[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine sarcoids represent the most common skin tumours in equids worldwide, characterized by extensive invasion and infiltration of lymphatics, rare regression and high recurrence after surgical intervention. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) activity is necessary for the transformation phenotype of equine fibroblasts. Among the many changes induced by BPV-1, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) upregulation contributes to the invasiveness of equine fibroblasts. However, it is not yet known how BPV-1 proteins regulate equine MMP-1 expression. To elucidate this mechanism, the equine MMP-1 promoter was cloned and analysed. A putative activator protein-1 (AP-1)-binding site was demonstrated to be crucial for upregulated MMP-1 promoter activity by BPV-1. BPV-1 E6 and E7 proteins increased MMP-1 promoter activity, and inhibition of BPV-1 gene expression by small interfering RNA significantly reduced the promoter activity. c-Jun and Fra-1, two components of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, were overexpressed and activated by BPV-1 in equine fibroblasts. Finally, BPV-1 E5, E6 and E7 proteins increased MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression. In conclusion, the expression of MMP-1 can be enhanced by BPV-1 oncoproteins E6 and E7 through the AP-1 transcription factor and by E5 via an indirect mechanism. These findings shed light on the mechanism of BPV-1-mediated equine fibroblast infiltration and indicate that both BPV-1 oncoproteins and AP-1 could be potential targets for equine sarcoid therapy.
Journal of General Virology 07/2011; 92(Pt 11):2608-19. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.033431-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine sarcoids represent the most common skin tumours in equids worldwide, characterized by extensive invasion and infiltration of lymphatics, rare regression and high recurrence after surgical intervention. Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1) and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of the diseases. It has been demonstrated that BPV-1 viral gene expression is necessary for maintaining the transformation phenotype. However, the underlying mechanism for BPV-1 transformation remains largely unknown, and the cellular factors involved in transformation are not fully understood. Previously mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway has been shown to be important for cellular transformation. This study investigated the role of p38 MAPK (p38) in the transformation of equine fibroblasts by BPV-1. Elevated expression of phosphorylated p38 was observed in BPV-1 expressing fibroblasts due to the expression of BPV-1 E5 and E6. The phosphorylation of the MK2 kinase, a substrate of p38, was also enhanced. Inhibition of p38 activity by its selective inhibitor SB203580 changed cell morphology, reduced the proliferation of sarcoid fibroblasts and inhibited cellular invasiveness, indicating the indispensable role of p38 in BPV-1 transformation of equine fibroblasts. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of equine sarcoids and suggest that p38 could be a potential target for equine sarcoid therapy.
Journal of General Virology 04/2011; 92(Pt 8):1778-86. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.031526-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has recently been much interest in the long-term effects of early growth conditions. Telomeres, the repetitive DNA sequences that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, are potentially a useful tool for studying such effects. Telomeres shorten at each cell division and considerable evidence links the rate at which they do so with cellular and organismal senescence. Previous research has shown that telomere loss is greatest during early life, so conditions during this time could significantly affect telomere attrition, and in this way, possibly also senescence rates. However, relatively little is known about the pattern of telomere loss under natural conditions. We examined telomere dynamics during growth under natural conditions in the lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus. Although telomere length significantly decreased with age during the chick period, there was a considerable amount of inter-individual variation in both absolute telomere length and the rate of telomere shortening. While no one factor explained a significant amount of this variation, the trends in the data suggested that circumstances during embryonic growth were linked to hatching telomere length. There was a trend for larger hatchlings to have shorter telomere lengths [effect size=−0.18±0.11 kb, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.40, 0.05], suggesting that embryonic growth rate could have affected telomere attrition. Independent of this trend, males tended to have longer telomeres at hatching than females (effect size=0.77±0.40 kb, 95% CI: 1.55, −0.02). Egg volume and laying date had no relation to telomere length. There was a strong relationship between telomere length at hatching and at 10 days old (effect size=0.52±0.22, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.09), demonstrating that the variation in hatching telomere length caused by embryonic growth conditions remained consistent during the initial post-hatching period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine sarcoids represent the most common skin tumours in equids worldwide, characterised by extensive invasion and infiltration of lymphatics, rare regression and high recurrence after surgical intervention. Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1) activity is necessary for the transformation phenotype of equine fibroblasts. Among the many changes induced by BPV-1, MMP-1 upregulation contributes to the invasiveness of equine fibroblasts. However it is yet unknown how BPV-1 proteins regulate equine MMP-1 expression. To elucidate the mechanism, equine MMP-1 promoter was cloned and analysed. A putative AP-1 BS was demonstrated to be crucial for upregulated MMP-1 promoter activity by BPV-1. BPV-1 E6 and E7 increased MMP-1 promoter activity, and inhibition of BPV-1 genes expression by siRNA significantly reduced the promoter activity. c-Jun and Fra-1, two components of the AP-1 transcription factor complexes are overexpressed and activated by BPV-1 in equine fibroblasts. Finally BPV-1 E5, E6 and E7 increased MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression. In conclusion the expression of MMP-1 can be enhanced by BPV-1 oncoproteins E6 and E7 through AP-1 transcription factor, and by E5 via an indirect mechanism. These findings shed light on the mechanism of BPV-1 mediated equine fibroblast infiltration and indicate that both BPV-1 oncoproteins and AP-1 can be potential targets for equine sarcoid therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine sarcoids represent the most common skin tumours in equids worldwide, characterized by localized invasion, rare regression and high recurrence following surgical intervention. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) and less commonly BPV-2 are now widely recognized as the causative agents of the disease. Fibroblasts isolated from sarcoids are highly invasive. Invasion is associated with a high level of viral gene expression and matrix metalloproteinase upregulation. However, it remains unclear to what extent BPV-1 proteins are involved in the transformation of equine cells. To address this question, the individual viral genes E5, E6 and E7 were overexpressed in normal equine fibroblasts (EqPalF cells) and in the immortal but not fully transformed sarcoid-derived EqS02a cell line. The proliferation and invasiveness of these cell lines were assessed. E5 and E6 were found to be responsible for the enhanced cell proliferation and induction of increased invasion in EqS02a cells, whilst E7 appeared to enhance cell anchorage independence. Knockdown of BPV-1 oncogene expression by small interfering RNA reversed the transformed phenotype of sarcoid fibroblasts. Together, these observations strongly suggest that BPV-1 proteins play indispensable roles in the transformation of equine fibroblasts. These data also suggest that BPV-1 proteins are potential drug targets for equine sarcoid therapy.
Journal of General Virology 12/2010; 92(Pt 4):773-83. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.028191-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine sarcoids are skin tumours of horses caused by infection with BPV-1 or 2. Maintenance and replication of the viral genome depend upon the viral proteins E1 and E2. We examined the effects of an E2 specific siRNA on E2 and E1 viral gene expression, viral load and cell growth in BPV-1 transformed sarcoid-derived cells. Transfection with E2-siRNA caused a reduction in E2 and E1 mRNA expression as well as viral load, growth inhibition and decreased anchorage-independent growth. siRNA treated cells showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than control cells. Thus sequence specific targeting of E2 provides a powerful strategy to eliminate BPV-1 genomes and induce cell death in BPV-1 transformed cells.
Virus Research 08/2009; 145(1):162-5. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2009.06.019 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the application of a real-time quantitative PCR assay, previously developed to measure relative telomere length in humans and mice, to two bird species, the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata and the Alpine swift Apus melba. This technique is based on the PCR amplification of telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences using specific oligonucleotide primers. Relative telomere length is expressed as the ratio (T/S) of telomere repeat copy number (T) to control single gene copy number (S). This method is particularly useful for comparisons of individuals within species, or where the same individuals are followed longitudinally. We used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a single control gene. In both species, we validated our PCR measurements of relative telomere length against absolute measurements of telomere length determined by the conventional method of quantifying telomere terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths using both the traditional Southern blot analysis (Alpine swifts) and in gel hybridization (zebra finches). As found in humans and mice, telomere lengths in the same sample measured by TRF and PCR were well correlated in both the Alpine swift and the zebra finch.. Hence, this PCR assay for measurement of bird telomeres, which is fast and requires only small amounts of genomic DNA, should open new avenues in the study of environmental factors influencing variation in telomere length, and how this variation translates into variation in cellular and whole organism senescence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillomas and fibropapillomas may occur in the skin and in different organs in animals. Ten different genotypes of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) have been identified. BPV-1 through BPV-10 are all strictly species-specific, but BPV-1/2 may also infect other species such as equids, inducing fibroblastic tumors. BPV-1 and BPV-2 are associated with fibropapillomas in cattle; these tumors are formed by excessive proliferation of virus-infected dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. Nine water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were examined for the presence of multiple cutaneous and perivulvar tumors. Cutaneous and perivulvar fibropapillomatosis were confirmed histologically. Negative-stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus-like particles in the fibropapillomas, and papillomaviral DNA was also detected by the polymerase chain reaction. The amplified long control region (LCR) DNA sequence was identical to that of BPV-1. The BPV-1 E5 oncoprotein was strongly expressed in the tumor cells thus confirming a causal role of the virus. This article represents the first report of cutaneous, perivulvar, and vulvar fibropapilloma associated with BPV-1 infection in the water buffalo and describes another example of cross-species infection by BPV-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) and, less commonly, BPV-2 are associated with the pathogenesis of common equine skin tumors termed sarcoids. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which BPV-1 induces sarcoids, we used gene expression profiling as a screening tool to identify candidate genes implicated in disease pathogenesis. Gene expression profiles of equine fibroblasts transformed by BPV-1 experimentally or from explanted tumors were compared with those of control equine fibroblasts to identify genes associated with expression of BPV-1. Analysis of the microarray data identified 81 probe sets that were significantly (P < 0.01) differentially expressed between the BPV-1-transformed and control cell lines. Expression of several deregulated genes, including MMP-1, CXCL5, FRA-1, NKG7, TLR4, and the gene encoding the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) protein, was confirmed using other BPV-1-transformed cell lines. Furthermore, expression of these genes was examined using a panel of 10 sarcoids. Increased expression of MMP-1, CXCL5, FRA-1, and NKG7 was detected in a subset of tumors, and TLR4 and MHC I showed robust down-regulation in all tumors. Deregulated expression was confirmed at the protein level for MMP-1 and MHC-I. The present report identifies genes modulated by BPV-1 transformation and will help identify the molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis.
Journal of Virology 07/2008; 82(13):6481-91. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00429-08 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine sarcoids are fibroblastic skin tumours affecting equids worldwide. While the pathogenesis is not entirely understood, infection with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 (and less commonly type 2) has been implicated as a major factor in the disease process. Sarcoids very seldom regress and in fact often recrudesce following therapy. Nothing is known about the immune response of the equine host to BPV. Given that the viral genes are expressed in sarcoids, it is reasonable to assume that vaccination of animals against the expressed viral proteins would lead to the induction of an immune response against the antigens and possible tumour rejection. To this end we vaccinated sarcoid-bearing donkeys in a placebo-controlled trial using chimeric virus-like particles (CVLPs) comprising BPV-1 L1 and E7 proteins. The results show a tendency towards enhanced tumour regression and reduced progression in the vaccinated group compared to control animals. Although promising, further studies are required with larger animal groups to definitely conclude that vaccination with CVLPs is a potential therapy for the induction of sarcoid regression.
Journal of General Virology 02/2008; 89(Pt 1):148-57. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.83267-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if the exogenous expression of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein can extend the in vitro lifespan of chondrocytes from normal and osteoarthritic canine donors, articular chondrocytes were harvested and expanded initially in monolayer culture. Cells were transfected with pCIneo or pCIneo-hTERT and selected using G418. Transfectants were cultured either in monolayer or alginate beads and telomerase activity, replicative lifespan and the tumourogenic potential of the transfected cells were assessed. hTERT expression in canine chondrocytes prolonged the replicative lifespan of these cells but did not permit growth in low serum conditions or promote the formation of foci in anchorage independence assays. In addition, hTERT expression resulted in the down-regulation of MMP-1. This suggests that hTERT may represent a tool for the generation of tissue engineered chondrocytes suitable for autologous re-implantation into the affected areas of osteoarthritic joints.
