at risk for hospitalization with RSV infection were identified retrospectively from the infants hospitalized in our neonatal units. Infants were included if they (1) were born 6 months before or during four winter seasons (1994 to 1998), (2) were discharged from the neonatal unit and (3) had remained in the university outpatient clinic system during at least the first winter of life. Preterm infants of < or =32 weeks gestation hospitalized with RSV were identified from our RSV database (which includes cost of hospitalization, duration of hospital stay, pediatric intensive care unit stay and intubation). Infants receiving prophylaxis were identified prospectively.
The incidence of hospitalization with RSV was significantly lower among the cohort of infants born after initiation of prophylaxis: 8.7% (17 of 195) vs. 22% (35 of 159), P = 0.00049 by two tailed Fisher's exact test. Among the cohort of infants born after initiation of prophylaxis (n = 195), 100 infants received prophylaxis. The gestational and chronologic ages of the prophylaxis-treated infants were significantly lower than those of the non-prophylaxis-treated infants (n = 95). The prophylaxis-treated infants also were more likely to have bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Only 1 (1%) of the prophylaxis-treated infants required hospitalization for RSV. Comparison of the cohort of infants born before initiation of prophylaxis to the cohort born after initiation of prophylaxis (includes prophylaxis-treated and non-prophylaxis-treated infants) revealed a significant reduction in severity of illness and cost. The length of stay in the cohort born before initiation of prophylaxis was reduced 83.8%: 373.6 days per 100 infants at risk vs. 60.5 (P = 0.00055). The length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit was reduced 92.7%: 218.2 days per 100 infants at risk vs. 15.9 (P = 0.00029). The duration of intubation was reduced 95.6%: 187.4 days per 100 infants at risk vs. 8.2 (P = 0.00024). The dollars spent for RSV-related care (hospitalizations and prophylaxis) per 100 infants at risk for RSV was reduced 65% in the cohort of infants born after prophylaxis: $670,590 per 100 infants at risk vs. $234,596 (P = 0.00056). This reduction remained significant (64.9%) if the cost of ribavirin (drug and administration fees) was excluded from the cost of hospitalization.
These data reveal that RSV prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of RSV hospitalizations and severity of illness as well as the cost of RSV-related care among these infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is a prospective, longitudinal study of premature infants investigating whether the length of time needed to reach full enteral feedings (FEF) or full nipple feedings (FNF) is related to medical complications and/or developmental outcome at 24 months corrected age. Premature infants (n = 161) from three institutions with birth weights less than 1,600 grams were followed up from birth to 24 months corrected age. The infants were stratified into groups by the severity of medical complications. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were performed at 24 months corrected age. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the association between feeding milestones, medical complications, and developmental outcomes. Our results show that when controlling for birth weight and gestational age (GA), the severity of respiratory complications was significantly related to reaching FEF (p = 0.024) and FNF (p = 0.0014). Furthermore, when controlling for the severity of respiratory complications, GA, and socioeconomic status, an increased length of time to FEF was significantly associated with a poorer mental outcome (p = 0.0013). We conclude that there is an association between the length of time to reach FEF and mental developmental outcome at 24 months corrected age. Infants who reach full enteral feedings at an earlier age appear to have a better developmental outcome despite their GA and severity of respiratory complications.