Marc-Antoine Krieg

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (44)91.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Vertebral fracture assessments (VFAs) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry increase vertebral fracture detection in clinical practice and are highly reproducible. Measures of reproducibility are dependent on the frequency and distribution of the event. The aim of this study was to compare 2 reproducibility measures, reliability and agreement, in VFA readings in both a population-based and a clinical cohort. We measured agreement and reliability by uniform kappa and Cohen's kappa for vertebral reading and fracture identification: 360 VFAs from a population-based cohort and 85 from a clinical cohort. In the population-based cohort, 12% of vertebrae were unreadable. Vertebral fracture prevalence ranged from 3% to 4%. Inter-reader and intrareader reliability with Cohen's kappa was fair to good (0.35–0.71 and 0.36–0.74, respectively), with good inter-reader and intrareader agreement by uniform kappa (0.74–0.98 and 0.76–0.99, respectively). In the clinical cohort, 15% of vertebrae were unreadable, and vertebral fracture prevalence ranged from 7.6% to 8.1%. Inter-reader reliability was moderate to good (0.43–0.71), and the agreement was good (0.68–0.91). In clinical situations, the levels of reproducibility measured by the 2 kappa statistics are concordant, so that either could be used to measure agreement and reliability. However, if events are rare, as in a population-based cohort, we recommend evaluating reproducibility using the uniform kappa, as Cohen's kappa may be less accurate.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 11/2014; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is an increasing public health problem. The bisphophonates are the most useful treatment used through the world to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Their large prescription revealed an unpredictable side effect: the atypical fracture. These fractures appear in the subtrochanteric or diaphysal femoral proximal site, spontaneously or after a low trauma, and could be bilateral. X-rays shows a transversal or oblique fracture with a spur in the cortex and with a diffuse thickening of the cortical of the proximal femur. Expert's recommendations are current in progress to well understand and managed this problem. Here we report three cases of atypical femur fractures occurred in our Centre of bone diseases with some management and treatment propositions.
    Praxis. 08/2014; 103(16):939-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is complicated by the occurrence of fragility fractures. Over past years, various treatment options have become available, mostly potent antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates and denosumab. However, antiresorptive therapy cannot fully and rapidly restore bone mass and structure that has been lost because of increased remodelling. Alternatively recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogues do increase the formation of new bone material. The bone formation stimulated by intermittent PTH analogues not only increases bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass but also improves the microarchitecture of the skeleton, thereby reducing incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. Teriparatide, a recombinant human PTH fragment available in Switzerland, is reimbursed as second-line treatment in postmenopausal women and men with increased fracture risk, specifically in patients with incident fractures under antiresorptive therapy or patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and intolerance to antiresorptives. This position paper focuses on practical aspects in the management of patients on teriparatide treatment. Potential first-line indications for osteoanabolic treatment as well as the benefits and limitations of sequential and combination therapy with antiresorptive drugs are discussed.
    Swiss medical weekly: official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology 01/2014; 144:w13952. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a pilot study to compare vertebral fracture assessments (VFA) and lateral X-rays in terms of inter- and intraobserver reliability and degree of correlation for the detection of syndesmophytes in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We recruited 19 patients with AS and recent lumbar or cervical lateral X-rays with at least one syndesmophyte. Each patient underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with measurement of bone mineral density and dorso-lumbar VFA. Intra- and interreader reliability for VFA and X-rays were measured using 2 independent, blinded observers and Cohen's kappa values. An adapted modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score (amSASSS) was generated with each method, and these 2 values correlated. For X-rays, intraobserver and interobserver agreement were 94.3% (κ = 0.83) and 98.6% (κ = 0.96), respectively; for VFA, corresponding values were 92.8% (κ = 0.79) and 93.8% (κ = 0.82). Overall agreement between the 2 techniques was 88.6% (κ = 0.72). The Pearson correlation coefficient for the 2 methods was 0.95 for the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score . Per dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-generated bone mineral density, >50% of patients were osteopenic and 10% osteoporotic. In terms of reproducibility and correlation with X-rays, performing a VFA appears to be a candidate for assessing radiographic damage in AS, thought further research is necessary to justify this indication.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 10/2013; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study intended to compare bone density and architecture in three groups of women: young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), an age-matched control group of young women, and healthy late postmenopausal women. Three-dimensional peripheral quantitative high resolution computed-tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultradistal radius, a technology providing measures of cortical and trabecular bone density and microarchitecture, was performed in the three cohorts. Thirty-six women with AN aged 18-30years (mean duration of AN: 5.8years), 83 healthy late postmenopausal women aged 70-81 as well as 30 age-matched healthy young women were assessed. The overall cortical and trabecular bone density (D100), the absolute thickness of the cortical bone (CTh), and the absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) were significantly lower in AN patients compared with healthy young women. The absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) in AN and postmenopausal women was similar, but significantly lower than in healthy young women. The comparison between AN patients and post-menopausal women is of interest because the latter reach bone peak mass around the middle of the fertile age span whereas the former usually lose bone before reaching optimal bone density and structure. This study shows that bone mineral density and bone compacta thickness in AN are lower than in controls but still higher than in postmenopause. Bone compacta density in AN is similar as in controls. However, bone inner structure in AN is degraded to a similar extent as in postmenopause. This last finding is particularly troubling.
