Sonia Godoy-Tundidor

Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (20)88.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Our aim was to evaluate and compare lymph node involvement, as well as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), between infiltrating ductal carcinoma with (group 1) and without (group 2) intraductal carcinoma component in order to determine the prognostic value of the intraductal component. METHODS: Data from 389 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast were included in the study by means of reviewing medical charts and pathology slides. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding node status. The 5-year DFS rate was 90.7% in group 1 and 81.8% in group 2 (p = 0.014), with a median follow-up of 73.2 months (95% CI 68.3-77.4). There was no statistically significant difference in 5-year OS between groups (98% group 1 vs. 93% group 2) with a median global survival of 134 months (95% CI 131-137). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intraductal component in the infiltrating carcinoma seems to increase DFS and may be an independent and favorable prognostic factor for breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer 01/2012; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To measure endometrial volume and endometrial-subendometrial vascularization by 3-D power Doppler ultrasound in patients undergoing cycles of artificial insemination with ovarian stimulation, to evaluate their relationship with patients' age and pregnancy development. We included patients with primary and secondary infertility of one year of evolution. We measured vascular indexes and endometrial volume by 3-D power Doppler ultrasound. Seventy-nine consecutive cycles were studied. Endometrial volume average was 4.7 ± 2.66 ml. We did not find any difference between the endometrial volumes in women who did versus did not become pregnant (9 vs. 70 women, respectively). The endometrial vascular index was significantly higher in patients aged between 31 and 33 years old. In patients between the ages of 31 and 33, both the endometrial flow index (FI; p = 0.017) and the endometrial vascular FI (p = 0.013) were higher. At the subendometrial area, the vascular FI was lower in women older than 33 years old (p = 0.024), while the FI was higher in patients that achieved pregnancy (p = 0.047). Endometrial volumes were independent of pregnancy development. Endometrial and subendometrial vascularization FIs were significantly higher in younger women. The subendometrial FI was significantly higher in patients who achieved pregnancy.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 03/2011; 72(2):117-22. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Ignacio Zapardiel, Michele Peiretti, Sonia Godoy-Tundidor
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    ABSTRACT: The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 04/2010; 202(4):e4-5. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy resistance represents a major clinical challenge in disseminated prostate cancer for which only palliative treatment is available. One phenotype of therapy-resistant tumors is the expression of somatic, gain-of-function mutations of the androgen receptor (AR). Such mutant receptors can use noncanonical endogenous ligands (e.g., estrogen) as agonists, thereby promoting recurrent tumor formation. Additionally, selected AR mutants are sensitized to the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) bisphenol A, present in the environment. Herein, screening of additional EDCs revealed that multiple tumor-derived AR mutants (including T877A, H874Y, L701H, and V715M) are sensitized to activation by the pesticide 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), thus indicating that this agent may impinge on AR signaling in cancer cells. Further investigation showed that DDE induced mutant AR recruitment to the prostate-specific antigen regulatory region, concomitant with an enhancement of target gene expression, and androgen-independent proliferation. By contrast, neither AR activation nor altered cellular proliferation was observed in cells expressing wild-type AR. Activation of signal transduction pathways was also observed based on rapid phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, although only MAPK activation was associated with DDE-induced cellular proliferation. Functional analyses showed that both mutant AR and MAPK pathways contribute to the proliferative action of DDE, as evidenced through selective abrogation of each pathway. Together, these data show that exposure to environmentally relevant doses of EDCs can promote androgen-independent cellular proliferation in tumor cells expressing mutant AR and that DDE uses both mutant AR and MAPK pathways to exert its mitogenic activity.
    Molecular Cancer Research 10/2008; 6(9):1507-20. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) is critical for disseminated prostate cancer proliferation and survival. AR activity is targeted either through prevention of ligand synthesis or through the use of antagonists that bind the COOH-terminal ligand-binding domain. Although initially effective, treatment fails due to restored AR activity in the presence of therapeutics. Thus, new means must be developed to target AR activity. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is critical for AR transcriptional activity, and the BAF57 SWI/SNF subunit facilitates direct interaction with the receptor. Although selected SWI/SNF subunit expression is reduced in prostate cancer, we show that BAF57 is retained in human disease and is elevated in a subset of tumors. Functional analyses showed that BAF57 contributes uniquely to androgen-mediated stimulation of transcription without compromising the effectiveness of AR antagonists. Subsequent studies revealed that BAF57 is recruited to the AR DNA-binding domain/hinge region, which occurs concomitant with receptor activation. These data provided the basis for a novel inhibitor derived from BAF57 [BAF57 inhibitory peptide (BIPep)], which blocked AR residence on chromatin and resultant AR-dependent gene activation. Importantly, BIPep expression was sufficient to inhibit androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell proliferation in AR-positive cells. In summary, these data identify blockade of AR-BAF57 interaction as a novel means to target agonist-induced AR function in prostate cancer, and provide the first evidence that abrogation of SWI/SNF function can be developed as a point of therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer.
    Cancer Research 07/2008; 68(12):4551-8. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium is implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, but its oncogenic action remains unclear. In this study we aimed to decipher changes in cell growth and the transcriptome in an immortalized human normal prostate epithelial cell line (NPrEC) following exposure to low-dose Cd. Synchronized NPrEC cells were exposed to different doses of Cd and assayed for cell viability and cell-cycle progression. We investigated changes in transcriptome by global profiling and used Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software to develop propositions about functional connections among differentially expressed genes. A neutralizing antibody was used to negate the effect of Cd-induced up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in NPrEC cells. Exposure of NPrEC to 2.5 microM Cd enhanced cell viability and accelerated cell-cycle progression. Global expression profiling identified 48 genes that exhibited >or= 1.5-fold changes in expression after 4, 8, 16, and 32 hr of Cd treatment. Pathway analyses inferred a functional connection among 35 of these genes in one major network, with TNF as the most prominent node. Fourteen of the 35 genes are related to TNF, and 11 exhibited an average of >2-fold changes in gene expression. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the up-regulation of 7 of the 11 genes (ADAM8, EDN1, IL8, IL24, IL13RA2, COX2/PTGS2, and SERPINB2) and uncovered a 28-fold transient increase in TNF expression in Cd-treated NPrEC cells. A TNF-neutralizing antibody effectively blocked Cd-induced elevations in the expression of these genes. Noncytotoxic, low-dose Cd has growth-promoting effects on NPrEC cells and induces transient overexpression of TNF, leading to up-regulation of genes with oncogenic and immunomodulation functions.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2008; 116(6):769-76. · 7.03 Impact Factor
  • Viqar Syed, Kasturi Mukherjee, Sonia Godoy-Tundidor, Shuk-Mei Ho
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds great potential as an anticancer drug, since it induces selective cell death in cancer cells but not in normal ones. However, cancer cells often acquire resistance to TRAIL, which hinders its clinical efficacy. We previously demonstrated that progesterone triggers apoptosis in human ovarian cancer (OCa) cells. In the present study, we evaluated the prospect of utilizing progestins in combination with TRAIL to enhance cell death in TRAIL-sensitive (OVCA 420, OVCA 429, and OVCA 433) and -resistant (OVCA 432) OCa cell lines. TRAIL sensitivity (60-80% cell kill) bore no correlation with expression of the TRAIL receptors (DR4, DR5) or their decoys (DcR1 and DcR2), but was associated with activation of caspase-8 and -3, and downregulation of the long isoform of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP(L)), an anti-apoptosis mediator. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-FLIP(L) expression restored TRAIL sensitivity in OVCA 432 cells. Induction of c-FLIP(L) overexpression increased TRAIL resistance in TRAIL-sensitive lines. Thus, persistent high level of c-FLIP(L) expression likely mediates TRAIL resistance in OCa cells. Treatment of OCa cells with progesterone enhanced TRAIL-induced cell death (>85%), but only in TRAIL-sensitive cell lines. Combined treatment with two progestins was superior to single progestin treatment, with progesterone plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) achieving over 85% cell kill in both TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant OCa cell lines. Significantly, unlike TRAIL, progestin-induced cell death did not involve c-FLIP(L) downregulation. Hence, combined progestin regimens, with or without TRAIL, may serve as an effective therapy for OCa by circumventing the anti-apoptotic action of c-FLIP(L).
