[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although sarcoidosis and celiac disease are both chronic immunologic disorders involving multiple organ systems, reports about association of diseases in individual patients are sparse. While sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease presumably reflecting an exaggerated response to an unknown antigen, celiac disease is a T cell-driven disease triggered by ingestion of gluten, a protein composite found in wheat and related grains.
We present three cases with a longstanding history of sarcoidosis that have been additionally diagnosed with celiac-like enteropathy. In two cases, celiac disease was established applying celiac-specific serology and duodenal histology, while one case was revealed as an AIE-75-positive autoimmune enteropathy. The HLA-DR3/DQ2 haplotype was confirmed in both celiac patients, hence confirming previous data of linkage disequilibrium as a cause for disease association. Remarkably, one celiac patient presented with granulomatous nodulae in the ileum, thus reflecting an intestinal sarcoid manifestation. In contrast the patient with an autoimmune enteropathy, was HLA-DQ9/DQ6-positive, also arguing against CD.
Associations of sarcoidosis and celiac disease are rare but do occur. Determining the HLA status in patients with complex autoimmune associations might help classifying involved disease entities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorder that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. The precise etiology of CD is still unclear but it is widely accepted that a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the immune system and environmental factors are implicated in the onset and perpetuation of the disease. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies implies the intestinal microbiota in disease pathogenesis, thereby supporting the hypothesis that chronic intestinal inflammation arises from an abnormal immune response against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora in genetically susceptible individuals. Given that CD patients display changes in their gut microbiota composition, collectively termed "dysbiosis," the question raises whether the altered microbiota composition is a cause of disease or rather a consequence of the inflammatory state of the intestinal environment. This review will focus on the crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the innate immune system during intestinal inflammation, thereby unraveling the role of the microbiota in CD pathogenesis.
Frontiers in Immunology 09/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00489
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the case of a Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) sepsis with severe herpes hepatitis in a young female treated with triple immunosuppressive therapy (adalimumab, azathioprine, prednisolone) for refractory Crohn's disease (CD). The patient presented with high fever, generalized abdominal tenderness, strongly elevated transaminases, coagulopathy, and pancytopenia. Comprehensive diagnostics including blood HSV-1 PCR, liver biopsy, and immunohistochemistry revealed the diagnosis of fulminant herpes hepatitis. HSV-1 positivity of cutaneous lesions proved the disseminated nature of the infection. Early treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to a rapid improvement of the patients' condition and resulted in a full recovery of her liver function. This is the first reported case of HSV-sepsis in a patient with CD. Physicians treating IBD patients with combined immunosuppressive therapy should be aware of the possibility of herpes hepatitis, and early empiric antiviral therapy should be considered in immunosuppressed patients presenting with fever and severe anicteric hepatitis.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjv149 · 6.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages are key players in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study aimed to determine site-specific effects of defined macrophage subtypes on the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier.
Macrophage subtypes in situ in intestinal specimens of patients with IBD were visualized by immunohistochemistry. In vitro polarization of human peripheral CD14 cells yielded M1 or M2 macrophages. The influence of primary monocytes or macrophage subtypes on epithelial barrier integrity was analyzed by transepithelial resistance measurements, Western blot analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cytometric bead array in a coculture model of primary human macrophages and layers of intestinal epithelial cell lines.
The lamina propria of the inflamed intestine in patients with IBD, predominantly in Crohn's disease, is massively infiltrated by CD68 cells also positive for inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. The presence of M1 macrophage shifted the balance in the local macrophage compartment towards a proinflammatory state. In the coculture model, monocytes and M1 macrophages reduced transepithelial resistance as a marker for epithelial barrier integrity. The mechanisms for paracellular leakage included intracellular relocalization of tight junction proteins like claudin-2 and epithelial cell apoptosis. Determined by specific cytokine blockade, M1 macrophages exerted their deleterious effect mainly through TNF-α, whereas monocyte-mediated damage was driven by the inflammasome effector cytokines, interleukin-1β and interleukin-18.
Lamina propria monocytes and M1 macrophages invading intestinal tissues directly contribute to disrupting the epithelial barrier through deregulation of tight junction proteins and induction of epithelial cell apoptosis, thus driving intestinal inflammation in IBD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like conditions in glycogen storage disease (GSD) type Ib have been predominantly described in children. Signs and symptoms of GSD type Ib are hypoglycemia, pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. Based on few published cases, there is evidence that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with glycogenosis-related pancytopenia might ameliorate the IBD-like disease through leukocyte increase.
Here we firstly describe a case of an adult 33-year-old Caucasian male patient with GSD type Ib accompanied with IBD-like disease with persistent pancytopenia despite moderate-dose G-CSF treatment. Recent vomiting and abdominal discomfort were due to a high-grade stenosis in the transverse colon. A dose increase of the G-CSF successfully normalized his leukocyte count. However, the stenosis worsened and surgical therapy was needed.
We suggest that symptomatic patients with GSD type Ib should undergo endoscopic examination in order to detect IBD-like disease and to initiate early treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are heterogeneous tumors that need to be molecularly defined to obtain novel therapeutic options. Forkheadbox protein M1 (FOXM1) is a crucial transcription factor in neoplastic cells and has been associated with differentiation and proliferation. We found that FOXM1 is strongly associated with tumor differentiation and occurrence of metastases in gastrointestinal NENs. In vitro inhibition by the FOXM1 inhibitor siomycin A led to down-regulation of mitotic proteins and resulted in a strong inhibitory effect. Siomycin A decreased mitosis rate, induced apoptosis in GEP-NEN cell lines and exerts synergistic effects with chemotherapy. FOXM1 is associated with clinical outcome and FOXM1 inhibition impairs survival in vitro. We therefore propose FOXM1 as novel therapeutic target in GEP-NENs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cell adhesion molecule CD2 facilitates antigen-independent T-cell activation and CD2 deficiency or blockade reduces intestinal inflammation in murine models. We here aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for human CD2 in colitis treatment. Transfer colitis induced by naϊve CD4+ T cells expressing human CD2 was treated with anti-human CD2 mAb. The mAb CB.219 protected from severe colitis in a preventive treatment regimen, while therapeutic treatment ameliorated intestinal inflammation. Diminished intestinal tissue damage was paralleled by a profound suppression of lamina propria lymphocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor α as well as the neutrophil chemoattractant CXC motif ligand 1 and the CC chemokine ligand 3. Furthermore, infiltration with macrophages and T cells was low. Thus, reduced intestinal inflammation in our humanized colitis model by targeting CD2 on T cells with the mAb CB.219 suggests a novel approach for colitis treatment.