[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SOX14 is a member of the SOXB2 subgroup of transcription factors implicated in neural development. Although the first SOX14 gene in vertebrates was cloned and characterized more than a decade ago and its expression profile during development was revealed in various animal model systems, the role of this gene during neural development is largely unknown. In the present study we analyzed the expression of SOX14 in human NT2/D1 and mouse P19 pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that it is expressed in both cell lines and upregulated during retinoic acid induced neural differentiation. We showed that SOX14 was expressed in both neuronal and non-neuronal differentiated derivatives, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Since it was previously proposed that increased SOXB2 proteins level interfere with the activity of SOXB1 counteracting partners, we compared expression patterns of SOXB members during retinoic acid induction of embryonal carcinoma cells. We revealed that upregulation of SOX14 expression is accompanied by alterations in the expression patterns of SOXB1 members. In order to analyze the potential cross-talk between them, we generated SOX14 expression construct. The ectopic expression of SOX14 was demonstrated at the mRNA level in NT2/D1, P19 and HeLa cells, while an increased level of SOX14 protein was detected in HeLa cells only. By transient transfection experiments in HeLa cells we showed for the first time that ectopic expression of SOX14 repressed SOX1 expression, whereas no significant effect on SOX2, SOX3 and SOX21 was observed. Data presented here provide an insight into SOX14 expression during in vitro neural differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells and demonstrate the effect of its ectopic expression on protein levels of SOXB members in HeLa cells. Obtained results contribute to better understanding the role of one of the most conserved SOX proteins.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91852. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary lens epithelial cell (LEC) cultures derived from newborn (P0) and one-month-old (P30) mouse lenses were used to study GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) signaling expression and its effect on the intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) level. We have found that these cultures express specific cellular markers for lens epithelial and fiber cells, all components of the functional GABA signaling pathway and GABA, thus recapitulating the developmental program of the ocular lens. Activation of both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors (GABAAR and GABABR) with the specific agonists muscimol and baclofen, respectively induces [Ca2+]i transients that could be blocked by the specific antagonists bicuculline and CGP55845 and were dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Bicuculline did not change the GABA-evoked Ca2+ responses in Ca2-containing buffers, but suppressed them significantly in Ca2+-free buffers suggesting the two receptors couple to convergent Ca2+ mobilization mechanisms with different extracellular Ca2+ sensitivity. Prolonged activation of GABABR induced wave propagation of the Ca2+ signal and persistent oscillations. The number of cells reacting to GABA or GABA+bicuculline in P30 mouse LEC cultures expressing predominantly the synaptic type GABAAR did not differ significantly from the number of reacting cells in P0 mouse LEC cultures. The GABA-induced Ca2+ transients in P30 (but not P0) mouse LEC could be entirely suppressed by co-application of bicuculline and CGP55845. The GABA-mediated Ca2+ signaling may be involved in a variety of Ca2+-dependent cellular processes during lens growth and epithelial cell differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma-amminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates, serves as an autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule during development, modulating a number of calcium (Ca(2+))-dependent processes, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation, acting via 2 types of GABA receptors (GABARs): ionotropic GABA(A)Rs and metabotropic GABA(B)Rs. Here, we demonstrate that mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), which possess the capacity for virtually unlimited self-renewal and pluripotency, synthesize GABA and express functional GABA(A)Rs and GABA(B)Rs, as well as voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. On activation, both GABAR types triggered synergistically intracellular calcium rise. Muscimol (a GABA(A)R agonist) induced single Ca(2+) transients involving both VGCC-mediated Ca(2+) influx and intracellular stores, while baclofen (a GABA(B)R agonist) evoked Ca(2+) transients followed by intercellular Ca(2+) waves and oscillations that were resistant to antagonists and entirely dependent on Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Prolonged treatment with muscimol slightly inhibited, while baclofen or SR95531 (a GABA(A)R antagonist) significantly facilitated, mESC proliferation. GABA(A)R-specific ligands also induced morphological and gene expression changes indicating a differentiation shift. Our data suggest that the interplay between GABARs and downstream (coupled) effectors differentially modulates mESC proliferation/differentiation through selective activation of second messenger signaling cascades.-Schwirtlich, M., Emri, Z., Antal, K., Máté, Z., Katarova, Z., Szabó, G. GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors of distinct properties affect oppositely the proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells through synergistic elevation of intracellular Ca(2+).
The FASEB Journal 12/2009; 24(4):1218-28. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system, serves as a signaling molecule modulating diverse processes during embryonic development. Earlier we have demonstrated that different forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are differentially regulated during mouse lens development. Here we show that the developing lens expresses also components of GABA signaling downstream of GAD. Multiple GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor subunits as well as the GABA transporters show expression profiles highly correlated with the expression of different GADs. GABA receptors (GABAR) and the vesicular GABA transporter localize at the apical/basal membranes of the lens epithelia and differentiating fibers and may be involved in conventional GABAR-mediated signaling, while the membrane GABA transporters may also function as Na(+)/Cl(-)/GABA carriers. The functionality of GABAR was verified by calcium imaging in whole lenses. Our data suggest that GABA synthesized locally by GAD, acts through GABA receptors by modulating the intracellular calcium levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the adult nervous system and its biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are abundantly expressed in the embryonic nervous system and are involved in the modulation of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Here we describe for the first time the expression of GABA and embryonic and adult GAD isoforms in the developing mouse lens. We show that the GAD isoforms are sequentially induced with specific spatiotemporal profiles: GAD65 and embryonic GAD isoforms prevail in primary fibers, while GAD67 is the predominant GAD expressed in the postnatal secondary fibers. This pattern correlates well with the expression of Dlx2 and Dlx5, known as upstream regulators of GAD. GABA and GAD are most abundant at the tips of elongating fibers and are absent from organelle-free cells, suggesting their involvement is primarily in shaping of the cytoskeleton during fiber elongation stages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mindkét GAD gén kifejeződik a 10 napos egér embrió szagló plakódjában. Az expresszió a későbbiekben a szaglóhámban marad meg. Két részlegesen átfedő GABAerg sejtpopulációt azonosítottunk a fejlődő frontonazális nyúlványban: ezek a vándorló LHRH+/GAD65+eGAD+ sejtcsoport és az un. "migratory mass" (MM), amely GAD67+(eGAD)/OMP+ sejteket tartalmaz. A GAD65 jelenlétét először sikerült azonosítanunk a vándorló LHRH+ sejtekben. A GAD65 expresszió 1 hónapos korig folytatódik a már nem vándorló LHRH tartalmú idegsejt populációban is. A felnőtt GAD67 gyakorlatilag nem mutatható ki a frontonazális nyúlványban. Ebben a struktúrában a GAD67 génről alternetív "splicing" mechanizmussal képződő embrionális GAD a fő GAD fehérjeforma. A GAD65 hiányos egérben az LHRH neuronok vándorlása a GABAA receptor gátlásához hasonló módon zavart: a vándorlás sebessége fokozódott és iránya az előagyban megváltozott. A GAD67 hiánya nem befolyásolta jelentősen az LHRH+ sejtek vándorlását. Ennek valószínű magyarázata az, hogy a GAD67 KO egerekben az embrionális GAD mennyisége megnövekedett. | 1) Both GAD genes are expressed in the mouse embryo as early as E10 in the olfactory placode. The expression later is maintained in the olfactory epithelium (OE). 2) We have found that, except for the OE, there are two partially overlapping GABAergic lineages in the developing frontonasal process: the migratory LHRH+/GAD65+/eGAD+ and the migratory mass (MM), which is: GAD67+(eGAD)+/OMP+. The identification of GAD65 in the migratory LHRH+ cells is a novel result. 3) GAD65 expression in the LHRH lineage continues in the post-migratory LHRH+ neurons until the first month postnatally. 4) The adult GAD67 is barely expressed in the frontonasal process, instead, the alternatively spliced embryonic GAD is the predominant GAD derived from the GAD67 gene. 5) The absence of GAD65 in GAD65 KO mice impared the migration of LHRH+ cells in a way similar to the effect of GABA- A-R inhibitors, namely, enhanced speed of migration and change in direction of migration in the forebrain part of the migratory route. 6) The absence of GAD67 in GAD67 KO mice is not so pronounced, probably due to up-regulation of embryonic GAD.