[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently hypothesized that T helper 17 (Th17) cells and their associated cytokines are involved in the development of arthritis
following infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Here, we show that interleukin-23 (IL-23), a survival factor for Th17 cells, is required for the induction of arthritis
in mice vaccinated with B. burgdorferi strain 297 and challenged with “Borrelia bissettii.” When Borrelia-vaccinated and -challenged mice were given antibodies to the p19 subunit of IL-23, they failed to develop the histopathological
changes observed in untreated vaccinated and challenged mice. In addition, viable B. bissettii organisms stimulated the secretion of IL-17 from Borrelia-immune lymph node cells during in vitro culture. When anti-IL-23 p19 antibody was included in cultures of B. bissettii organisms and Borrelia-immune lymph node cells, the production of IL-17 was reduced to levels observed in cultures containing immune cells alone.
Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that Th17 cell-associated cytokines are involved in the development of
Borrelia-mediated arthritis. These findings provide insight into previously overlooked immune mechanisms responsible for the development
of Lyme arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable effort has been made to elucidate the mechanism of Lyme arthritis. We focused on p19, a cell cycle-regulating molecule, because it is known to inhibit cell cycle division of T lymphocytes which may be responsible for the induction of arthritis. We show that anti-p19 antibody treatment enhances the inflammatory response normally detected at the tibiotarsal joints of Borrelia burgdorferi-vaccinated and Borrelia bissettii-challenged mice. Specifically, anti-p19 antibody treatment augmented the severity of inflammation within the synovial and subsynovial tissue. Moreover, treatment with anti-p19 antibody caused severe erosion of cartilage and bone with ankle joint destruction. In addition, anti-p19 antibody treatment of Borrelia-vaccinated and -challenged mice enhanced the borreliacidal antibody response, especially against the vaccine isolate. The novel activities of anti-p19 antibody show that p19 may be an important therapeutic site for the treatment of Lyme arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We showed previously that interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays a significant role in the induction of arthritis associated with Borrelia vaccination and challenge. Little information, however, is available about the chain of immunologic events that leads to
the release of IL-17. The production of IL-17 has been linked to stimulation of memory cells by IL-15. Therefore, we hypothesized
that IL-15 is involved in the induction of arthritis associated with Borrelia vaccination and infection of mice. Here we present evidence that treatment of Borrelia-vaccinated and -infected mice with anti-IL-15 antibody prevents swelling of the hind paws. More importantly, both anti-IL-15
antibody- and recombinant IL-15 receptor alpha-treated Borrelia-vaccinated and -infected mice were free of major histopathologic indications of arthritis, including hyperplasia, hypertrophy,
and vilus formation of the synovium. Similarly, the synovial space and perisynovium were free of inflammatory cells. By contrast,
the synovium of nontreated Borrelia-vaccinated and -infected mice had overt hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and vilus formation. Moreover, the synovial space and perisynovium
were infiltrated with neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Finally, we show that recombinant IL-15 stimulates the release
of IL-17 from lymph node cells obtained near the arthritic site. These results suggest that IL-15 plays a major role in orchestrating
IL-17 induction of arthritis associated with Borrelia-vaccinated and -infected mice.