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/2007; 102(2):442-52. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic regulator of prostate cancer cell growth. Oncostatin M (OSM), an IL-6-type cytokine, affects the growth of prostate cancers in a paracrine and autocrine manner. In order to understand better the mechanisms controlling proliferation and intracellular signaling by these cytokines in advanced prostate carcinoma, we performed studies in 22Rv1 cells derived from the relapsed xenograft CWR22R. Expression of IL-6 and OSM receptors (OSMR-beta) and elements of signal transduction pathways in 22Rv1 cells were investigated by RT-PCR. Proliferation was assessed by cell counting after treatment with either IL-6 or OSM. IL-6 secretion was measured in conditioned medium from 22Rv1 cells by ELISA. Expression and phosphorylation status of signal transducers and activators of transcription factor (STAT) 3, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p44/p42 and p38, and protein kinase B (Akt) was investigated by Western blot. 22Rv1 cells express both subunits of the IL-6 receptor (gp80 and gp130) and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-beta (LIFR-beta) but not OSMR-beta. Their proliferation was stimulated by IL-6 or OSM and the maximal effect was observed at a concentration of 10 ng/ml of either cytokine. Interestingly, neither IL-6 nor OSM induced phosphorylation of STAT3. OSM modestly increased the phosphorylation of p38 and both cytokines exerted an effect on Akt phosphorylation. IL-6 and OSM stimulate proliferation of 22Rv1 cells, at least in part through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling pathway. Our data provide additional evidence for the growth-stimulatory role of IL-6 and related cytokines in advanced prostate cancer and may serve as a basis for the development of novel experimental therapies.
    The Prostate 08/2005; 64(2):209-16. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intermittent androgen ablation is a palliative treatment option for advanced prostate cancer which is associated with less side effects, improved quality of life of patients, and reduced costs. Regulation of growth and survival of prostate cancer cells during intermittent androgen withdrawal has not been studied in appropriate models yet. Two cycles of androgen withdrawal and supplementation were performed in human prostate cancer cells LNCaP in vitro. Proliferation of prostate cancer cell sublines established after intermittent androgen withdrawal was assessed in the absence or presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) by protein determination. Cell cycle was analyzed with a flow cytometer. EGF was measured in the supernatants of LNCaP sublines with a commercial ELISA. EGF receptor mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Basal proliferation rate of all newly generated LNCaP sublines increased over that of the parental LNCaP cell line. The highest stimulation of proliferation by exogenous EGF was observed in parental LNCaP cells. In each LNCaP derivative established during intermittent androgen withdrawal, the percentage of cells in the S phase of cell cycle was higher than that in parental LNCaP cells. EGF levels did not increase during intermittent androgen ablation. The expression of EGF receptor protein decreased following each cycle of androgen ablation and increased subsequently after androgen supplementation. EGF receptor (EGFR) mRNA was regulated in a similar manner in LNCaP derivatives established during the second cycle of intermittent withdrawal. Changes in the expression of the EGF receptor occur during intermittent androgen ablation but they cannot be solely responsible for increased basal proliferation. Alternatively, other ligands and receptors of the EGF system may become overexpressed during prolonged withdrawal and supplementation of androgenic hormones in prostate cancer therapy.
    The Prostate 07/2004; 59(4):401-8. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and its receptor are increased in human prostate cancer. Prostate cancer LNCaP-IL-6+ cells, established after prolonged treatment with IL-6, have been found to acquire a growth advantage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may accelerate the growth of various tumours by stimulation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). To understand better the regulation of proliferation of LNCaP-IL-6+ cells, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2 was here investigated in the LNCaP-IL-6+ subline. VEGF was measured in cellular supernatants by enzyme-linked immunoassay. The expression of VEGFR-2 was assessed by Western blot. LNCaP-IL-6+ and control LNCaP-IL-6- cells were treated with a neutralising antibody against VEGFR-2. VEGF concentrations were 20-fold higher in LNCaP-IL-6+ than in LNCaP-IL-6- cells. The stimulatory effect of IL-6 on VEGF production was abolished by an inhibitor of the signalling pathway for phosphoinositol 3 kinase in LNCaP-IL-6+ and LNCaP-IL-6- cells. Exogenous VEGF did not stimulate proliferation in either LNCaP-IL-6+ cells or controls. VEGFR-2 was detected only in LNCaP-IL-6+ cells, in which the neutralising antibody caused a partial inhibition of cell proliferation. It was concluded that a VEGF autocrine loop is established in prostate cancer cells generated after chronic treatment with IL-6. Because of the upregulation of IL-6 in patients with prostate cancer, these findings might be clinically relevant.