    Bone 09/2013; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several recent studies suggest that obesity may be a risk factor for fracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and future fracture risk at different skeletal sites. In prospective cohorts from more than 25 countries, baseline data on BMI were available in 398,610 women with an average age of 63 years (range 20-105 years) and follow up of 2.2 million person-years during which 30,280 osteoporotic fractures (6,457 hip fractures) occurred. Femoral neck BMD was measured in 108,267 of these women. Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m(2) ) was present in 22%. A majority of osteoporotic fractures (81%) and hip fractures (87%) arose in non-obese women. Compared to a BMI of 25 kg/m(2) , the hazard ratio (HR, 95% CI) for osteoporotic fracture at a BMI of 35 kg/m(2) was 0.87 (0.85-0.90). When adjusted for BMD, however, the same comparison showed that the hazard ratio for osteoporotic fracture was increased (HR= 1.16; 95% CI = 1.09 - 1.23). Low BMI is a risk factor for hip and all osteoporotic fracture, but is a protective factor for lower leg fracture, whereas high BMI is a risk factor for upper arm (humerus and elbow) fracture. When adjusted for BMD, low BMI remained a risk factor for hip fracture but was protective for osteoporotic fracture, tibia and fibula fracture, distal forearm fracture and upper arm fracture. When adjusted for BMD, high BMI remained a risk factor for upper arm fracture but was also a risk factor for all osteoporotic fractures. The association between BMI and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites and is modified by the interaction between BMI and BMD. At a population level, high BMI remains a protective factor for most sites of fragility fracture. The contribution of increasing population rates of obesity to apparent decreases in fracture rates should be explored.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 06/2013; · 6.04 Impact Factor
  • Bone Abstracts. 05/2013;
  • William D Leslie, Marc-Antoine Krieg, Didier Hans
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    ABSTRACT: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) is the reference standard for diagnosing osteoporosis but does not directly reflect deterioration in bone microarchitecture. The trabecular bone score (TBS), a novel grey-level texture measurement that can be extracted from DXA images, predicts osteoporotic fractures independent of BMD. Our aim was to identify clinical factors that are associated with baseline lumbar spine TBS. In total, 29,407 women ≥50yr at the time of baseline hip and spine DXA were identified from a database containing all clinical results for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Lumbar spine TBS was derived for each spine DXA examination blinded to clinical parameters and outcomes. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression (lowest vs highest tertile) was used to define the sensitivity of TBS to other risk factors associated with osteoporosis. Only a small component of the TBS measurement (7-11%) could be explained from BMD measurements. In multiple linear regression and logistic regression models, reduced lumbar spine TBS was associated with recent glucocorticoid use, prior major fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high alcohol intake, and higher body mass index. In contrast, recent osteoporosis therapy was associated with a significantly lower likelihood for reduced TBS. Similar findings were seen after adjustment for lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD. In conclusion, lumbar spine TBS is strongly associated with many of the risk factors that are predictive of osteoporotic fractures. Further work is needed to determine whether lumbar spine TBS can replace some of the clinical risk factors currently used in fracture risk assessment.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 02/2013; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporotic fracture (OF) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Switzerland is among the countries with the greatest risk. Our aim was (1) to calculate the FRAX(®) in a selected Swiss population the day before the occurrence of an OF and (2) to compare the results with the proposed Swiss FRAX(®) thresholds. The Swiss Association Against Osteoporosis proposed guidelines for the treatment of osteoporosis based on age-dependent thresholds. To identify a population at a very high risk of osteoporotic fracture, we included all consecutive patients in the active OF pathway cohort from the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland. FRAX(®) was calculated with the available data the day before the actual OF. People with a FRAX(®) body mass index (BMI) or a FRAX(®) (bone mineral density) BMD lower than the Swiss thresholds were not considered at high risk. Two-hundred thirty-seven patients were included with a mean age of 77.2 years, and 80 % were female. Major types of fracture included hip (58 %) and proximal humerus (25 %) fractures. Mean FRAX(®) BMI values were 28.0, 10.0, 13.0, 26.0, and 37.0 % for age groups 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80-89 years old, respectively. Fifty percent of the population was not considered at high risk by the FRAX(®) BMI. FRAX(®) BMD was available for 95 patients, and 45 % had a T score < -2.5 standard deviation. Only 30 % of patients with a normal or osteopenic BMD were classified at high risk by FRAX(®) BMD. The current proposed Swiss thresholds were not able to classify at high risk in 50 to 70 % of the studied population the day before a major OF.
    Clinical Rheumatology 11/2012; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 10/2012; 15(4):485. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vertebral osteoporotic fracture (VOF) is a major problem of public health. Surgical treatments such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are interesting adjuvant treatments for the management of osteoporosis. A consensus proposed by the principal contributors of this management is important. Regarding the actual data, we propose a vertebroplasty or a kyphoplasty for all patients suffering of an acute VOF. If a previous kyphosis or an important local kyphosis exists, secondary to the acute VOF or others, we propose a kyphoplasty. If the VOF is older and the conservative treatment is inefficient, we propose a vertebroplasty. In all cases, a specific management and treatment of osteoporosis is proposed.
    Revue médicale suisse 06/2012; 8(347):1417-21.
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    ABSTRACT: The 3-year FREEDOM trial assessed the efficacy and safety of 60 mg denosumab every 6 months for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Participants who completed the FREEDOM trial were eligible to enter an extension to continue the evaluation of denosumab efficacy and safety for up to 10 years. For the extension results presented here, women from the FREEDOM denosumab group had 2 more years of denosumab treatment (long-term group) and those from the FREEDOM placebo group had 2 years of denosumab exposure (cross-over group). We report results for bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), fracture rates, and safety. A total of 4550 women enrolled in the extension (2343 long-term; 2207 cross-over). Reductions in BTMs were maintained (long-term group) or occurred rapidly (cross-over group) following denosumab administration. In the long-term group, lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased further, resulting in 5-year gains of 13.7% and 7.0%, respectively. In the cross-over group, BMD increased at the lumbar spine (7.7%) and total hip (4.0%) during the 2-year denosumab treatment. Yearly fracture incidences for both groups were below rates observed in the FREEDOM placebo group and below rates projected for a "virtual untreated twin" cohort. Adverse events did not increase with long-term denosumab administration. Two adverse events in the cross-over group were adjudicated as consistent with osteonecrosis of the jaw. Five-year denosumab treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis maintained BTM reduction and increased BMD, and was associated with low fracture rates and a favorable risk/benefit profile.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 11/2011; 27(3):694-701. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The measurement of BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the "gold standard" for diagnosing osteoporosis but does not directly reflect deterioration in bone microarchitecture. The trabecular bone score (TBS), a novel gray-level texture measurement that can be extracted from DXA images, correlates with 3D parameters of bone microarchitecture. Our aim was to evaluate the ability of lumbar spine TBS to predict future clinical osteoporotic fractures. A total of 29,407 women 50 years of age or older at the time of baseline hip and spine DXA were identified from a database containing all clinical results for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Health service records were assessed for the incidence of nontraumatic osteoporotic fracture codes subsequent to BMD testing (mean follow-up 4.7 years). Lumbar spine TBS was derived for each spine DXA examination blinded to clinical parameters and outcomes. Osteoporotic fractures were identified in 1668 (5.7%) women, including 439 (1.5%) spine and 293 (1.0%) hip fractures. Significantly lower spine TBS and BMD were identified in women with major osteoporotic, spine, and hip fractures (all p < 0.0001). Spine TBS and BMD predicted fractures equally well, and the combination was superior to either measurement alone (p < 0.001). Spine TBS predicts osteoporotic fractures and provides information that is independent of spine and hip BMD. Combining the TBS trabecular texture index with BMD incrementally improves fracture prediction in postmenopausal women.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 09/2011; 26(11):2762-9. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developing a novel technique for the efficient, noninvasive clinical evaluation of bone microarchitecture remains both crucial and challenging. The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a new gray-level texture measurement that is applicable to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. Significant correlations between TBS and standard 3-dimensional (3D) parameters of bone microarchitecture have been obtained using a numerical simulation approach. The main objective of this study was to empirically evaluate such correlations in anteroposterior spine DXA images. Thirty dried human cadaver vertebrae were evaluated. Micro-computed tomography acquisitions of the bone pieces were obtained at an isotropic resolution of 93μm. Standard parameters of bone microarchitecture were evaluated in a defined region within the vertebral body, excluding cortical bone. The bone pieces were measured on a Prodigy DXA system (GE Medical-Lunar, Madison, WI), using a custom-made positioning device and experimental setup. Significant correlations were detected between TBS and 3D parameters of bone microarchitecture, mostly independent of any correlation between TBS and bone mineral density (BMD). The greatest correlation was between TBS and connectivity density, with TBS explaining roughly 67.2% of the variance. Based on multivariate linear regression modeling, we have established a model to allow for the interpretation of the relationship between TBS and 3D bone microarchitecture parameters. This model indicates that TBS adds greater value and power of differentiation between samples with similar BMDs but different bone microarchitectures. It has been shown that it is possible to estimate bone microarchitecture status derived from DXA imaging using TBS.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 07/2011; 14(3):302-12. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is important for bone metabolism and neuromuscular function. While a routine dosage is often proposed in osteoporotic patients, it is not so evident in rheumatology outpatients where it has been shown that the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high. The aim of the current study was to systematically evaluate the vitamin D status in our outpatient rheumatology population to define the severity of the problem according to rheumatologic diseases. During November 2009, all patients were offered a screening test for 25-OH vitamin D levels and categorised as deficient (<10 µg/l [ng/ml] [25 nmol/l]), insufficient (10 µg/l to 30 µg/l [25 to 75 nmol/l]) or normal (>30 µg/l [75 nmol/l]). A total of 272 patients were included. The mean 25-OH vitamin D level was 21 µg/l (range 1.5 to 45.9). A total of 20 patients had vitamin D deficiency, 215 patients had an insufficiency and 37 patients had normal results. In the group of patients with osteoporosis mean level of 25-OH vitamin D was 25 µg/l and 31% had normal results. In patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (N = 219), the mean level of 25-OH vitamin D was 20.5 µg/l, and only 12% had normal 25-OH vitamin D levels. In the small group of patients with degenerative disease (N = 33), the mean level of 25-OH vitamin D was 21.8 µg/l, and 21% had normal results. Insufficiency and deficiency were even seen in 38% of the patients who were taking supplements. These results confirm that hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in an outpatient population of rheumatology patients, affecting 86% of subjects. Despite oral supplementation (taken in 38% of our population), only a quarter of those on oral supplementation attained normal values of 25-OH vitamin D.
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2011; 141:w13196. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ballet dancers have on average a low bone mineral content (BMC), with elevated fracture-risk, low body mass index (BMI) for age (body mass index, kg/m2), low energy intake, and delayed puberty. This study aims at a better understanding of the interactions of these factors, especially with regard to nutrition. During a competition for pre-professional dancers we examined 127 female participants (60 Asians, 67 Caucasians). They averaged 16.7 years of age, started dancing at 5.8 years, and danced 22 hours/week. Assessments were made for BMI, BMC (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, pubertal stage (Tanner score), and nutritional status (EAT-40 questionnaire and a qualitative three-day dietary record). BMI for age was found to be normal in only 42.5% of the dancers, while 15.7% had a more or less severe degree of thinness (12.6% Grade2 and 3.1% Grade 3 thinness). Menarche was late (13.9 years, range 11 to 16.8 years). Food intake, evaluated by number of consumed food portions, was below the recommendations for a normally active population in all food groups except animal proteins, where the intake was more than twice the recommended amount. In this population, with low BMI and intense exercise, BMC was low and associated with nutritional factors; dairy products had a positive and non-dairy proteins a negative influence. A positive correlation between BMAD and years since menarche confirmed the importance of exposure to estrogens and the negative impact of delayed puberty. Because of this and the probable negative influence of a high intake of non-dairy proteins, such as meat, fish, and eggs, and the positive association with a high dairy intake, ballet schools should promote balanced diets and normal weight and should recognize and help dancers avoid eating disorders and delayed puberty caused by extensive dancing and inadequate nutrition.
    Journal of dance medicine & science: official publication of the International Association for Dance Medicine & Science 01/2011; 15(2):51-60.
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    ABSTRACT: The structural basis of the antifracture efficacy of strontium ranelate and alendronate is incompletely understood. We compared the effects of strontium ranelate and alendronate on distal tibia microstructure over 2 years using HR-pQCT. In this pre-planned, interim, intention-to-treat analysis at 12 months, 88 osteoporotic postmenopausal women (mean age 63.7 +/- 7.4) were randomized to strontium ranelate 2 g/day or alendronate 70 mg/week in a double-placebo design. Primary endpoints were changes in microstructure. Secondary endpoints included lumbar and hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and bone turnover markers. This trial is registered with, number ISRCTN82719233. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Treatment with strontium ranelate was associated with increases in mean cortical thickness (CTh, 5.3%), cortical area (4.9%) and trabecular density (2.1%) (all P < 0.001, except cortical area P = 0.013). No significant changes were observed with alendronate. Between-group differences in favor of strontium ranelate were observed for CTh, cortical area, BV/TV and trabecular density (P = 0.045, 0.041, 0.048 and 0.035, respectively). aBMD increased to a similar extent with strontium ranelate and alendronate at the spine (5.7% versus 5.1%, respectively) and total hip (3.3% versus 2.2%, respectively). No significant changes were observed in remodeling markers with strontium ranelate, while suppression was observed with alendronate. Within the methodological constraints of HR-pQCT through its possible sensitivity to X-ray attenuation of different minerals, strontium ranelate had greater effects than alendronate on distal tibia cortical thickness and trabecular volumetric density.
    Rheumatology International 08/2010; 30(10):1341-8. · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Clinical Densitometry 07/2009; 12(3):373-373. · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Bone 06/2009; 44. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a new parameter that is determined from gray-level analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. It relies on the mean thickness and volume fraction of trabecular bone microarchitecture. This was a preliminary case-control study to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of TBS as a complement to bone mineral density (BMD), by comparing postmenopausal women with and without fractures. The sample consisted of 45 women with osteoporotic fractures (5 hip fractures, 20 vertebral fractures, and 20 other types of fracture) and 155 women without a fracture. Stratification was performed, taking into account each type of fracture (except hip), and women with and without fractures were matched for age and spine BMD. BMD and TBS were measured at the total spine. TBS measured at the total spine revealed a significant difference between the fracture and age- and spine BMD-matched nonfracture group, when considering all types of fractures and vertebral fractures. In these cases, the diagnostic value of the combination of BMD and TBS likely will be higher compared with that of BMD alone. TBS, as evaluated from standard DXA scans directly, potentially complements BMD in the detection of osteoporotic fractures. Prospective studies are necessary to fully evaluate the potential role of TBS as a complementary risk factor for fracture.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 02/2009; 12(2):170-6. · 1.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

613 Citations
91.12 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2009
    • University of Bordeaux
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2002–2009
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • Service de médecine interne
      Lausanne, VD, Switzerland
  • 2008
    • Clinique Bois-Cerf, Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland