A William Blackstock

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (96)399.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The management of rectal cancer in patients with metastatic disease at presentation is highly variable. There are no phase III trials addressing therapeutic approaches, and the optimal sequencing of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery remains unresolved. Although chemoradiation is standard for patients with stage II/III rectal cancer, its role in the metastatic setting is controversial. Omitting chemoradiation may not be appropriate in all stage IV patients, particularly those with symptomatic primary tumors. Moreover, outcomes in this setting are vastly different, as some treatments carry the potential for cure in selected patients, while others are purely palliative. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application, by the panel, of a well-established consensus methodology (Modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures. In instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used as the basis for recommending imaging or treatment.
    Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 10/2014; 28(10). · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy (AHRT) have favorable local control (LC) relative to conventional fractionation in the treatment of stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the results of our single institution experience with the treatment of early stage NSCLC with SBRT or AHRT in cases where SBRT was felt to be suboptimal. One hundred and sixty patients with Stage 1 and node negative Stage 2 NSCLC were treated with SBRT or AHRT from 2003 to 2011. Median follow-up was 29.4 and 19 months (mo), respectively. The median dose was 54Gy in 3 fractions (fx) (SBRT) and 70.2Gy in 26 fx (AHRT). Acute and late toxicities (tox) were graded (G) per CTCAE v4. Time to local (LF), regional (RF) and distant (DF) failure were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The impact of patient and tumor related factors on LF were estimated by multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Three-year LC rates were 87.7% (SBRT) and 71.7% (AHRT). The 3-year freedom from DF was 73.3% and 68.1%. Median OS was 38.4 (95% CI 29.7-51.6) and 35 (95% CI 22-48.3) mo. No G3 or 4 tox were observed. At 1 year, 30% and 50% of complications resolved, while (5-6%) had persistent chest wall pain. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing dose per fraction and tumor size (>5.5 vs. 4cm) in the AHRT and SBRT group were found to be associated with a reduced (HR 0.33 95% CI 0.13-0.84, p=0.021) and increased (HR: 6.372 95% CI 1.23-32.92, p=0.027) hazard for local failure respectively. Our results compare favorably with other reports of treatment for early stage NSCLC. AHRT patients had comparable LC despite increased size and central disease. Toxicity was limited and overall survival, regional and distant recurrences were similar between groups.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 04/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regional failures occur in up to 15% of patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I/II lung cancer. This report focuses on the management of the unique scenario of isolated regional failures. Patients treated initially with SBRT or accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy were screened for curative intent treatment of isolated mediastinal failures (IMFs). Local control, regional control, progression-free survival, and distant control were estimated from the date of salvage treatment using the Kaplan-Meier method. Among 160 patients treated from 2002 to 2012, 12 suffered IMF and were amenable to salvage treatment. The median interval between treatments was 16 months (2-57 mo). Median salvage dose was 66 Gy (60-70 Gy). With a median follow-up of 10 months, the median overall survival was 15 months (95% confidence interval, 5.8-37 mo). When estimated from original treatment, the median overall survival was 38 months (95% confidence interval, 17-71 mo). No subsequent regional failures occurred. Distant failure was the predominant mode of relapse following salvage for IMF with a 2-year distant control rate of 38%. At the time of this analysis, three patients have died without recurrence while four are alive and no evidence of disease. High-grade toxicity was uncommon. To our knowledge, this is first analysis of salvage mediastinal radiation after SBRT or accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy in lung cancer. Outcomes appear similar to stage III disease at presentation. Distant failures were common, suggesting a role for concurrent or sequential chemotherapy. A standard full course of external beam radiotherapy is advisable in this unique clinical scenario.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 04/2014; 9(4):572-6. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management for in-field failures after thoracic radiation is poorly defined. We evaluated SBRT as an initial or second course of treatment re-irradiating in a prior high dose region. Thirty-three patients were treated with re-irradiation defined by the prior 30Gy isodose line. Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed for local (LC), regional (RC), distant control (DC), and overall survival (OS). The plans when available were summed to evaluate doses to critical structures. Patient and treatment variables were analyzed on UVA for the impact on control and survival measures. Median follow-up was 17months. Treatment for sequential courses was as follows: (course1:course2) EBRT:SBRT (24 patients), SBRT:SBRT (7 patients), and SBRT:EBRT (3 patients). Median re-irradiation dose and fractionation was 50Gy and 10 fractions (fx), with a median of 18months (6-61) between treatments. Median OS was 21months and 2year LC 67%, yet LC for >1 fraction was 88% (p=0.006 for single vs. multiple). 10 patients suffered chronic grade 2-3 toxicity (6 chest wall pain, 3 dyspnea, 1 esophagitis) and 1 grade 5 toxicity with aorta-esophageal fistula after 54Gy in 3 fx for a central tumor with an estimated EQD2 to the aorta of 200Gy. Tumor control can be established with re-irradiation using SBRT techniques for in-field thoracic failures at the cost of manageable toxicity.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 01/2014; · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) & Accelerated Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy (AHRT) have favorable local control (LC) relative to conventional fractionation in the treatment of Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We report the results of our single institution experience with the treatment of early stage NSCLC with SBRT or AHRT in cases where SBRT was felt to be suboptimal. Methods One hundred and sixty patients with Stage 1 and node negative Stage 2 NSCLC were treated with SBRT or AHRT from 2003-2011. Median follow-up was 29.4 and 19 months (mo) respectively. The median dose was 54 Gy in 3 fractions (fx) (SBRT) and 70.2 Gy in 26 fx (AHRT). Acute & late toxicities (tox) were graded (G) per CTCAE v4. Time to local (LF), regional (RF) and distant (DF) failure were estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. The impact of patient and tumor related factors on LF were estimated by multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results Three yr LC rates were 87.7% (SBRT) and 71.7% (AHRT). The 3 yr freedom from DF was 73.3% and 68.1%. Median OS was 38.4 (95% CI 29.7-51.6) and 35 (95% CI 22-48.3) mo. No G3 or 4 tox were observed. At 1 year, 30% and 50% of complications resolved, while (5-6%) had persistent chest wall pain. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing dose per fraction and tumor size (>5.5 vs. 4 cm) in the AHRT and SBRT group were found to be associated with a reduced (HR of 0.33 (95% CI 0.13-0.84 p = 0.021) and increased (HR: 6.372 95% CI 1.23-32.92 p = 0.027) hazard for local failure respectively. Conclusions Our results compare favorably with other reports of treatment for early stage NSCLC. AHRT patients had comparable LC despite increased size and central disease. Toxicity was limited and overall survival, regional and distant recurrences were similar between groups.
    Lung Cancer. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The management of anal cancer is driven by randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials. However, trials may present conflicting conclusions. Furthermore, different clinical situations may not be addressed in certain trials because of eligibility inclusion criteria. Although prospective studies point to the use of definitive 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C-based chemoradiation as a standard, some areas remain that are not well defined. In particular, management of very early stage disease, radiation dose, and the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy remain unaddressed by phase III studies. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria® are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
    Gastrointestinal cancer research: GCR 01/2014; 7(1):4-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Standard therapy for limited stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC) is concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by prophylactic cranial radiotherapy. Predictors of post chemoradiotherapy pulmonary toxicity in limited stage (LS) small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients are not well defined. Current guidelines are derived from non-small cell lung cancer regimens, and do not account for the unique biology of this disease. Therefore, we analyzed patients on three consecutive CALGB LS-SCLC trials treated with concurrent chemotherapy and daily high dose radiotherapy (70 Gy) to determine patient and treatment related factors predicting for post-treatment pulmonary toxicity. Patients treated on CALGB protocols 39808, 30002, 30206 investigating two cycles of chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy and 70 Gy daily thoracic radiation therapy were pooled. Patient, tumor, and treatment related factors were evaluated to determine predictors of grade 3–5 pulmonary toxicities after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. 100 patients were included. No patient experienced grade 4–5 post-treatment pulmonary toxicity. Patients who experienced post-treatment pulmonary toxicity were more likely to be older (median age 69 vs 60, p = 0.09) and have smaller total lung volumes (2565 cc vs 3530 cc, p = 0.05).). Furthermore,exposure of larger volumes of lung to lower (median V5 = 70%, p = 0.09, median V10 = 63%, p = 0.07), inter-mediate (median V20 = 50, p = 0.04) and high (median V60 = 25%, p = 0.01) doses of radiation were all associated with post-treatment grade 3 pulmonary toxicity, as was a larger mean lung radiation dose(median 31 Gy) p = 0.019. Post-treatment pulmonary toxicity following the completion of 2 cycles of chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy and high dose daily radiation therapy was uncommon. Care should be taken to minimize mean lung radiation exposure, as well as volumes of low, intermediate and high doses of radiation.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 12/2013; 82(3):436-40. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Suzanne Russo, A William Blackstock
    Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 10/2013; 27(10):976-7. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Arta Monir Monjazeb, A William Blackstock
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    ABSTRACT: The benefit of multimodality therapy is clearly established for adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction, but its impact on toxicity is not well defined. We reviewed data from prospective randomized trials to better define the risks of multimodality therapy. The rates of surgical mortality and complications range from 0% to 10% and 23% to 49%, respectively. Multimodality therapy increases acute toxicity. The rate of severe acute hematologic toxicity varies considerably between trials (3%-78%) and appears to be primarily attributable to chemotherapy. Common severe acute nonhematologic toxicities include esophagitis (16%-63%), infection (2%-30%), pain (3%-24%), and gastrointestinal (6%-60%) and cardiac (3%-19%) events. The individual contribution of each modality to nonhematologic toxicities is unclear, but toxicity is increased when adding radiosensitizing chemotherapy to radiotherapy. There is an acute decrease in quality of life with multimodality therapy; however, quality of life usually returns to, or exceeds, baseline by 12 months after therapy. Late toxicities are less well defined, but commonly include esophageal, pulmonary, and cardiac toxicities.
    Seminars in radiation oncology 01/2013; 23(1):60-73. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Standard therapy for limited stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC) is concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by prophylactic cranial radiotherapy. Predictors of post chemoradiotherapy pulmonary toxicity in limited stage (LS) small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients are not well defined. Current guidelines are derived from non-small cell lung cancer regimens, and do not account for the unique biology of this disease. Therefore, we analyzed patients on three consecutive CALGB LS-SCLC trials treated with concurrent chemotherapy and daily high dose radiotherapy (70 Gy) to determine patient and treatment related factors predicting for post-treatment pulmonary toxicity. Methods Patients treated on CALGB protocols 39808, 30002, 30206 investigating two cycles of chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy and 70 Gy daily thoracic radiation therapy were pooled. Patient, tumor, and treatment related factors were evaluated to determine predictors of grade 3–5 pulmonary toxicities after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Results 100 patients were included. No patient experienced grade 4–5 post-treatment pulmonary toxicity. Patients who experienced post-treatment pulmonary toxicity were more likely to be older (median age 69 vs 60, p = 0.09) and have smaller total lung volumes (2565 cc vs 3530 cc, p = 0.05).). Furthermore, exposure of larger volumes of lung to lower (median V5 = 70%, p = 0.09, median V10 = 63%, p = 0.07), intermediate (median V20 = 50, p = 0.04) and high (median V60 = 25%, p = 0.01) doses of radiation were all associated with post-treatment grade 3 pulmonary toxicity, as was a larger mean lung radiation dose (median 31 Gy) p = 0.019. Conclusion Post-treatment pulmonary toxicity following the completion of 2 cycles of chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy and high dose daily radiation therapy was uncommon. Care should be taken to minimize mean lung radiation exposure, as well as volumes of low, intermediate and high doses of radiation.
    Lung Cancer. 01/2013; 82(3):436–440.
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEBevacizumab and erlotinib have been shown to improve survival in stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This phase I/II trial was designed to incorporate these agents with induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy in stage III NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients received induction chemotherapy (carboplatin area under the curve [AUC] 6, paclitaxel 225 mg/m(2), and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on days 1 and 22) followed by concurrent chemotherapy (carboplatin AUC 2 and paclitaxel 45 mg/m(2) weekly with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every other week for four doses) and thoracic conformal radiation therapy (TCRT) to 74 Gy. In the phase I portion, cohort 1 received no erlotinib, whereas cohorts 2 and 3 received erlotinib at 100 and 150 mg, respectively, Tuesday through Friday, during TCRT. Consolidation therapy with erlotinib (150 mg daily) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) was planned 3 to 6 weeks later for six cycles.ResultsForty-five eligible patients were enrolled. The objective response rates to induction and overall treatment were 39% (95% CI, 24% to 55%) and 60% (95% CI, 44% to 75%), respectively. The median progression-free and overall survival times were 10.2 months (95% CI, 8.4 to 18.3 months) and 18.4 months (95% CI, 13.4 to 31.7 months), respectively. The principal toxicity was esophagitis (29% grade 3 or 4 esophagitis, with one patient with grade 3 tracheoesophageal fistula), which was often prolonged. Consolidation therapy with bevacizumab and erlotinib was not feasible. CONCLUSION The use of bevacizumab and erlotinib as administered in this trial is not recommended given the lack of an efficacy signal and the substantial risk of esophageal toxicity.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2012; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: Gemcitabine is a potent radiosensitizer. When combined with standard radiotherapy (XRT) the gemcitabine dose must be reduced to about 10% of its conventional dose. Oxaliplatin and erlotinib also have radiosensitizing properties. Oxaliplatin and gemcitabine have demonstrated synergy in vitro. We aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine with concurrent XRT, then oxaliplatin, gemcitaibine, and erlotinib with XRT in the treatment of locally advanced and low-volume metastatic pancreatic or biliary cancer. METHODS:: A modified 3+3 dose-escalation design was used for testing 4 dose levels of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine given once weekly for a maximum of 6 weeks with daily XRT in fractions of 1.8 Gy to a total dose of 50.4 Gy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any grade 4 toxicity or grade 3 toxicity resulting in a treatment delay of >1 week. In addition, dose reduction in 2 of the 3 patients in a given cohort was counted as a DLT in dose escalation-deescalation rule in the modified 3+3 design. RESULTS:: Eighteen patients were enrolled, all with pancreatic cancer. Grade 4 transaminitis in a patient in cohort 3 resulted in cohort expansion. Cohort 4, the highest planned dose cohort, had no DLTs. The recommended phase II dose is oxaliplatin 50 mg/m/wk with gemcitabine 200 mg/m/wk and 50.4 Gy XRT. The most prevalent grade 3 toxicities were nausea (22%), elevated transaminases (17%), leucopenia (17%), and hyperglycemia (17%). Median progression-free survival was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval, 4.6-11.1 mo) and median overall survival was 10.8 months (95% confidence interval, 7.1-16.7 mo). The addition of erlotinib was poorly tolerated at the first planned dose level, but full study of the combination was hindered by early closure of the study. CONCLUSIONS:: Weekly oxaliplatin 50 mg/m/wk combined with gemcitabine 200 mg/m/wk and XRT for pancreatic cancer has acceptable toxicity and interesting activity.
    American journal of clinical oncology 04/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    Randall J Kimple, Suzanne Russo, Arta Monjazeb, A William Blackstock
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    ABSTRACT: Conflicting data and substantial controversy exist regarding optimal adjuvant treatment for those patients with resectable or potentially resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Despite improvements in short-term surgical outcomes, the use of newer chemotherapeutic agents, development of targeted agents and more precise delivery of radiation, the 5-year survival rates for early-stage patients remains less than 25%. This article critically reviews the existing data for various adjuvant treatment approaches for patients with surgically resectable pancreatic cancer. Our review confirms that despite several randomized clinical trials, the optimal adjuvant treatment approach for these patients remains unclear.
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 04/2012; 12(4):469-80. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions. These Criteria are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The development and review of these guidelines includes an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.Local recurrence of rectal cancer can result in devastating symptoms for patients, including intractable pain and discharge. Prior treatment can limit subsequent treatment options. Preoperative 5-FU based chemoradiotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with a local recurrence who did not receive adjuvant therapy after initial resection or who might have received chemotherapy alone. Chemoradiotherapy followed by evaluation for surgery is the preferred treatment for patients who have undergone previous radiotherapy after surgery. The inclusion of surgery has resulted in the best outcomes in a majority of studies. Palliative chemoradiotherapy is appropriate for patients who have received previous radiotherapy whose recurrent disease is considered inoperable. Radiotherapy can be delivered on a standard or hyperfractionated treatment schedule.Newer systemic treatments have improved response rates and given physicians more options for treating patients in this difficult situation. The use of induction chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy is an evolving treatment option. Specialized treatment modalities should be used at institutions with experience in these techniques and preferably in patients enrolled in clinical trials.
    Gastrointestinal cancer research: GCR 01/2012; 5(1):3-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Among patients with resected colon cancer, black patients have worse survival than whites. We investigated whether disparities in survival and related endpoints would persist when patients were treated with identical therapies in controlled clinical trials. We assessed 14,611 patients (1218 black and 13,393 white) who received standardized adjuvant treatment in 12 randomized controlled clinical trials conducted in North America for resected stage II and stage III colon cancer between 1977 and 2002. Individual patient data on covariates and outcomes were extracted from the Adjuvant Colon Cancer ENdpoinTs (ACCENT) database. The endpoints examined in this meta-analysis were overall survival (time to death), recurrence-free survival (time to recurrence or death), and recurrence-free interval (time to recurrence). Cox models were stratified by study and controlled for sex, stage, age, and treatment to determine the effect of race. Kaplan-Meier estimates were adjusted for similar covariates to control for confounding. All statistical tests were two-sided. Black patients were younger than whites (median age, 58 vs 61 years, respectively; P < .001) and more likely to be female (55% vs 45%, respectively; P < .001). Overall survival was worse in black patients than whites (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 1.34, P < .001). Five-year overall survival rates for blacks and whites were 68.2% and 72.8%, respectively. When subsets defined by sex, stage, and age were analyzed, overall survival was consistently worse in black patients. Recurrence-free survival was worse in black patients than whites (HR of recurrence or death = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.24, P = .0045). Three-year recurrence-free survival rates in blacks and whites were 68.4% and 72.1%, respectively. In contrast, recurrence-free interval was similar in black and white patients (HR of recurrence = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.97 to 1.19, P = .15). Three-year recurrence-free interval rates in blacks and whites were 71.3% and 74.2%, respectively. Black patients with resected stage II and stage III colon cancer who were treated with the same therapy as white patients experienced worse overall and recurrence-free survival, but similar recurrence-free interval, compared with white patients. The differences in survival may be mostly because of factors unrelated to the patients' adjuvant colon cancer treatment.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 10/2011; 103(20):1498-506. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients receiving thoracic radiation often develop pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Currently, there are no effective measures to prevent or treat these conditions. We tested whether blockade of the chemokine, CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 3, and its receptors, CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 1 and CCR5, can prevent radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. C57BL/6J mice received thoracic radiation, and the interaction of CCL3 with CCR1 or CCR5 was blocked using genetic techniques, or by pharmacologic intervention. Lung inflammation was assessed by histochemical staining of lung tissue and by flow cytometry. Fibrosis was measured by hydroxyproline assays and collagen staining, and lung function was studied by invasive procedures. Irradiated mice lacking CCL3 or its receptor, CCR1, did not develop the lung inflammation, fibrosis, and decline in lung function seen in irradiated wild-type mice. Pharmacologic treatment of wild-type mice with a small molecule inhibitor of CCR1 also prevented lung inflammation and fibrosis. By contrast, mice lacking CCR5 were not protected from radiation-induced injury and fibrosis. The selective interaction of CCL3 with its receptor, CCR1, is critical for radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, and these conditions can be largely prevented by a small molecule inhibitor of CCR1.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 07/2011; 45(1):127-35. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and gemcitabine administered concurrently with radiation in patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma deemed locally unresectable without evidence of metastatic disease. In addition, all patients underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy before study entry to rule out peritoneal carcinomatosis. Patients received radiation therapy (50.4 Gy) with concurrent infusional 5FU (200 mg/m(2) 5 days/week) and weekly gemcitabine (200 mg/m(2) ). After a 3-week break, patients received weekly gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m(2) for 3 of 4 weeks, for 4 cycles. The primary endpoint of the trial was the proportion of patients surviving 9 months from study entry. Secondary endpoints included objective tumor response, CA19-9 response, overall survival (OS) time to progression (TTP), and toxicity. Between November 2001 and October 2004, 81 patients were enrolled, 78 of whom were eligible for analysis. With a median follow-up of 55.2 months, the median OS was 12.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9-14.9) and the median TTP was 10 months (95% CI, 6.4-12.0). An objective tumor response was seen in 19 patients (25%), and among 56 patients with an elevated CA19-9 at baseline, 29 (52%) had a sustained CA19-9 response. Overall, 41% of patients had grade 3 or greater treatment-related gastrointestinal adverse events. The combination of 5FU, gemcitabine, and radiation is well tolerated. Survival is comparable with the best results of other recent studies of 5FU and radiation or gemcitabine and radiation.
    Cancer 06/2011; 117(12):2620-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 04/2011; 81(4):e269-74. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Practical radiation oncology. 01/2011; 1(4):279-81.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can delineate patients with esophageal cancer who may not benefit from esophagectomy after chemoradiotherapy. We reviewed records of 163 patients with histologically confirmed stage I to IVA esophageal cancer receiving chemoradiotherapy with or without resection with curative intent. All patients received surgical evaluation. Initial and postchemoradiotherapy FDG-PET scans and prognostic/treatment variables were analyzed. FDG-PET complete response (PET-CR) after chemoradiotherapy was defined as standardized uptake value ≤ 3. Eighty-eight patients received trimodality therapy and 75 received chemoradiotherapy. Surgery was deferred primarily due to medical inoperability or unresectable/metastatic disease after chemoradiotherapy. A total of 105 patients were evaluable for postchemoradiotherapy FDG-PET response. Thirty-one percent achieved a PET-CR. PET-CR predicted for improved outcomes for chemoradiotherapy (2-year overall survival, 71% v 11%, P < .01; 2-year freedom from local failure [LFF], 75% v 28%, P < .01), but not trimodality therapy. On multivariate analysis of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy, PET-CR is the strongest independent prognostic variable (survival hazard ratio [HR], 9.82, P < .01; LFF HR, 14.13, P < .01). PET-CR predicted for improved outcomes regardless of histology, although patients with adenocarcinoma achieved a PET-CR less often. Patients treated with trimodality therapy found no benefit with PET-CR, likely because FDG-PET residual disease was resected. Definitive chemoradiotherapy patients achieving PET-CR had excellent outcomes equivalent to trimodality therapy despite poorer baseline characteristics. Patients who achieve a PET-CR may not benefit from added resection given their excellent outcomes without resection. These results should be validated in a prospective trial of FDG-PET-directed therapy for esophageal cancer.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2010; 28(31):4714-21. · 18.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
399.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Winston-Salem State University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Human Oncology
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 1999–2011
    • Wake Forest University
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Comprehensive Cancer Center
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2009
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Syracuse, NY, United States
  • 2008
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1996–2008
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States