    European Journal of Cancer 06/2004; 40(7):1066-72. · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 02/2004; 3(2):92-92. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 02/2004; 3(2):44-44. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 09/2003; 2(6):51-51. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that activates the signaling pathways of Janus kinases-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in various tumors. Thus, it modulates cell growth and apoptosis. IL-6 levels are elevated in tissues and sera from prostate cancer patients and IL-6 receptor expression has been detected in prostate cancer cell lines and clinical specimens. Continuous exposure of prostate cancer cells to IL-6 might alter their responsiveness to this cytokine. To gain more insight into the function of IL-6 in prostate carcinoma, we have inoculated LNCaP-IL-6+ cells, generated after prolonged treatment with IL-6, into nude mice (total n = 16, two independent experiments). Controls included animals bearing LNCaP-IL-6- cells, passaged at the same time as LNCaP-IL-6+ cells without supplementation of IL-6. LNCaP-IL-6+ tumor volumes were larger than those of their counterparts at all time points. There were no signs of cachexia in any of the experimental animals and all mice were free of metastases. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for accelerated growth of LNCaP-IL-6+ tumors, we have investigated the expression of cell-cycle regulatory molecules by Western blot analysis. The levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were elevated in LNCaP-IL-6+ cells. There was a strong down-regulation of cyclins D1 and E in the LNCaP-IL-6+ subline. The cell-cycle inhibitor p27 was expressed at a low level in LNCaP-IL-6+ cells and could not be up-regulated by addition of IL-6. Most notably, LNCaP-IL-6+ cells exhibited a reduced expression of the hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Accelerated tumor growth in our model system was also associated with alterations in IL-6-signaling pathways. The ability of IL-6 to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was abolished in the LNCaP-IL-6+ subline. In contrast, the levels of the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 increased in cells generated after long-term IL-6 treatment. The inhibitor of MAPK kinase PD 98059 retarded the proliferation of LNCaP-IL-6+ but not that of control cells. In summary, we show in the present study that chronic exposure of prostate cancer cells to IL-6 facilitates tumor growth in vivo by abolishment of the growth control by pRb and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. These findings could be relevant to understand the role of IL-6 in prostate cancer progression.
    American Journal Of Pathology 03/2003; 162(2):655-63. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 02/2003; 2(1):165-165. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progression of human prostate cancer toward therapy resistance occurs in the presence of wild-type or mutated androgen receptors (ARs) that, in some cases, exhibit aberrant activation by various steroid hormones and anti-androgens. The AR associates with a number of co-activators that possess histone acetylase activity and act as bridging molecules to components of the transcription initiation complex. In previous reports, it was shown that the transcriptional co-activator CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP) enhances AR activity in a ligand-dependent manner. In the present study, we have investigated whether CBP modifies antagonist/agonist balance of the nonsteroidal anti-androgens hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide. In prostate cancer DU-145 cells, which were transiently transfected with CBP cDNA, hydroxyflutamide enhanced AR activity to a greater extent than bicalutamide in the presence of either wild-type or the mutated AR 730 val-->met. In two sublines of LNCaP cells that contain the mutated AR 877 thr-->ala and overexpressed CBP, increase in AR activity was observed after treatment with hydroxyflutamide but not with bicalutamide. Anti-androgens did not influence AR expression in cells transfected with CBP cDNA, as judged by Western blot analysis. Endogenous CBP protein was detected by Western blot in nuclear extracts from the three prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP, PC-3, and DU-145, all derived from therapy-resistant prostate cancer. In addition, CBP was expressed in both basal and secretory cells of benign prostate epithelium, high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, and prostate cancer clinical specimens, as evidenced by immunohistochemical staining. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the selective enhancement of agonistic action of the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide by the transcriptional co-activator CBP, which is a new, potentially relevant mechanism contributing to the acquisition of therapy resistance in prostate cancer.
    American Journal Of Pathology 02/2003; 162(1):233-41. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 02/2003; 2(1):84-84. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine the serum andtissue levels of which are elevated in prostate cancer patients, activates the androgen receptor (AR) in a ligand-independent and synergistic manner. Oncostatin M (OSM) is an IL-6 type cytokine that regulates the growth of prostate cancer cells in a paracrine fashion. The present study was designed to investigate the regulation of AR expression and function by OSM, as well as the efficacy of the nonsteroidal antiandrogens hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide in the inhibition of AR-mediated signal transduction. Expression of the OSM receptor-beta in the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, and DU-145 was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR. DU-145 and PC-3 cells were cotransfected with an androgen-responsive gene and AR cDNA. Reporter gene activity was measured after treatment with androgen and/or OSM in the absence or presence of antiandrogens or protein kinase inhibitors. AR expression after OSM treatment was assessed by Western blot. OSM receptor-beta expression was higher in DU-145 and PC-3 than in LNCaP cells. OSM caused ligand-independent activation of the AR in DU-145 cells, and the maximal activation was 62% of that induced by the synthetic androgen methyltrienolone. In the presence of OSM, hydroxyflutamide behaved as an AR agonist. Bicalutamide down-regulated AR activation caused by OSM only at a concentration of 1 microM. The inhibitor of the protein kinase A signaling pathway PKI and dn signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3 showed no effect on AR activation by OSM. The inhibitor of the MAPK pathway, PD 98059, caused only a minor down-regulation of OSM-induced reporter gene activity. OSM did not change AR expression in DU-145 cells transfected with AR cDNA. OSM is a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, which causes ligand-independent activation of the AR without altering receptor expression. In contrast to AR activation by IL-6, nonsteroidal AR antagonists act as agonists in the presence of OSM. This may be attributable to recruitment of different intermediary signal transduction proteins by OSM and IL-6, respectively. The acquisition of agonistic properties of AR blockers in the presence of OSM might compromise use of these drugs in prostate cancer treatment.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2002; 8(7):2356-61. · 8.19 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 01/2002; 1(1):52-52. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are frequently elevated in sera from patients with advanced prostate carcinoma. Our main objective was to investigate changes in responsiveness to IL-6 and/or androgen that occur in LNCaP cells after long-term treatment with IL-6. This in vitro model could be of clinical relevance because of its similarity with late-stage prostate carcinoma. LNCaP human prostate cancer cells were treated with IL-6 at a concentration of 5 ng/ml. After 20 passages, the new subline LNCaP-IL-6+ has been established. Passages 20-40 are referred to as low passages (LP) and passages 41-73 as high passages (HP). LNCaP cells passaged at the same time in the absence of IL-6 were used as controls (LNCaP-IL-6-). Cells were counted after treatment with either IL-6 or the synthetic androgen methyltrienolone (R1881), and cell cycle analysis was performed. Binding of IL-6 or R1881 was assessed by radioligand binding assays. Reporter gene activity was measured by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Prostate-specific antigen in LNCaP-IL-6+ supernatants was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein was assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The basal proliferation rate in HP LNCaP-IL-6+ cells was higher than that in LNCaP-IL-6- cells. IL-6 inhibited proliferation of LNCaP-IL-6- cells but not that of either LP or HP of LNCaP-IL-6+ cells. This inability to elicit a growth-inhibitory response was associated with lack of effect on cell cycle distribution in the LNCaP-IL-6+ subline. In parallel, IL-6 binding decreased gradually during long-term IL-6 treatment and, in HP, reached only 33% of the levels measured in controls. Binding of radiolabeled androgen increased 2-fold in HP LNCaP-IL-6+ cells. Reporter gene assays revealed that R1881, at nanomolar concentrations, was a more potent androgen receptor activator in LNCaP-IL-6+ than in LNCaP-IL-6- cells. However, androgen- and IL-6-induced prostate-specific antigen secretion decreased in long-term IL-6-treated cells. IL-6 cDNA fragments were detected by reverse transcription-PCR in HP LNCaP-IL-6+ cells but not in controls or LP. IL-6 protein was first detected in passage 36 of LNCaP-IL-6+ cells, and it increased in HP. Long-term treatment of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells with IL-6 leads to abolishment of inhibitory growth response. In contrast to control cells, the LNCaP-IL-6+ subline expresses IL-6 mRNA and protein.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2001; 7(9):2941-8. · 8.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

366 Citations
88.53 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Hospital Universitario La Paz
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2010
    • The Philadelphia Center
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Environmental Health
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2001–2005
    • University of Innsbruck
      • Institute of Biochemistry
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria