K Arahata

National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (169)945.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Myotilin is a Z-disc protein that binds alpha-actinin, gamma-filamin and F-actin. The essential role of myotilin in skeletal muscle is highlighted by the recent observation that autosomal dominant limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1A is caused by mutations in the human myotilin gene. We studied the expression and subcellular distribution of myotilin in nemaline myopathy, central core disease, centronuclear myopathy, and myopathies with tubular aggregates. A prominent myotilin immunostaining of nemaline rods and core lesions was detected in all ten cases of nemaline myopathy and five cases of central core disease. This renders myotilin a sensitive, though non-specific marker for these structural lesions. Western blot analysis did not indicate an increased myotilin expression in nemaline myopathy muscle. However, the analysis indicated upregulation of a 75 kDa immunoreactive band, very weak in control muscle but previously detected in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1A samples. Our findings indicate that myotilin is a core structural molecule in nemaline rods and central core lesions and suggest modification of myotilin in nemaline myopathy, and further support the notion that myotilin may have a key role in the dynamic molecular events mediating myofibril assembly in normal and diseased human skeletal muscle.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 09/2003; 13(6):451-5. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study dysferlin gene mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in Japanese patients with Miyoshi myopathy (MM). MM is an autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy that arises from mutations in the dysferlin gene. This gene is also mutated in families with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. The authors examined 25 Japanese patients with MM. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral lymphocytes of the patients. The PCR products of each of 55 exons were screened by single strand conformation polymorphism or direct sequencing from the PCR fragments. The authors identified 16 different mutations in 20 patients with MM; 10 were novel. Mutations in Japanese patients are distributed along the entire length of the gene. Four mutations (C1939G, G3370T, 3746delG, and 4870delT) are relatively more prevalent in this population, accounting for 60% of the mutations in this study. This study revealed that the G3370T mutation was associated with milder forms of MM and the G3510A mutation was associated with a more severe form.
    Neurology 07/2003; 60(11):1799-804. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel cDNA microarray encompassing 3500 genes expressed in skeletal muscle. With this system, we have performed the first study of gene expression in samples from individual patients. We analyzed muscle specimen from individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy to identify differences among patients. Among the variably expressed genes, we focused on the expression of the genes encoding HLA-related proteins, myosin light chains and troponin Ts as markers of muscle necrosis and regeneration. The expression patterns of these genes correlated with the severity of dystrophic changes on histological examination. Our cDNA microarray provides a new tool to investigate molecular muscle pathology.
    Human Molecular Genetics 04/2003; 12(6):595-600. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    Toshifumi Tsukahara, Kiichi Arahata
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2003; 217:253-62. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the weakness of facial, shoulder-girdle and upper arm muscles. Most patients with FSHD have fewer numbers of tandem repeated 3.3-kb KpnI units on chromosome 4q35. Chromosome 10q26 contains highly homologous KpnI repeats, and inter-chromosomal translocation has been reported. To clarify the influence on the deletion of the repeats, we surveyed three different ethnic populations and FSHD patients using the BglII/BlnI dosage test. The frequency of translocation in 153 Japanese, 124 Korean, 114 Chinese healthy individuals and 56 Japanese 4q35-FSHD patients were 27.5%, 29.8%, 19.3%, and 32.1%, respectively. The ratio of '4 on 10' (trisomy and quatrosomy of chromosome 4) was higher than that of '10 on 4' (nullsomy and monosomy of chromosome 4) in all populations. The inter-chromosomal exchange was frequently observed in all four populations we examined, and no significant difference was observed between healthy and diseased groups.
    BMC Neurology 09/2002; 2:7. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Survival motor neuron (SMN) interacting protein 1 (SIP1) interacts with SMN protein and plays a crucial role in the biogenesis of spliceosomes. We have identified three novel splicing variants of the SIP1 (SIP1-beta, -gamma and -delta), in addition to the full-length SIP1-alpha. SIP1-alpha as found to be ubiquitously expressed at high levels in the various normal tissues examined. In contrast, SIP1-beta and -gamma were expressed at very low levels in these tissues. In muscle specimens from patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the expression of SIP1-alpha was dramatically decreased compared to that observed in the normal tissues. In addition, the expression of SIP1-beta was significantly increased in tissues derived from patients with either disease. These findings suggest that an aberrant alternative splicing event in SIP1 occurs tissues derived from patients with the motor neuron diseases, and contributes to the pathological process of SMA and ALS.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 07/2002; 34(6):699-707. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant form of muscular dystrophy characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of the facial, shoulder-girdle and upper arm muscles. The gene locus for FSHD is mapped to the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4q35, in which smaller EcoRI fragments (10 to 33 kb) are detected in most families by Southern blot analysis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the frequency and clinical/genetical features of early-onset FSHD in Japanese patients with 4q35-FSHD. In a series of 231 patients from 145 families with 4q35-FSHD, there were 31 patients (13.4%; male: female = 12:19) of 29 families (20%) with early-onset FSHD, 16 of whom were sporadic. Genetic analysis revealed that they had significantly smaller sized EcoRI fragments (range, 10 to 23 kb; mean 14.1 kb) than the other patients (range, 12 to 33 kb; mean 19.6 kb) (p < 0.001, U-test). All patients with the smallest EcoRI fragments (10 to 11 kb) were sporadic cases with early onset. Mental retardation (10/11) and epilepsy (4/11) was often observed in them, but not in the other patients. In early-onset FSHD, tongue muscle involvement (8/31) and swallowing disturbance (2/31), which has been regarded as exclusion criteria of FSHD, were also present. The onset of gait disturbance was significantly earlier (mean age = 11.9) in early-onset FSHD compared to the other group (mean age = 28.7). All patients with early-onset FSHD showed gait disturbance before 28 years of age. In conclusion, Japanese early-onset FSHD patients tend to have large gene deletions on chromosome 4q35, and show severe and variable phenotypes.
    No to hattatsu. Brain and development 07/2002; 34(4):318-24.
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the molecular nature of the pathogenesis in X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), we monitored the expression of 2400 genes in control and EDMD fibroblasts by using complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray techniques. A total of 60 genes whose expression was altered in EDMD fibroblasts when compared with control fibroblasts were identified. Twenty-eight genes whose expression was altered with the emerin deficiency were rescued by infection with a recombinant adenovirus expressing emerin. The altered expression in five genes, including the lamin A/C gene, was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our preliminary results suggest a correlation between disease similarity and gene expression. We conclude that the cDNA microarray is a very efficient tool to clarify genetic and pathological features of diseases.
    Muscle & Nerve 07/2002; 25(6):898-901. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors describe a patient with sporadic distal myopathy associated with reduced caveolin-3 in muscle fibers in which the muscle atrophy was restricted to the small muscles of the hands and feet. Gene analysis disclosed a heterozygous 80 G-->A substitution in the caveolin-3 gene that was identical to that of reported cases of elevated serum creatine kinase. This patient further demonstrated possible clinical heterogeneity of myopathies with mutations in the caveolin-3 gene.
    Neurology 01/2002; 58(2):323-5. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our laboratory, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) accounted for 20% of all patients with muscular dystrophy. To determine the incidence of various forms of LGMD phenotypes, we looked for mutations in the calpain 3 gene and, for deficiencies in dysferlin and sarcoglycan by immunohistochemical studies with specific antibodies on muscle biopsies from patients with probable autosomal recessive inheritance (LGMD2), which were mostly sporadic cases of LGMD. Fourteen of 276 (5%) patients examined had sarcoglycan complex deficiency (sarcoglycanopathy) and 21 of 80 (26%) had mutations in the calpain 3 gene. Although we have not performed gene analysis in all patients, 10 of 64 (15%) patients examined had no apparent immunoreactivity against the dysferlin antibody. Thus, approximately 46% of LGMD2 patients had the above 3 distinct disorders, but in 54% the causative defects remain unknown.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 01/2002; 41(12):1194-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Dysferlin is a surface membrane protein in skeletal muscle whose deficiency causes distal and proximal, recessively inherited, forms of muscular dystrophy designated Miyoshi myopathy (MM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B), respectively. The function of dysferlin is not defined. Caveolin-3 is another skeletal muscle membrane protein which is important in the formation of caveolae and whose mutations cause dominantly inherited limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C (LGMD1C). We report that dysferlin co-immunoprecipitates with caveolin-3 from biopsied normal human skeletal muscles. We also describe abnormal localization of dysferlin in muscles from patients with LGMD1C including novel missense mutation (T64P) in the human caveolin-3 gene (CAV3). The immunoprecipitation data are consistent with the parallel observation that dysferlin immunostaining is not normal in LGMD1C muscles. Amino acid sequence analysis of the dysferlin protein reveals seven sites that correspond to caveolin-3 scaffold-binding motifs, and one site that is a potential target to bind the WW domain of the caveolin-3 protein. This is the first description of a possible dysferlin interacting protein; it suggests the hypothesis that one function of dysferlin may be to interact with caveolin-3 to subserve signaling functions of caveolae.
    Human Molecular Genetics 09/2001; 10(17):1761-6. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Involvement of the lingual muscle is considered one of the exclusion criteria of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). In a series of 151 Japanese patients with 4q35-FSHD, seven patients (4.6%) had tongue atrophy with abnormal MRI findings and typical myogenic patterns of electromyography. All seven patients belong to a group of early-onset FSHD with large gene deletions on chromosome 4q35. Our result suggests that the patients with 4q35-FSHD could have myopathic tongue atrophy.
    Neurology 09/2001; 57(4):733-5. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe dystrophic muscle wasting from birth or early infancy with structural brain abnormalities. The gene for FCMD is located on chromosome 9q31, and encodes a novel protein named fukutin. The function of fukutin is not known yet, but is suggested to be an enzyme that modifies the cell-surface glycoprotein or glycolipids. To elucidate the roles of fukutin gene mutation in skeletal and cardiac muscles and brain. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses were performed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and brain tissue samples from patients with FCMD and control subjects. The authors found a selective deficiency of highly glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan, but not beta-dystroglycan, on the surface membrane of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers in patients with FCMD. Immunoblot analyses also showed no immunoreactive band for alpha-dystroglycan, but were positive for beta-dystroglycan in FCMD in skeletal and cardiac muscles. The current findings suggest a critical role for fukutin gene mutation in the loss or modification of glycosylation of the extracellular peripheral membrane protein, alpha-dystroglycan, which may cause a crucial disruption of the transmembranous molecular linkage of muscle fibers in patients with FCMD.
    Neurology 08/2001; 57(1):115-21. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the skeletal muscle gene dysferlin cause two autosomal recessive forms of muscular dystrophy: Miyoshi myopathy (MM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B). The purpose of this study was to define the genomic organization of the dysferlin gene and conduct mutational screening and a survey of clinical features in 21 patients with defined molecular defects in the dysferlin gene. Genomic organization of the gene was determined by comparing the dysferlin cDNA and genomic sequence in P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) containing the gene. Mutational screening entailed conformational analysis and sequencing of genomic DNA and cDNA. Clinical records of patients with defined dysferlin gene defects were reviewed retrospectively. The dysferlin gene encompasses 55 exons spanning over 150 kb of genomic DNA. Mutational screening revealed nine novel mutations associated with MM. The range of onset in this patient group was narrow with a mean of 19.0 +/- 3.9 years. This study confirms that the dysferlin gene is mutated in MM and LGMD2B and extends understanding of the timing of onset of the disease. Knowledge of the genomic organization of the gene will facilitate mutation detection and investigations of the molecular biologic properties of the dysferlin gene.
    Neurology 08/2001; 57(2):271-8. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is caused by short expansions of the GCG trinucleotide repeat encoding the polyalanine tract of the poly(A)-binding protein 2 (PABP2). PABP2 binds to the growing poly(A) tail, stimulating its extension during the polyadenylation process, and limits the length of the newly synthesized poly(A) tail. Whereas PABP2 is expressed ubiquitously, the clinical and pathological features of OPMD patients are restricted to the skeletal muscle. To elucidate the possible role of PABP2 in skeletal muscle, we established the stable C2 cell lines expressing human PABP2. These stable cell lines showed morphologically enhanced myotube formation accompanied by an increased expression of myogenic factors, MyoD and myogenin. In nuclear run-on assay, the transcription rate of the MyoD gene was significantly increased by PABP2 transfection. We found the N-terminal region of PABP2 was responsible for the up-regulation of these myogenic factors. Furthermore, Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) was isolated as a binding protein for PABP2 using the yeast two-hybrid system. The interaction of PABP2 and SKIP was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase-pulldown assay and immunoprecipitation. Confocal laser scanning showed PABP2 was co-localized with SKIP in nuclear speckles. The reporter assays showed that PABP2 co-operated with SKIP to synergistically activate E-box-mediated transcription through MYOD: Moreover, both PABP2 and SKIP were directly associated with MyoD to form a single complex. These findings suggest that PABP2 and SKIP directly control the expression of muscle-specific genes at the transcription level.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2001; 10(11):1129-39. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a severe form of congenital muscular disorder which is caused by mutations in the laminin α2 chain gene (LAMA2). The disease is characterized by marked dystrophic changes in skeletal muscles during early infancy, while little is known about the pathological process of the muscle fiber degeneration. Here, we report the immunohistochemical analysis of skeletal muscle in ten patients with primary merosin-deficient CMD using a panel of molecular markers for skeletal muscle proteins, cellular necrosis, and apoptosis. In the youngest patient (a 52 day old baby), prominent massive muscle cell degeneration occurred in association with the deposition of the C5-9 complement membrane attack complex (MAC). Most of the MAC-positive muscle fibers showed a severely deranged immunoreaction to dystrophin, dystroglycans, and other sarcolemmal proteins. In addition, we found scattered positive signals for apoptosis. Similar but milder changes were also observed in six other patients younger than 1 year. In the patients older than 3 years, muscle fibers positive for MAC and apoptotic signals were barely detectable. These findings imply that massive muscle fiber degeneration occurs in the very early stage of merosin-deficient CMD and may contribute to the severe dystrophic changes in muscle from early infancy.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 06/2001; · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emerin is an inner nuclear membrane protein that is involved in X-linked recessive Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD). Although the function of this protein is still unknown, we revealed that C-terminus transmembrane domain-truncated emerin (amino acid 1-225) binds to lamin A with higher affinity than lamin C. Screening for the emerin binding protein and immunoprecipitation analysis showed that lamin A binds to emerin specifically. We also used the yeast two-hybrid system to clarify that this interaction requires the top half of the tail domain (amino acid 384-566) of lamin A. Lamin A and lamin C are alternative splicing products of the lamin A/C gene that is responsible for autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD). These results indicate that the emerin-lamin interaction requires the tail domains of lamin A and lamin C. The data also suggest that the lamin A-specific region (amino acids 567-664) plays some indirect role in the difference in emerin-binding capacity between lamin A and lamin C. This is the first report that refers the difference between lamin A and lamin C in the interaction with emerin. These data also suggest that lamin A is important for nuclear membrane integrity.
    Journal of Biochemistry 03/2001; 129(2):321-7. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Miyoshi myopathy, an autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy involving distal muscles, is caused by dysferlin mutations. We present clinical and genetic studies of two men and six women, aged 25-83 years, from a Japanese family with consanguineous marriages. Onset was between ages 17 and 59 years. Six of the patients had muscle involvement typical of Miyoshi myopathy, one initially had severe proximal muscle involvement, and one had scapuloperoneal-type muscle involvement. Three patients showed steppage gait. Genetic linkage analysis identified a maximum lod score of 3.34 (θ=0.00) at marker D2S292 in 2p13. Analysis of dysferlin revealed the mutation G2090T (Glu573Stop) in exon 19 in all affected patients. This is the largest Japanese family with Miyoshi myopathy showing intrafamilial phenotypic variation and sharing a common mutation in dysferlin.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 03/2001; 184(1):15-9. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Asako HASE, Kiichi ARAHATA
    Proceedings of The Japan Academy Series B-physical and Biological Sciences - PROC JPN ACAD B. 01/2001; 77(7):140-143.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the pathophysiologic role of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) in the brain in myotonic dystrophy (MD), the developmental characteristics of DMPK immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and its alteration with disease were studied. Eleven patients' brain with MD (5 congenital form, 6 adult form) were examined by immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody against synthetic DMPK peptides, antipeptide DM1, and compared with 30 control brains, including 16 age-matched controls. In controls, DM1-immunoreactive neurons appeared in the early fetal frontal cortex and cerebellar granule cell layer, persisting through 29 weeks of gestation and then disappearing. In contrast, immunoreactive neurons continued to persist in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar granule cell layer of MD patients. When we counted DM1-immunoreactive neurons, the increase over controls was greater in the congenital form of MD than in the adult form, and was greater in the cerebrum than in the cerebellum in both forms of MD. DM1 immunostaining was predominantly nuclear, mirroring Western blotting of subcellular fractions. Differences in DM1 expression related to development and to the two forms of MD may be closely related to the pathogenesis of mental retardation in this disease.
    Acta Neuropathologica 12/2000; 100(5):513-20. · 9.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
945.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002
    • National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital
      Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan
    • Tokyo Medical University
      • Division of Pediatrics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1990–2002
    • National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry
      • • Department of Neuromuscular Research
      • • Department of Ultrastructural Research
      • • Department of Neurology
      Кодаиры, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2001
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1999–2001
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Nagoya City University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2000
    • Kumamoto University
      • Department of Neurology
      Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
  • 1993–2000
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences
      • • Department of Molecular Cell Biology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • International Neuroscience Institute
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • Jichi Medical University
      • Division of Cardiology
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
  • 1990–1999
    • Juntendo University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998
    • Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital
      Utsunomiya, Tochigi, Japan
  • 1997
    • National Defense Medical College
      • Division of Anatomy
      Tokorozawa, Saitama-ken, Japan
  • 1996
    • National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1991–1995
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
    • Niigata Teishin Hospital
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 1990–1995
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • Department of Neuropathology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1994
    • Aichi Medical University
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
  • 1988–1989
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neurology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 1987–1988
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Neurology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States