Dong Mei Deng

Sun Yat-Sen University, Shengcheng, Guangdong, China

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Publications (28)62.53 Total impact

  • Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 05/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives In the present study, the effectiveness of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) was evaluated on planktonic cells and biofilms of five E. faecalis clinical isolates. Methods: Planktonic cells and biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis E2, E3, ER3/2s, OS16 and AA-OR34 were grown in SDMY medium plus 0.4% glucose. Approximately 5.0 × 107 CFU planktonic cells and 24hbiofilms were subjected to PACT using the combination of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, Biotable®) and Photogem®. The metabolic activity of bacterial cells was evaluated by a resazurin assay. Biomass values of the biofilms were determined by a crystal violet assay. Results Compared to the water-treated control group, gradual increases of light energy led to greater reduction of metabolic activity of planktonic cells and biofilms of E. faecalis when the combination of LEDs and Photogem® was applied. Photogem® alone significantly reduced the metabolic activity of planktonic cells, whereas LEDs or Photogem® alone did not result in biofilm viability changes. PACT yielded similar antimicrobial outcomes on planktonic cells of all tested E. faecalis strains, whereas biofilms of E. faecalis E3, ER3/2s and OS16 were more resistant to PACT than biofilms of E. faecalis E2 and AA-OR34. Conclusions The efficacy of PACT on E. faecalis biofilms was strain dependent. PACT demonstrated its potential as an adjuvant antimicrobial treatment by killing of E. faecalis planktonic and biofilm cells.
    Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 01/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilms are matrix-enclosed microbial population adhere to each other and to surfaces. Compared to planktonic bacterial cells, biofilm cells show much higher levels of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to investigate Streptococcus mutans strain diversity in biofilm formation and chlorhexidine (CHX) resistance of single S. mutans and dual S. mutans-Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Four clinical S. mutans strains (C180-2, C67-1, HG723 and UA159) formed 24-h biofilms with or without an E. faecalis strain. These biofilms were treated for 10 min with 0.025% CHX. Biofilm formation, CHX resistance and S.mutans-E. faecalis interactions were evaluated by biomass staining, resazurin metabolism, viable count and competition agar assays. The main finding is that the presence of E. faecalis generally reduced all dual-species biofilm formation, but the proportions of S. mutans in the dual-species biofilms as well as CHX resistance displayed a clear S. mutans strain dependence. In particular, decreased resistance against CHX was observed in dual S. mutans C67-1 biofilms, while increased resistance was found in dual S. mutans UA159 biofilms. In conclusion, the interaction of S. mutans with E. faecalis in biofilms varies between strains, which underlines the importance of studying strain diversity in inter-species virulence modulation and biofilm antimicrobial resistance.
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 03/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral implant surface roughness on bacterial biofilm formation and antimicrobial treatment efficacy. Materials and Methods: Titanium disks with low-roughness pickled surfaces and with moderately rough sandblasted, acid-etched surfaces were used as substrata. Streptococcus mutans biofilms (1 and 3 days old) and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms (3 days old) were grown on the two types of substrata and then treated with 0.2% chlorhexidine. Biofilm viability was evaluated by a resazurin metabolism assay and by sonication-colony-forming unit counts. Results: Surface roughness had no influence on the amount of biofilm formation by S mutans or P gingivalis in this in vitro biofilm model. However, it strongly affected the treatment efficacy of chlorhexidine on the biofilms formed by both species. Higher roughness resulted in lower efficacy. Furthermore, treatment efficacy was significantly reduced in older biofilms. Conclusion: A moderately roughened surface did not enhance biofilm formation but reduced treatment efficacy of the biofilms. This finding indicates that efforts should be directed toward optimizing implant surface properties for effective antimicrobial treatment without compromising osseointegration.
    The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants 01/2013; 28(5):1226-31. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) in killing biofilms of five clinical strains of E. faecalis (E1, ER5/1, E3/2s, V583, and OS16). Methods: E. faecalis biofilms were grown on polystyrene pegs in a high-throughput biofilm model for 24 h (Modified Semi Defined Medium - SDMY, 0.4% glucose). Biomass was determined by crystal violet staining (0.01%). PACT was evaluated using different concentrations of a hematoporphyrin derivative (0 or 0.25 mg/mL Photogem®) combined with different dosimetries of visible red LED light (0, 9.4, 18.8, 28.2 and 37.6 J/cm2 Biotable®, 630 nm, 50 mW/cm2). The metabolic activity of bacterial cells was determined by resazurin assay at 485 nm-excitation and 580 nm-emission wavelength. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test (p<0.05). Results: Biomass values of E. faecalis ER5/1 and E1 biofilms were significantly higher than biomass values of E. faecalis E3/2s, OS16, and V583 biofilms. A light dose-dependent reduction of metabolic activity of E. faecalis biofilms was observed. The metabolic activity of E. faecalis E3/2s, OS16, and V583 biofilms were significantly lower than E. faecalis ER5/1 and E1 biofilms in all light energies. Biofilms treated with either light source or photosensitizer alone displayed similar metabolic activity as the no treatment group. Conclusion: PACT was able to decrease the metabolic activity of all E. faecalis clinical strains. The effectiveness of PACT in reducing the metabolic activity of E. faecalis biofilms was strain-dependent. Sponsors: FAPESP/Brazil; ACTA/The Netherlands.
    IADR General Session 2012; 06/2012
  • Journal of Dentistry 01/2012; 40(1):41-7. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the potential of an active attachment biofilm model as a high-throughput demineralization biofilm model for the evaluation of caries-preventive agents. Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms were grown on bovine dentine discs in a high-throughput active attachment model. Biofilms were first formed in a medium with high buffer capacity for 24h and then subjected to various photodynamic therapies (PACT) using the combination of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, Biotable(®)) and Photogem(®). Viability of the biofilms was evaluated by plate counts. To investigate treatment effects on dentine lesion formation, the treated biofilms were grown in a medium with low buffer capacity for an additional 24h. Integrated mineral loss (IML) and lesion depth (LD) were assessed by transversal microradiography. Calcium release in the biofilm medium was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Compared to the water treated control group, significant reduction in viability of S. mutans biofilms was observed when the combination of LEDs and Photogem(®) was applied. LEDs or Photogem(®) only did not result in biofilm viability changes. Similar outcomes were also found for dentine lesion formation. Significant lower IML and LD values were only found in the group subjected to the combined treatment of LEDs and Photogem(®). There was a good correlation between the calcium release data and the IML or LD values. The high-throughput active attachment biofilm model is applicable for evaluating novel caries-preventive agents on both biofilm and demineralization inhibition. PACT had a killing effect on 24h S. mutans biofilms and could inhibit the demineralization process.
    Journal of dentistry 01/2012; 40(1):41-7. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An important initial step in biofilm development and subsequent establishment of fungal infections by the human pathogen Candida glabrata is adherence to a surface. Adherence is mediated through a large number of differentially regulated cell wall-bound adhesins. The fungus can modify the incorporation of adhesins in the cell wall allowing crucial adaptations to new environments. In this study, expression and cell wall incorporation of C. glabrata adhesins were evaluated in biofilms cultured in two different media: YPD and a semi-defined medium SdmYg. Tandem mass spectrometry of isolated C. glabrata cell walls identified 22 proteins including six adhesins: the novel adhesins Awp5 and Awp6, Epa3 and the previously identified adhesins Epa6, Awp2 and Awp4. Regulation of expression of these and other relevant adhesin genes was investigated using real-time qPCR analysis. For most adhesin genes, significant up-regulation was observed in biofilms in at least one of the culturing media. However, this was not the case for EPA6 and AWP2, which is consistent with their gene products already being abundantly present in planktonic cultures grown in YPD medium. Furthermore, most of the adhesin genes tested also show medium-dependent differential regulation. These results underline the idea that many adhesins in C. glabrata are involved in biofilm formation and that their expression is tightly regulated and dependent on environmental conditions and growth phase. This may contribute to its potential to form resilient biofilms and cause infection in various host tissues.
    Mycopathologia 07/2011; 172(6):415-27. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study aims (1) to assess the effectiveness of different parameters of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms, and (2) to evaluate the influence of PACT on demineralization process in dentin. Methods: S. mutans biofilms were grown on 36 dentin discs for 24 h ( BHI: 18.5 g/L BHI, 50 mM PIPES 0.2% sucrose). PACT was evaluated using different concentrations of a hematoporphyrin derivative (0 or 0.25 mg/mL Photogem) combined with different dosimetries of visible red LED light (0, 75 or 150 J/cm2 Biotable, 630 nm, 50 mW/cm2). The viability of bacterial cells was determined by CFU counts on BHI agar plates (18 samples). Demineralization was evaluated after re-incubation in BHI medium without PIPES for 24 h. After the demineralization process, mineral content profiles, integrated mineral loss (IML), and lesion depth (LD) were determined by Transversal Microradiography, while concentrations of calcium release - [Ca2+] - were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. All procedures were repeated once. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell test (p<0.05). Results: The increase of dosimetry from 75 to 150 J/cm2 promoted a slight reduction of viability of S. mutans biofilm (3.1 log10 to 3.8 log10). However, both dosimetries considerably decreased CFU counts in relation to the control group (7.9 log10). IML, LD and [Ca2+] were significantly inhibited by Photogem and 75 J/cm2 LED (IML: 1015139 vol% x m; LD: 45.86.9 m; [Ca2+]: 2.50.9 mmol/L) or 150 J/cm2 LED (IML: 724221 vol% x m; LD: 29.110.6 m; [Ca2+]: 1.51.0 mmol/L) in comparison to control group (IML: 2641616 vol% x m; LD: 111.417.8 m; [Ca2+]: 9.80.9 mmol/L). Conclusion: PACT was able to decrease the viability of S. mutans UA159 biofilms, and significantly inhibited the demineralization during 24 h by bacterial killing. Sponsors: FAPESP/Brazil; ACTA/The Netherlands.
    IADR General Session 2011; 03/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Endodontic infections are caused by polymicrobial biofilms. Therefore, novel root canal disinfectants should be evaluated not only on single-species biofilms but also on dual- or mixed-species biofilms. A simple, high-throughput assay is urgently needed for this. In this study, the application of the resazurin metabolism assay was investigated for the evaluation of a root canal disinfectant on dual-species biofilms. Enterococcus faecalis with or without Streptococcus mutans in biofilms were formed in an active attachment biofilm model for 24 hours. Subsequently, the biofilms were treated with various concentrations of NaOCl for 1 minute. After resazurin metabolism by both organisms was confirmed, treatment efficacies using 0.0016% resazurin were evaluated. During NaOCl treatments, resazurin metabolism displays a clear dose response, not only in single-species E. faecalis (or S. mutans) biofilms but also in dual-species biofilms. Notably, the assay revealed that the resistance of dual-species biofilms to NaOCl was 30-fold higher than in single-species E. faecalis biofilms. Viability counts on a selected NaOCl treatment (0.004%) confirmed this result and showed the increased resistance of E. faecalis in dual-species biofilms. Clearly, the high-throughput and low cost resazurin metabolism assay has a great potential for testing novel root canal antimicrobial agents in mixed-species biofilms.
    Journal of endodontics 01/2011; 37(1):31-5. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) to kill Streptococcus mutans UA 159 biofilm cells grown in the presence of 0.2% or 1% sucrose. Methods: Biofilms were grown on 48 dentin discs for 2 days (18.5 g/L BHI plus 25 mM PIPES, supplemented with 0.2% or 1% sucrose). Biofilm formed at each concentration were divided in 12 groups by combination of following conditions: photosensitizer concentrations (0%, 0.25% or 0.5% Photogem, Russia, pH 7.2) and different densities of energy (0, 12, 18 or 24 J/cm2; LED 630 nm, 32 mW/cm2, Biotable, So Carlos, Brazil). LED equipment allowed irradiating up to 24 samples at the same time and with same parameters. After treatment, aliquots of 50 L of each sample were inoculated onto BHI agar plates and incubated under anaerobic conditions at 37oC for 72 h. Results: After 48h, S. mutans counts on dentin discs were similar in biofilms grown in 0.2% (5.68x108) and 1% (2.04x108) sucrose. The combination 0.5% Photogem and 24 J/cm2 LED produced the highest reduction of S. mutans counts in both sucrose concentrations. However, results of PACT were better on biofilms grown with 0.2% sucrose (reduced to 7.3x105) than 1% sucrose (reduced to 1.36x107). Besides, a dose-dependent effect of PACT was demonstrated. Conclusion: PACT was more effective in killing S. mutans UA 159 biofilm cells grown in medium supplemented with 0.2% sucrose. This finding suggests that variation of sugar concentrations, hence presumably EPS content, modulates the outcome of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and that the concentration of carbohydrates during growth of biofilms should be taken into account when results of different in vitro studies on PACT are compared. Sponsorship: FAPESP/Brazil.
    IADR General Session 2010; 07/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Periodontitis is a bacterial infection of the periodontal tissues. The Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a major causative agent. One of the virulence factors of P. gingivalis is capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Non-encapsulated strains have been shown to be less virulent in mouse models than encapsulated strains. Results To examine the role of the CPS in host-pathogen interactions we constructed an insertional isogenic P. gingivalis knockout in the epimerase-coding gene epsC that is located at the end of the CPS biosynthesis locus. This mutant was subsequently shown to be non-encapsulated. K1 capsule biosynthesis could be restored by in trans expression of an intact epsC gene. We used the epsC mutant, the W83 wild type strain and the complemented mutant to challenge human gingival fibroblasts to examine the immune response by quantification of IL-1β , IL-6 and IL-8 transcription levels. For each of the cytokines significantly higher expression levels were found when fibroblasts were challenged with the epsC mutant compared to those challenged with the W83 wild type, ranging from two times higher for IL-1β to five times higher for IL-8. Conclusions These experiments provide the first evidence that P. gingivalis CPS acts as an interface between the pathogen and the host that may reduce the host's pro-inflammatory immune response. The higher virulence of encapsulated strains may be caused by this phenomenon which enables the bacteria to evade the immune system.
    BMC Microbiology 01/2010; · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An important virulence factor of Enterococcus faecalis is its ability to form biofilms. Most studies on biofilm formation have been carried out by using E. faecalis monocultures. Given the polymicrobial nature of root canal infections, it is important to understand biofilm formation of E. faecalis in the presence of other microorganisms. Eight clinical strains of E. faecalis were tested for biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite disks in the presence and absence of a Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Significantly more E. faecalis viable cells were found in biofilms in the presence of S. mutans. This phenomenon was, however, strain-dependent. Of the 8 strains tested, biofilm formation of strains AA-OR34, ER5/1, and V583 was not influenced by S. mutans biofilms. The results from this study, especially the strain difference, underline the importance of studying biofilm formation in a more realistic multispecies setting.
    Journal of endodontics 10/2009; 35(9):1249-52. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the human oral cavity, where it interacts with S. mutans. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus, and the yeast-to-hypha transition is involved in virulence and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to investigate interkingdom communication between C. albicans and S. mutans based on the production of secreted molecules. S. mutans UA159 inhibited C. albicans germ tube (GT) formation in cocultures even when physically separated from C. albicans. Only S. mutans spent medium collected in the early exponential phase (4-h-old cultures) inhibited the GT formation of C. albicans. During this phase, S. mutans UA159 produces a quorum-sensing molecule, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP). The role of CSP in inhibiting GT formation was confirmed by using synthetic CSP and a comC deletion strain of S. mutans UA159, which lacks the ability to produce CSP. Other S. mutans strains and other Streptococcus spp. also inhibited GT formation but to different extents, possibly reflecting differences in CSP amino acid sequences among Streptococcus spp. or differences in CSP accumulation in the media. In conclusion, CSP, an S. mutans quorum-sensing molecule secreted during the early stages of growth, inhibits the C. albicans morphological switch.
    Eukaryotic Cell 09/2009; 8(11):1658-64. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance of micro-organisms in biofilms requires novel strategies to evaluate the efficacy of caries preventive agents in actual biofilms. Hence we investigated fluorescence intensity (FI) in Streptococcus mutans biofilms constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Upon addition of glucose FI in these biofilms increased significantly to steady state levels. FI-increase could be inhibited by oral care products in a dose-responsive manner. Lactic acid produced in these biofilms was measured at the end of the FI-recording. A linear correlation with a coefficient of 0.96 (p<0.01) was observed between FI-increase and lactate production, irrespective of the inhibitor used. The viability of biofilm cells after chlorhexidine (CHX) titration was also examined. Reduction of FI-increase was observed at low concentrations of CHX whereas a loss in viability was only seen at high concentrations. In conclusion, GFP synthesis can be used as a metabolic activity indicator in S. mutans biofilms.
    Journal of microbiological methods 05/2009; 77(1):67-71. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The plasma membrane glycoprotein receptor CD163 is a member of the scavenger receptor cystein-rich (SRCR) superfamily class B that is highly expressed on resident tissue macrophages in vivo. Previously, the molecule has been shown to act as a receptor for hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes and to mediate cell-cell interactions between macrophages and developing erythroblasts in erythroblastic islands. Here, we provide evidence for a potential role for CD163 in host defense. In particular, we demonstrate that CD163 can function as a macrophage receptor for bacteria. CD163 was shown to bind both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and a previously identified cell-binding motif in the second scavenger domain of CD163 was sufficient to mediate this binding. Expression of CD163 in monocytic cells promoted bacteria-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, newly generated antagonistic antibodies against CD163 were able to potently inhibit cytokine production elicited by bacteria in freshly isolated human monocytes. These findings identify CD163 as a macrophage receptor for bacteria and suggest that, during bacterial infection, CD163 on resident tissue macrophages acts as an innate immune sensor and inducer of local inflammation.
    Blood 11/2008; 113(4):887-92. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genome sequence of the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans predicts the presence of two putative polysaccharide deacetylases. The first, designated PgdA in this paper, shows homology to the catalytic domains of peptidoglycan deacetylases from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, which are both thought to be involved in the bacterial defense mechanism against human mucosal lysozyme and are part of the CAZY family 4 carbohydrate esterases. S. mutans cells in which the pgdA gene was deleted displayed a different colony texture and a slightly increased cell surface hydrophobicity and yet did not become hypersensitive to lysozyme as shown previously for S. pneumoniae. To understand this apparent lack of activity, the high-resolution X-ray structure of S. mutans PgdA was determined; it showed the typical carbohydrate esterase 4 fold, with metal bound in a His-His-Asp triad. Analysis of the protein surface showed that an extended groove lined with aromatic residues is orientated toward the active-site residues. The protein exhibited metal-dependent de-N-acetylase activity toward a hexamer of N-acetylglucosamine. No activity was observed toward shorter chitooligosaccharides or a synthetic peptidoglycan tetrasaccharide. In agreement with the lysozyme data this would suggest that S. mutans PgdA does not act on peptidoglycan but on an as-yet-unidentified polysaccharide within the bacterial cell surface. Strikingly, the pgdA-knockout strain showed a significant increase in aggregation/agglutination by salivary agglutinin, in agreement with this gene acting as a deacetylase of a cell surface glycan.
    Journal of bacteriology 11/2008; 191(1):394-402. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enolase and ATPase are sensitive to fluoride. It is unclear whether this sensitivity differs for F-sensitive and F-resistant cells or for different types of fluoride. Permeabilized cells of the fluoride-sensitive strain Streptococcus mutans C180-2 and its fluoride-resistant mutant strain C180-2 FR were preincubated at pH 7 or 4 with NaF, the amine fluorides Olaflur and Dectaflur and amine chloride controls. After preincubations, enolase and ATPase activities of the cells were assessed. Enolase activity was more inhibited after preincubation at pH 7 with NaF than with Olaflur. Amine chloride stimulated, although not with statistical significance, the enolase activity of both strains. After preincubation at pH 4 the enolases were strongly inactivated, but the fluoride-resistant strain's enolase to a lesser extent. The results suggested that amine acts to protect enolase activity against the detrimental low pH effect. Gene sequencing showed that the enolase genes of the fluoride-resistant and fluoride-sensitive strain were identical. ATPase activity was not reduced after NaF preincubation at either pH 7 or pH 4. The amine fluorides and their chloride controls in the preincubation mixture reduced the ATPase activity significantly at both pH values. In conclusion, our results showed that preincubation with amine fluoride did not inhibit enolase activity more effectively than NaF. The amine part of the molecule may protect enolase activity against preincubations at low pH. ATPase activity was not inhibited by NaF preincubation but was significantly inhibited after preincubation with amine fluorides and amine chlorides.
    Caries Research 11/2008; 42(6):429-34. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either Candida glabrata or Streptococcus mutans in biofilms grown on various surfaces, with or without saliva. Hydroxyapatite (HA), polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and soft denture liner (SL) discs were used as substratum. Counts of viable micro-organisms in the accumulating biofilm layer were determined and converted to colony forming units per unit surface area. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to characterize biofilms and to quantitate the number of hyphae in each condition tested. Viable counts of C. albicans and C. glabrata per mm(2) decreased in the order HA>PMMA>SL (p<0.05). Biofilms grown on saliva-coated specimens harboured fewer C. glabrata than uncoated specimens (p<0.05). Glucose and the presence of S. mutans suppressed C. albicans hyphal formation. Dual Candida species biofilms did not show competitive interaction between the two species. We conclude that Candida biofilms are significantly affected by saliva, substratum type and by the presence of other micro-organisms.
    Archives of Oral Biology 08/2008; 53(8):755-64. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • D M Deng, W Crielaard
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    ABSTRACT: New insights in the microbial genetics of pathogenic oral micro-organisms and the development of a new array of molecular genetic techniques together have led to alternative strategies in the development of antimicrobial agents. In this article the importance of insights in microbial molecular biology for the prevention and treatment of (oral) infectious diseases is illustrated. Following the introduction of relevant terminology, the role of microbial genetics in developing of target-based anti-microbial drugs for prevention and treatment of (oral) infections is discussed. Subsequently, the impact of microbial genetics on vaccine development and several, mainly still experimental, prevention strategies are discussed.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 03/2008; 115(2):93-9.

Publication Stats

393 Citations
62.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Academic Center for Dentistry
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • University of São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2008–2012
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004–2009
    • Academisch Centrum Tandheelkunde Amsterdam
      • Field of Periodontology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands