Jong-Heon Won

Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (11)26.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of madecassic acid and madecassoside isolated from Centella asiatica (Umbelliferae) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Both madecassic acid and madecassoside inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6. However, madecassic acid more potently suppressed these inflammatory mediators than did madecassoside. Consistent with these observations, madecassic acid inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 at the protein level and of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 at the mRNA level in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, as determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Furthermore, madecassic acid suppressed the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and this was associated with the abrogation of inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha) degradation and with the subsequent blocking of p65 protein translocation to the nucleus. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of madecassic acid are caused by iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 inhibition via the downregulation of NF-kappaB activation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
    Planta Medica 09/2009; 76(3):251-7. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To isolate the anti-inflammatory components in Siegesbeckia pubescens root, we performed activity-guided fractionation using a carrageenan-induced edema rat model. Antinociceptive effects were followed using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate tests in mice. Chloroform extract was subjected to silica gel and octadesyl silane (ODS) column chromatography, and a diterpene was isolated which was identified as ent-16alphaH,17-hydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid (siegeskaurolic acid). Pretreatment with siegeskaurolic acid (20 or 30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in these animal models. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory action, we investigated the effect of siegeskaurolic acid on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Siegeskaurolic acid was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Consistent with these findings, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins, and iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-alpha mRNAs were found to be inhibited by siegeskaurolic acid. Furthermore, siegeskaurolic acid inhibited the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with the prevention of inhibitor kappaB degradation (I kappaB), and subsequently with decreased nuclear p65 and p50 protein levels. Taken together, our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of siegeskaurolic acid may be due to iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha inhibition via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 04/2007; 558(1-3):185-93. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During our efforts to find bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we isolated gigantol from the whole plants of Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae) by activity-guided chromatographic fractionation. Gigantol was found to have potent inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (2) (PGE (2)) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Consistent with these findings, gigantol suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein and mRNA levels in RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data also indicate that gigantol is a potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release and influenced the mRNA expression levels of these cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a reporter gene assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and an electromobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that gigantol effectively inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB, which is necessary for the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. Thus, our studies suggest that gigantol inhibits LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression by blocking NF- kappaB activation.
    Planta Medica 11/2006; 72(13):1181-7. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During our ongoing efforts to identify bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we produced an extract from Ginkgo biloba (GBB) which contains higher levels of the active principles terpene and biflavonoid than EGb, the standard commercially available extract. In the present study, we examined and compared the effects of these two extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. Our data indicate that GBB is a more potent inhibitor of NO and PGE2 production than EGb 761, and it also significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release. Consistent with these observations, the protein and mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were found to be inhibited by GBB in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GBB inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which was associated with the prevention of IkappaB degradation, and subsequently with decreased p65 protein level in the nucleus. These results suggest that GBB inhibits LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha expressions through the down-regulation of NF-kappaB-DNA binding activity.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 06/2006; 29(5):985-90. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Buddlejasaponin IV isolated from Pleurospermum kamtschatidum is an anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha production. Here, we studied the mode of action of this compound. Buddlejasaponin IV (2.5-10 microM) reduced lipopolysaccaride (LPS (1 microg ml(-1)))-induced levels of iNOS and COX-2 at the protein levels, and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Buddlejasaponin IV inhibited the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor necessary for proinflammatory mediators, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 expression. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction in IkappaB-alpha degradation and phosphorylation, and by the nuclear translocation of the NF-kappaB p65 subunit. The effects of buddlejasaponin IV on acute phase inflammation were studied on serotonin- and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The antiedematous effect of buddlejasaponin IV was compared with 10 mg kg(-1) of indomethacin p.o. Maximum inhibitions of 26 and 41% were noted at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) for serotonin- and carrageenan-induced paw edema, respectively. The analgesic effect of buddlejasaponin IV was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests. Buddlejasaponin IV (10 and 20 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was found to have a marked analgesic effect in both models. These results suggest that the inhibitions of the expressions of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 by blocking NF-kappaB activation, are responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of buddlejasaponin IV isolated from P. kamtschatidum.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2006; 148(2):216-25. · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the effects of several triterpenes isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax chiisanensis (Araliaceae), namely, chiisanoside, isochiisanoside, 22-hydroxychiisanoside and chiisanogenin (the aglycone of chiisanoside) were evaluated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. Of the triterpenes tested, chiisanoside was found to most potently inhibit NO and PGE2 production. In addition, chiisanoside significantly reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Consistent with these observations, the protein and mRNA expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 enzyme were found to be inhibited by chiisanoside in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, chiisanoside inhibited the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation induced by LPS and this was associated with a reduction in p65 protein in the nucleus and with the phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and JNK MAP kinases. Taken together, our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of chiisanoside might be the result from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta expression through the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 11/2005; 28(10):1919-24. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200 mg/(kgday), p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activity, as determined by an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. To reveal the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of MEIO, we examined its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. MEIO was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, MEIO potently inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, MEIO inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and this was associated with the prevention of inhibitor kappaB degradation and a reduction in nuclear p65 protein levels. Taken together, our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of MEIO may be due to the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 11/2005; 101(1-3):120-8. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As an attempt to search for bioactive natural products exerting antiinflammatory activity, we have isolated two saponins were isolated from the aerial portion of Pleurospermum kamtschaticum (Umbelliferae) by nitrite assay activity-directed chromatographic fractionation. They were identified as saikogenin F 3-O-{beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranoside} (buddlejasaponin IV, 1) and 3beta,16beta,23,28-tetrahydroxy-11alpha-methoxyolean-12-ene 3-O-{beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranoside} (buddlejasaponin IVa, 2). Compound 1 significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production, and it also significantly decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage Raw 264.7 cells whereas compound 2 was much less active. Saikogenin A (3) and -H (4) were obtained by hydrolyzing 1 and 2. Although these sapogenin showed strong NO inhibition, these effects were caused by the cytotoxic effect on Raw 264.7 cells. These results supported the notion that buddlejasaponin IV is a major inhibitors of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production in P. kamtschaticum.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 10/2005; 28(9):1668-71. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis (MEMO) (Rubiaceae) were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. The effects of MEMO on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)induced responses in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were examined. MEMO potently inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these results, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level, and of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha at the mRNA level, was also inhibited by MEMO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEMO inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with the prevention of degradation of the inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB), and subsequently with attenuated p65 protein in the nucleus. The anti-inflammatory effect of MEMO was examined in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema model. The antinociceptive effects of MEMO were assessed in mice using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and the hot-plate test. MEMO (100, 200 mg kg-1 per day, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in these animal models. Taken together, the data demonstrate that MEMO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, inhibiting iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha expression by down-regulating NF-kappaB binding activity.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 06/2005; 57(5):607-15. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As an attempt to identify bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the effects of the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. (MEXS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicate that MEXS is a potent inhibitor of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production. Consistent with these findings, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEXS inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity and the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus by blocking the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of MEXS in vivo. MEXS (100, 200 mg/kg/d, p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activities in an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. Thus, our study suggests that the inhibitions of iNOS, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release by the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. are achieved by blocking NF-kappaB activation, and that this is also responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 02/2005; 28(1):94-100. · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2005; 28(9):1668-1671. · 1.78 Impact Factor