Vincent Rioux

Agrocampus Ouest, Roazhon, Brittany, France

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Publications (47)123.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Oleic (cis9-18:1), linoleic (cis9,cis12-18:2) and α-linolenic (cis9,cis12,cis15-18:3) acids are well described substrates of the Δ6-desaturase encoded by the mammalian Fatty Acid Desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene. In addition, at least 9 other very structurally different fatty acids have been shown to be Δ6- or even Δ8-desaturated by the FADS2 protein. A better characterization of the substrate specificity of this enzyme is therefore needed. By using commercial cis9-18:1 and chemically synthesized cis12- and cis15-18:1 (sharing the n-6 double bond with 18:2 n-6 and the n-3 double bond with 18:3 n-3, respectively), we tried to decrypt the fatty acid structure driving the FADS2 substrate affinity. We first showed that both recombinant and native rat FADS2 were able to Δ6-desaturate not only the cis9- but also the cis12- and cis15-18:1 isomers. Next, the inhibitory effect of increasing concentrations of each 18:1 isomer was investigated in vitro on the Δ6-desaturation of α-linolenic acid. At equimolar inhibitor/substrate ratio (60μM), the cis9-18:1 exhibited a significantly higher inhibition (25%) than the cis12- (8%) and cis15-18:1 (5%). This study shows that a single cis double bond in 12- or 15-position in 18:1 is enough to make them low Δ6-desaturable substrates. If a preexisting cis9-double bond is not absolutely required for the Δ6-desaturation of octadecenoic acids, its presence is however crucial to explain the higher enzyme affinity. Compared with oleic acid, the additional presence of a cis12-double bond in linoleic acid increased its inhibitory effect on the Δ6-desaturation of α-linolenic acid at low concentration (30μM) but not at higher concentrations (60 and 120μM). In this classification of the decreasing impact of the double bond when it comes closer to the methyl end of octadecenoic acids, the cis11-18:1 (cis-vaccenic acid) should be considered apart since it is itself not Δ6-desaturated but still a good competitive inhibitor of the α-linolenic acid Δ6-desaturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 02/2015; 187. DOI:10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2015.02.001 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of the amount of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) on its own tissue accumulation and conversion to longer n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remains controversial and may depend on the other dietary fatty acids mixed with ALA. Whereas linoleic acid (LA) is well known to compete with ALA for its conversion to longer n-3 PUFAs, the concomitant presence of dietary ALA with dairy saturated fatty acids (C4:0-C14:0) which are highly susceptible to β-oxidation may inversely lead to its increased cellular storage and better conversion to long-chain n-3 PUFAs. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating further the putative beneficial effect of dietary dairy fat on n-3 PUFA tissue levels in the rat. Firstly, we showed that when combined with a well-defined dietary level of ALA (0.6% energy), substitution of olive oil for butterfat improved ALA storage in adipose tissue and liver, and had moderate effects on its conversion to n-3 long-chain PUFAs. Secondly, we showed that, when mixed with dairy fat, a small increase in dietary ALA (from 0.6 to 0.8% of energy) enhanced the ALA storage in adipose tissue only but conversely significantly increased its conversion to highly unsaturated n-3 PUFAs in the liver.Practical applications: α-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most accessible source of n-3 PUFAs in the global diet. However, the intake of ALA is currently lower than dietary guidelines and the rate of ALA conversion to longer chain n-3 PUFAs is low. The results from this study showed that a small enrichment in dietary ALA combined with dairy fat increased adipose tissue ALA storage, which represents a slow releasable pool that may be utilized over time by other tissues and greatly increased its conversion to highly unsaturated n-3 PUFAs in the liver. This knowledge may possibly result in the development of new dietary strategies to increase the cellular level of n-3 PUFAs in animals and humans.
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 10/2014; DOI:10.1002/ejlt.201400304 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma membrane is an early target of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We previously showed that the PAH prototype, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), triggers apoptosis via DNA damage-induced p53 activation (genotoxic pathway) and via remodeling of the membrane cholesterol-rich microdomains called lipid rafts, leading to changes in pH homeostasis (non-genotoxic pathway). As omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids can affect membrane composition and function or hamper in vivo PAH genotoxicity, we hypothesized that addition of physiologically relevant levels of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (PUFAs) might interfere with B[a]P-induced toxicity. The effects of two major PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were tested on B[a]P cytotoxicity in the liver epithelial cell line F258. Both PUFAs reduced B[a]P-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, pre-treatment with DHA increased the formation of reactive B[a]P metabolites, resulting in higher levels of B[a]P-DNA adducts. EPA had no apparent effect on B[a]P metabolism or related DNA damage. EPA and DHA prevented B[a]P-induced apoptotic alkalinization by affecting Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on B[a]P-induced apoptosis involve a non-genotoxic pathway associated with plasma membrane remodeling. Our results suggest that dietary omega-3 fatty acids may have marked effects on the biological consequences of PAH exposure.
    Chemico-biological interactions 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2013.11.002 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acid desaturases play critical roles in regulating the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in all biological kingdoms. As opposed to plants, mammals are so far characterized by the absence of desaturases introducing additional double bonds at the methyl end site of fatty acids. However, the function of the mammalian Fatty Acid Desaturase 3 (FADS3) gene remains unknown. This gene is located within the FADS cluster and presents a high nucleotide sequence homology with FADS1 (D5-desaturase) and FADS2 D6-desaturase). Here, we show that rat FADS3 displays no common D5-, D6- or D9-desaturase activity but is able to catalyze the unexpected D13-desaturation of trans-vaccenate. Although there is no standard for complete conclusive identification, structural characterization strongly suggests that the D11,13-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) produced by FADS3 from trans-vaccenate is the trans11,cis13-CLA isomer. In rat hepatocytes, knockdown of FADS3 expression specifically reduces trans-vaccenate D13-desaturation. Evidence is therefore presented that FADS3 is the first methyl end fatty acid desaturase functionally characterized in mammals.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2013; 54(12). DOI:10.1194/jlr.M042572 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human nutrition and represents about 14g per day in the US diet. Following the discovery of its essential functions in animals and humans in the early 1920's, studies are currently questioning the real requirement of linoleic acid. It seems now overestimated and creates controversy: how much linoleic acid should be consumed in a healthy diet? Beyond the necessity to redefine the dietary requirement of linoleic acid, many questions concerning the consequences of its excessive consumption on human health arise. Linoleic acid is a direct precursor of the bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. It is also a precursor of arachidonic acid, which produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and endocannabinoids. A majority of the studies on linoleic acid and its derivatives show a direct/indirect link with inflammation and metabolic diseases. Many authors claim that a high linoleic acid intake may promote inflammation in humans. This review tries to (i) highlight the importance of reconsidering the actual requirement of linoleic acid (ii) point out the lack of knowledge between dietary levels of linoleic acid and the molecular mechanisms explaining its physiological roles (iii) demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further human studies on the single variable linoleic acid.
    Biochimie 07/2013; 96. DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2013.07.012 · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intake of the essential fatty acid precursor α-linolenic acid (ALA) contributes to ensure adequate n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) bioavailability. Conversely, linoleic acid (LA) intake may compromise tissue n-3 PUFA status as its conversion to n-6 LC-PUFA shares a common enzymatic pathway with the n-3 family. This study aimed to measure dietary ALA and LA contribution to LC-PUFA biosynthesis and tissue composition. Rats were fed with control or experimental diets moderately enriched in ALA or LA for 8 weeks. Liver Δ6- and Δ5-desaturases were analyzed and FA composition was determined in tissues (red blood cells, liver, brain and heart). Hepatic Δ6-desaturase activity was activated with both diets, and Δ5-desaturase activity only with the ALA diet. The ALA diet led to higher n-3 LC-PUFA composition, including DHA in brain and heart. The LA diet reduced n-3 content in blood, liver and heart, without impacting n-6 LC-PUFA composition. At levels relevant with human nutrition, increasing dietary ALA and reducing LA intake were both beneficial in increasing n-3 LC-PUFA bioavailability in tissues.
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2013.03.006 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acid acylation of proteins corresponds to the co- or post-translational covalent linkage of a fatty acid, activated in the form of acyl-CoA, to an amino acid residue of the substrate protein. The cellular fatty acids which are involved in protein acylation are mainly saturated fatty acids. Palmitoylation (S-acylation) corresponds to the reversible attachment of palmitic acid (C16:0) to the side chain of a cysteine residue via a thioester bond. N-terminal myristoylation refers to the covalent attachment of myristic acid (C14:0) by an amide bond to the N-terminal glycine of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. Octanoylation (O-acylation) typically concerns the formation of an ester bond between octanoic acid (caprylic acid, C8:0) and the side chain of a serine residue of the gut and brain peptide ghrelin. An increasing number of proteins (enzymes, receptors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, proteins involved in signal transduction, eukaryotic and viral structural proteins) have been shown to undergo fatty acid acylation. The acyl moiety can mediate protein subcellular localization, protein–protein interaction or protein–membrane interaction. Therefore, through the covalent modification of proteins, saturated fatty acids exhibit emerging specific and important roles in modulating protein functions. This review provides an overview of the recent findings on the various classes of protein acylation leading to the biological ability of saturated fatty acids to regulate many pathways. Finally, the links between these elucidated biochemical mechanisms and the physiological roles of dietary saturated fatty acids are discussed.
    Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme 02/2013; 27(1):10–19. DOI:10.1016/j.nupar.2012.11.001 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DES1) catalyzes the last step of the de novo ceramide biosynthesis, which consists of the introduction of a trans Δ4-double bond in the carbon chain of the dihydroceramide. It was previously observed that myristic acid binds DES1 through N-myristoylation. This N-terminal modification significantly increased the activity of the recombinant DES1 in COS-7 cells and targeted part of the enzyme initially present in the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondrial outer membrane, leading to an increase in ceramide levels. Since these results were obtained in a recombinant COS-7 cell model with high expression of rat DES1, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if the native DES1 enzyme was really upregulated by its N-myristoylation in cultured rat hepatocytes. We first showed that DES1 was the main dihydroceramide desaturase isoform expressed in rat hepatocytes. In this model, the wild-type myristoylable recombinant form of rat DES1 was found in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria whereas the mutated non-myristoylable recombinant form (N-terminal glycine replaced by an alanine) was almost exclusively localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, which evidenced the importance of the myristoylation. Then, we showed that compared to other fatty acids, myristic acid was the only one to increase native DES1 activity, in both total cell lysates and mitochondrial fractions. The myristic acid-associated increase in DES1 activity was not linked to elevated mRNA or protein expression but more likely to its N-terminal myristoylation. Finally, the myristic acid-associated increase in DES1 activity slightly enhanced the number of apoptotic cells.
    Lipids 12/2011; 47(2):117-28. DOI:10.1007/s11745-011-3638-x · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is a nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) present in diesel exhaust and bound to particular matter in urban air. We show that 1-NP and the referent PAH benzo(a)pyrene (BP) induce apoptosis and a lipid accumulation dependent on cytochrome P450 1A1-metabolites in mouse hepatoma cells, whereas 1-amino-pyrene had no effect. The caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(O-Me) fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-fmk), inhibits 1-NP-induced apoptosis, but failed to alter 1-NP-triggered lipid accumulation determined by Nile red staining. We further show that cholesterol and fatty acid contents are modified after nitro-PAH exposure and that 1-NP-induced cholesterol level is partially involved in related apoptosis. In parallel, the activity of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), determined by fatty acid analysis, and its expression are reduced by 1-NP. The role of SCD1 in 1-NP-induced apoptosis is demonstrated in cells down-expressing SCD1, in which an increased apoptosis is observed, whereas the SCD1 overexpression elicits the opposite effects. In contrast, changes in SCD1 gene expression have no effect on the induced lipid accumulation. Moreover, 1-NP increases the activity of the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) leading to a caspase-independent apoptosis. Overall, our study demonstrates that the 1-NP-induced apoptosis is caspase- and AMPK-dependent, and is associated to a decrease of SCD1 expression which results in an alteration of lipid homeostasis.
    Toxicology Letters 08/2011; 206(3):289-99. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.07.024 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Vincent Rioux, Frédéric Carrière
    Biochimie 01/2011; 93(1):v-vi. DOI:10.1016/S0300-9084(10)00413-X · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effect of various dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) profiles on plasma lipid parameters and tissue fatty acid composition in rats. The experiment was designed to monitor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels, while examining different amounts and types of SFA. Four isocaloric diets were prepared, containing 10-11 mol% of fatty acids (FA) as linoleic acid (LNA) and 2.5 mol% as α-linolenic acid (ALA), leading to an identical and well-balanced LNA/ALA ratio. The initial rapeseed oil/corn oil mixture providing ALA and LNA was enriched with olive oil to prepare the olive oil diet. The butterfat diet was supplemented with butterfat, containing short-chain SFA (C4:0-C10:0, 17 mol% of FA), lauric acid (C12:0, 3.2 mol%), myristic acid (C14:0, 10.5 mol%) and palmitic acid (C16:0, 14.5 mol%). The saturates diet was supplemented with trilaurin, trimyristin and tripalmitin to obtain the same level of lauric, myristic and palmitic acids as the butterfat diet, without the short-chain SFA. The trimyristin diet was enriched with trimyristin only. The results showed that the butterfat diet contributed to specific effects, compared to the olive oil diet and the saturates and trimyristin diets: a decrease in plasma total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, higher tissue storage of ALA and LNA, and a higher level of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids in some tissues. This study supports the hypothesis that in diets with identical well-balanced LNA/ALA ratios, short chain SFA may decrease circulating cholesterol and increase tissue polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the rat.
    Lipids 10/2010; 45(11):975-86. DOI:10.1007/s11745-010-3481-5 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    Philippe Legrand, Vincent Rioux
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes recent findings on the metabolism and biological functions of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Some of these findings show that SFA may have important and specific roles in the cells. Elucidated biochemical mechanisms like protein acylation (N-myristoylation, S-palmitoylation) and regulation of gene transcription are presented. In terms of physiology, SFA are involved for instance in lipogenesis, fat deposition, polyunsaturated fatty acids bioavailability and apoptosis. The variety of their functions demonstrates that SFA should no longer be considered as a single group.
    Lipids 10/2010; 45(10):941-6. DOI:10.1007/s11745-010-3444-x · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myristic acid, the 14-carbon saturated fatty acid (C14:0), usually accounts for small amounts (0.5%-1% weight of total fatty acids) in animal tissues. Since it is a relatively rare molecule in the cells, the specific properties and functional roles of myristic acid have not been fully studied and described. Like other dietary saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, lauric acid), this fatty acid is usually associated with negative consequences for human health. Indeed, in industrialized countries, its excessive consumption correlates with an increase in plasma cholesterol and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, one feature of myristoyl-CoA is its ability to be covalently linked to the N-terminal glycine residue of eukaryotic and viral proteins. This reaction is called N-terminal myristoylation. Through the myristoylation of hundreds of substrate proteins, myristic acid can activate many physiological pathways. This review deals with these potentially activated pathways. It focuses on the following emerging findings on the biological ability of myristic acid to regulate the activity of mammalian desaturases: (i) recent findings have described it as a regulator of the Δ4-desaturation of dihydroceramide to ceramide; (ii) studies have demonstrated that it is an activator of the Δ6-desaturation of polyunsaturated fatty acids; and (iii) myristic acid itself is a substrate of some fatty acid desaturases. This article discusses several topics, such as the myristoylation of the dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase, the myristoylation of the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase which is part of the whole desaturase complex, and other putative mechanisms.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2010; 1811(1):1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2010.09.005 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) often serves as a model for mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our previous work suggested a role of membrane fluidity in B[alpha]P-induced apoptotic process. In this study, we report that B[alpha]P modifies the composition of cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts) in rat liver F258 epithelial cells. The cellular distribution of the ganglioside-GM1 was markedly changed following B[alpha]P exposure. B[alpha]P also modified fatty acid composition and decreased the cholesterol content of cholesterol-rich microdomains. B[alpha]P-induced depletion of cholesterol in lipid rafts was linked to a reduced expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and B[alpha]P-related H(2)O(2) formation were involved in the reduced expression of HMG-CoA reductase and in the remodeling of membrane microdomains. The B[alpha]P-induced membrane remodeling resulted in an intracellular alkalinization observed during the early phase of apoptosis. In conclusion, B[alpha]P altered the composition of plasma membrane microstructures through AhR and H(2)O(2) dependent-regulation of lipid biosynthesis. In F258 cells, the B[alpha]P-induced membrane remodeling was identified as an early apoptotic event leading to an intracellular alkalinization.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 11/2009; 243(1):68-76. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2009.11.014 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2000, Marquardt et al. (A. Marquardt, H. Stöhr, K. White, and B. H. F. Weber. 2000. cDNA cloning, genomic structure, and chromosomal localization of three members of the human fatty acid desaturase family. Genomics. 66: 176-183.) described the genomic structure of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster in humans. This cluster includes the FADS1 and FADS2 genes encoding, respectively, for the Delta 5- and Delta 6-desaturases involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. A third gene, named FADS3, has recently been identified but no functional role has yet been attributed to the putative FADS3 protein. In this study, we investigated the FADS3 occurrence in rat tissues by using two specific polyclonal antibodies directed against the N-terminal and C-terminal ends of rat FADS3. Our results showed three potential protein isoforms of FADS3 (75 kDa, 51 kDa, and 37 kDa) present in a tissue-dependent manner. The occurrence of these FADS3 isoforms did not depend on the mRNA level determined by real-time PCR. In parallel, mouse tissues were also tested and showed the same three FADS3 isoforms but with a different tissue distribution. Finally, we reported the existence of FADS3 in human cells and tissues but different new isoforms were identified. To conclude, we showed in this study that FADS3 does exist under multiple protein isoforms depending on the mammalian tissues. These results will help further investigations to determine the physiological function of FADS3.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2009; 51(3):472-9. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M000588 · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 08/2009; 160. DOI:10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2009.06.015 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to analyze the effect of myristic acid on ceramide synthesis and its related lipoapoptosis pathway. It was previously observed that myristic acid binds dihydroceramide Delta4-desaturase 1 (DES1) through N-myristoylation and activates this enzyme involved in the final de novo ceramide biosynthesis step. In the present study, we show first by immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation that DES1 myristoylation targets part of the recombinant protein to the mitochondria in COS-7 cells. In addition, native dihydroceramide Delta4-desaturase activity was found in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in rat hepatocytes. Dihydroceramide conversion to ceramide was increased in COS-7 cells expressing DES1 and incubated with myristic acid. The expression of the wild-type myristoylable DES1-Gly alone, but not the expression of the unmyristoylable mutant DES1-Ala, induced apoptosis of COS-7 cells. Finally, myristic acid alone also increased the production of cellular ceramide and had an apoptotic effect. This effect was potentiated on caspase activity when the myristoylable form of DES1 was expressed. Therefore, these results suggest that the myristoylation of DES1 can target the enzyme to the mitochondria leading to an increase in ceramide levels which in turn contributes to partially explain the apoptosis effect of myristic acid in COS-7 cells.
    Biochimie 08/2009; 91(11-12):1411-9. DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2009.07.014 · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myristic acid is a 14 carbon saturated fatty acid, which is mostly found in milk fat. In industrialized countries, its excessive consumption is correlated with an increase in plasma cholesterol and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, one feature of this fatty acid is its ability to acylate proteins, a reaction which is called N-terminal myristoylation. This article describes various examples of important cellular regulations where the intervention of myristic acid is proven. Modulations of the cellular concentration of this fatty acid and its associated myristoylation function might be used as regulators of these metabolic pathways.
    Medecine sciences: M/S 02/2009; 25(1):57-63. · 0.52 Impact Factor
  • Medecine sciences: M/S 01/2009; 25(1). DOI:10.1051/medsci/200925157 · 0.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

570 Citations
123.70 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2010
    • Agrocampus Ouest
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
  • 2004
    • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2002
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Nutritional Sciences
      Ithaca, New York, United States