[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a precursor lesion of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. To understand the dynamics of genomic alterations in this progression, we used four multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panels consisting of the oncogenes COX2, MYC, HER2, CCND1, and ZNF217 and the tumor suppressor genes DBC2, CDH1, and TP53 to visualize copy number changes in 13 cases of synchronous DCIS and IDC based on single-cell analyses. The DCIS had a lower degree of chromosomal instability than the IDC. Despite enormous intercellular heterogeneity in DCIS and IDC, we observed signal patterns consistent with a nonrandom distribution of genomic imbalances. CDH1 was most commonly lost, and gain of MYC emerged during progression from DCIS to IDC. Four of 13 DCISs showed identical clonal imbalances in the IDCs. Six cases revealed a switch, and in four of those, the IDC had acquired a gain of MYC. In one case, the major clone in the IDC was one of several clones in the DCIS, and in another case, the major clone in the DCIS became one of the two major clones in the IDC. Despite considerable chromosomal instability, in most cases the evolution from DCIS to IDC is determined by recurrent patterns of genomic imbalances, consistent with a biological continuum.
American Journal Of Pathology 09/2012; 181(5):1807-22. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest risk factors for sporadic breast cancer. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that MD is, in part, genetically determined; however, the relationship between MD and BRCA1/2 mutation status is equivocal. We compared MD in unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers enrolled in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Clinical Genetics Branch's Breast Imaging Study (n = 143) with women at low-to-average breast cancer risk enrolled in the same study (n = 29) or the NCI/National Naval Medical Center's Susceptibility to Breast Cancer Study (n = 90). The latter were BRCA mutation-negative members of mutation-positive families or women with no prior breast cancer, a Pedigree Assessment Tool score <8 (i.e., low risk of a hereditary breast cancer syndrome) and a Gail score <1.67. A single experienced mammographer measured MD using a computer-assisted thresholding method. We collected standard breast cancer risk factor information in both studies. Unadjusted mean percent MD was higher in women with BRCA1/2 mutations compared with women at low-to-average breast cancer risk (37.3% vs. 33.4%; P = 0.04), but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and body mass index (34.9% vs. 36.3%; P = 0.43). We explored age at menarche, nulliparity, age at first birth, menopausal status, number of breast biopsies, and exposure to exogenous hormonal agents as potential confounders of the MD and BRCA1/2 association. Taking these factors into account did not significantly alter the results of the age/body mass index-adjusted analysis. Our results do not provide support for an independent effect of BRCA1/2 mutation status on mammographic density.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 08/2010; 123(1):245-55. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the preferred method for staging early breast cancer. A prior history of mastectomy is felt to be a contraindication.
A patient with recurrent breast cancer in her skin flap was discovered to have positive axillary sentinel nodes by sentinel lymph node biopsy five years after mastectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ.
A prior history of mastectomy may not be an absolute contraindication to sentinel lymph node biopsy.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 01/2010; 8:59. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Oncotype Dx Recurrence Score (RS), is often employed in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, node negative (ER+LN-) breast cancer. We investigated the impact of the RS on actual chemotherapy administration and the effect of the assay on a panel of breast oncology experts.
The prospective adjuvant chemotherapy recommendations (prior to RS) and actual adjuvant therapy (after RS) for consecutive patients with ER+LN- breast cancer were recorded. After 6 months and with the same information, a panel of five experts made adjuvant therapy recommendations with and without RS and rated the strength of their recommendations. Rates of panel consensus, recommendation changes, and changes in recommendation strength were compared.
There were 29 patients (28 women). RS results altered the plan for chemotherapy in 9 patients (31%); 7 of 13 patients (54%) initially recommended for chemotherapy did not receive it, and 2 of 16 (13%) received chemotherapy following initial recommendations against it. RS results changed the panel's chemotherapy recommendation in 7 patients (24%): 5 of 12 (42%) recommendations for changed to against, and 2 of 17 (12%) recommendations against changed to for chemotherapy. RS increased consensus by the panel 10%, but did not increase the reported strength in chemotherapy recommendations.
RS results were associated with real-world decision changes in 31% of patients and 24% of panel recommendations and increased panel consensus by 10%. However RS did not increase the strength of panelist's recommendations.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/2009; 99(6):319-23. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic testing for mutations in genes associated with an inherited predisposition to cancer is rapidly moving outside specialty genetic services and into mainstream health care. Surgeons, as front-line providers of cancer care, are uniquely positioned to identify those who may benefit from genetic testing and institute changes to their health care management based on those results. This article provides an overview of the critical elements of the process of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.
Surgical Clinics of North America 09/2008; 88(4):705-21, v. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome poses multiple cancer risks, yet attention has focused on screening for colorectal cancer. Estimated risks for endometrial cancer equal risks for colorectal cancer. This study (1) evaluated women's perceived risks for cancers, (2) compared endometrial cancer screening and colonoscopy, and (3) identified predictors of screening before and after genetic testing.
Sixty-five adult women at 50% risk for carrying a cancer-predisposing mutation, without a history of endometrial cancer or hysterectomy, participated in genetic counseling and received unequivocal genetic test results for Lynch syndrome. Participants completed questionnaires before and after receipt of genetic results.
Pretest, perceived risks for colon cancer were significantly higher than for extracolonic cancers (P < .0001). Use of colonoscopy was significantly higher (P = .006) than endometrial cancer screening. Post-test, carriers demonstrated a significant (P < .0001) increase in their perceived risk for extracolonic cancers and increased both colonoscopy (P = .79) and endometrial cancer screening (P = .11). Mutation status, age, perceived likelihood of carrying a mutation, and communication of test results to their physician independently predicted cancer screening at follow-up.
Women in families with Lynch syndrome are less aware of their risks for extracolonic cancers and undergo endometrial cancer screening significantly less often than colonoscopy before genetic counseling. Given the significantly increased risks for endometrial and ovarian cancers and the mortality associated with ovarian cancer, additional efforts to inform families of cancer risks and screening recommendations seem prudent. Physicians play a critical role in ensuring appropriate cancer screening in women with Lynch syndrome.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2008; 26(6):948-54. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated whether phone results were equivalent to in-person result disclosure for individuals undergoing BRCA1/2 predisposition genetic testing.
A total of 111 of 136 subjects undergoing education and counseling for BRCA1/2 predisposition genetic testing agreed to randomization to phone or in-person result disclosure. Content and format for both sessions were standardized. Data from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Psychological General Well-Being index were collected at baseline and then again at 1 week and 3 months after disclosure of test results. Baseline measures were administered after the following had occurred: counseling/education session had been conducted, informed consent had been obtained, and decision to be tested had been made. Satisfaction and cost assessments were administered after the result session. At 1 week, participants were asked their preferred method of result disclosure.
There were no differences in anxiety and general well-being measures between 50 phone and 52 in-person results disclosure. Both groups reported similar rates of satisfaction with services. Among those with a preference, 77% preferred the notification method assigned. There was a statistically significant preference for phone results among the 23% who did not prefer the method assigned. Greater costs were associated with in-person result disclosure.
These data suggest that phone results are a reasonable alternative to traditional in-person BRCA1/2 genetic test disclosure without any negative psychologic outcomes or compromise in knowledge. However, further study is needed in a more clinically representative population to confirm these findings.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 09/2007; 9(8):487-95. · 3.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are considered the earliest identifiable preneoplastic colonic lesions; thus, a greater understanding of the nature of genetic changes underlying the transformation of normal colonic mucosa (NM) into ACF may provide insight into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. ACF were identified by indigo carmine spraying onto colonic mucosa during colonoscopy and isolated as standard pinch biopsies of the mucosal areas containing the ACF. RNAs isolated from ACF and matched NM biopsies from the ascending and descending colons of 13 patients were analyzed on arrays containing 9128 cDNAs. Thirty-four differentially expressed (P < 0.001) genes were found in a paired comparison of the ACF and NM samples, and 25 of 26 matched pairs of ACF and NM could be correctly classified in leave-one-out cross-validation. Differential expression for seven of eight genes was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Furthermore, ACF and NM samples, including six pairs of ACF and NM samples that had not previously been analyzed by array hybridization, can be correctly classified on the basis of the overexpression in ACF of three selected genes (REG4, SRPN-B5, and TRIM29) evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. In a separate analysis of 13 biopsy pairs from either ascending or descending colon, ACF and NM samples could also be correctly classified by the gene expression patterns. Analysis of gene expression differences in ACF from the ascending and descending colon versus NM samples indicates that ACF from these distinct colonic locations are converging toward similar gene expression profiles and losing differences in gene expression characteristic of NM from the ascending versus descending colon.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A clinical trial was recently conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (celecoxib) in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer patients. In a randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/II multicenter trial, hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer patients and gene carriers received either celecoxib at one of two doses or placebo. The goal was to evaluate the effects of these treatment arms on a number of endoscopic and tissue-based biomarker end points after 12 months of treatment. As part of this trial, we analyzed gene expression by cDNA array technology in normal descending (rectal) colonic mucosa of patients before and after treatment with celecoxib or placebo. We found that treatment of patients with celecoxib at recommended clinical doses (200 and 400 mg p.o. bid), in contrast to treatment with placebo, leads to changes in expression of >1,400 genes in the healthy colon, although in general, the magnitude of changes is <2-fold. Twenty-three of 25 pairs of colon biopsies taken before and after celecoxib treatment can be classified correctly by the pattern of gene expression in a leave-one-out cross-validation. Immune response, particularly T- and B-lymphocyte activation and early steps of inflammatory reaction, cell signaling and cell adhesion, response to stress, transforming growth factor-beta signaling, and regulation of apoptosis, are the main biological processes targeted by celecoxib as shown by overrepresentation analysis of the distribution of celecoxib-affected genes across Gene Ontology categories. Analysis of possible cumulative effects of celecoxib-induced changes in gene expression indicates that in healthy colon, celecoxib may suppress the immune response and early steps of inflammation, inhibit formation of focal contacts, and stimulate transforming growth factor-beta signaling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An efficient approach to education and counseling before BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing is necessary for effective utilization of testing in the community. Education and counseling, when delivered individually, are limited by a shortage of trained health care providers as well as by financial and time constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pretest education and counseling for breast cancer genetics in a group setting is equivalent to that provided on an individual basis.
One hundred forty-two patients at high risk for harboring a BRCA mutation were randomly assigned to group or individual education and counseling sessions. Group education was followed by brief individual counseling. Knowledge and Impact of Events Scales (IES) were administered at baseline and after education and counseling and at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months. Satisfaction with education and counseling was measured at completion of the session. Preferred method of education and counseling was solicited at 3 months.
There was no difference in knowledge or IES scores between groups. When stratified by genetic test results, knowledge scores showed no difference. Regardless of group, post-test IES scores in patients with positive results were higher than patients with negative or uninformative results but returned to baseline by 12 months. Participants were equally satisfied with either method they were assigned. Significantly more time was spent per patient in individual sessions (1.25 hours) than in group education (0.74 hours).
Our data suggest that group education and counseling may confer similar benefits compared with traditional individual sessions. Additional investigation of this approach in larger numbers of patients is warranted.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2005; 23(15):3455-64. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distinct epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) based on their anatomical location suggest different risk factors and pathways of transformation associated with proximal and distal colon carcinogenesis. These differences may reflect distinct biological characteristics of proximal and distal colonic mucosa, acquired in embryonic or postnatal development, that determine a differential response to uniformly distributed environmental factors. Alternatively, the differences in the epidemiology of proximal and distal CRCs could result from the presence of different procarcinogenic factors in the ascending versus descending colon, acting on cells with either similar or distinct biological characteristics. We applied cDNA microarray technology to explore the possibility that mucosal epithelium from adult proximal and distal colon can be distinguished by their pattern of gene expression. In addition, gene expression was studied in fetal (17-24 weeks gestation) proximal and distal colon. More than 1000 genes were expressed differentially in adult ascending versus descending colon, with 165 genes showing >2-fold and 49 genes showing >3-fold differences in expression. With almost complete concordance, biopsies of adult colonic epithelium can be correctly classified as proximal or distal by gene expression profile. Only 87 genes were expressed differently in ascending and descending fetal colon, indicating that, although anatomically relevant differences are already established in embryonic colon, additional changes in gene expression occur in postnatal development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-catenin has been identified as an oncogene in colon cancer and melanoma. Phosphorylation of sites in exon 3 of beta-catenin leads to degradation of this protein. These sites are primary targets for activating mutations. The frequency with which oncogenic mutations at these sites are found in colorectal cancer is unknown, as is the frequency of their occurrence in other malignancies. We analyzed 92 colorectal cancers (CRCs) and 57 cancer cell lines (representing a diversity of tumor types) to determine the frequency of activating mutations in this gene. Mutations in exon 3 of beta-catenin were found in 2 of 92 CRCs and in the colorectal cancer cell line HCT 116. Both tumors with beta-catenin mutations exhibited widespread microsatellite instability, which is indicative of a replication error phenotype, a phenotype known to be present in HCT 116. This suggests that mutations in beta-catenin are infrequent in CRC and miscellaneous cancer cell lines and may occur in association with a replication error phenotype.
Cancer Research 11/1997; 57(20):4478-81. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The noninvasive technique of nipple aspiration as a potential source of biomarkers of breast cancer risk was evaluated. The feasibility of performing mutagenesis assays, amplifying DNA, and performing protein electrophoresis on nipple aspirate fluid was explored. A tool was developed to measure the level of discomfort, if any, from this procedure. Twenty-five healthy women (20 premenopausal and 5 postmenopausal) were enrolled. Fluid was obtained using a modified breast pump. Premenopausal women were scheduled for four to six weekly aspirations, and postmenopausal women were scheduled for one to two weekly aspirations. Mutagenesis assays were performed using the Salmonella (Ames) assay. DNA amplification of several microsatellite regions was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Protein was quantified, and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis was performed. Overall, fluid was obtained from 80% of the women, and the level of discomfort was minimal. Acid hydrolysis of one sample resulted in mutagenicity; all six nonhydrolyzed samples were not mutagenic. The ability to amplify DNA ranged from 34% to 96%, depending on length of the microsatellite region examined. The average protein concentration was 71 microg/mL. Two-dimensional protein electrophoresis was successfully performed on samples from two subjects. Nipple aspiration is a simple technique and is easily learned and well tolerated, which yields a reagent useful for a variety of investigations. This technique may facilitate the identification and application of biomarkers for future breast cancer risk assessment and chemopreventive protocols.
The Breast Journal 7(6):378-87. · 1.83 Impact Factor