The Veterinary Journal 12/2007; 174(3):570-6. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.07.009 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 2 is involved in carcinogenesis of the urinary bladder in cattle, while BPV-1 is commonly associated with equine sarcoid tumours. In both cases the early viral proteins are expressed, but virion is not produced. Given the similarities in BPV biology between the tumours in cattle and horses, bovine bladder cancers and equine sarcoids were compared with respect to physical status, load of viral DNA and variability of the E5 open reading frame (ORF). Rolling circle amplification demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 genomes exist as double stranded, episomal, circular forms in the two tumours. Realtime quantitative PCR revealed that equine sarcoids contained higher viral DNA loads compared to bovine bladder cancers. The BPV-1 E5 ORF showed sequence variation but BPV-2 ORF did not. The presence of BPV-1 E5 variations or their absence in the BPV-2 E5 ORF does not appear to have an effect on viral DNA load in either tumour type.
The Veterinary Journal 12/2007; 174(3):599-604. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.10.012 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BPV-1 DNA is the predominant viral type detected in equine sarcoids and represents the only reported natural cross species infection of papillomaviruses. In this study, nucleotide variations in the LCR and the E2 regions of equine sarcoid-associated BPV-1 were characterised by sequence analysis. Variants particular to sarcoid BPV-1 were identified in both the LCR and E2 sequence. The functionality of the most common LCR variant was examined in equine and bovine cells. These studies showed that the activity of the variant LCR was higher in equine cells than bovine cells; the activity of the variant LCR in the presence of the E2 variant was similar to the reference/wild-type sequences in equine cells, whereas in bovine cells the variant function was reduced by 50%. These data suggest the viral BPV variants commonly detected in sarcoids have an enhanced function in equine cells compared to their function in bovine cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomere shortening in normal somatic cells has been proposed as a major barrier to unlimited cellular proliferation. Telomerase is an enzyme capable of maintaining telomere length, and thus bypassing this barrier. In human beings, telomerase activity is restricted to cancer cells and cells of stem or germ cell lineages. Dogs represent a potentially useful clinical model for the development of telomerase-based therapies because telomerase activity is also restricted to cancer cells and stem cells in this species. We examined the ability of telomestatin to inhibit telomerase activity in telomerase-positive D17 and CMT7 canine cancer cell lines. At a concentration of 2 microM, telomestatin treatment resulted in a decrease in telomerase activity, telomere shortening, growth inhibition and apoptosis in telomerase-positive cancer cells. These effects were not seen in telomerase-negative skin fibroblasts or negative controls. These results confirm that telomestatin specifically inhibits telomerase activity in canine cancer cells and strengthens the usefulness of dogs as a model for testing telomerase-based therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a preliminary evaluation of particle-mediated bombardment via the Helios gene gun for the delivery of therapeutic genes to synovial cells in culture. A reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescent protein, was delivered to rabbit synovial fibroblasts (HIG-82) using gold particle (1.0 microm) bombardment to evaluate transfection efficiency at helium pressures of 100 and 150 psi. Transfection of cells occurred at these pressures despite some cell death. The in vitro delivery of gold particles to samples of synovial membrane and articular cartilage from a freshly euthanased dog was also studied to examine depth of penetration of gold particles (1.0 microm) at helium pressures of 250 and 500 psi. Light microscopical examination of histological sections of the synovial membrane showed that particles of gold had penetrated the lining cells of the synovium. However, no gold particles had penetrated the articular cartilage even at 500 psi.
The Veterinary record 05/2007; 160(14):476-81. DOI:10.1136/vr.160.14.476 · 1.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillomaviruses are normally strictly species-specific and even under experimental conditions do not usually infect any other host than the natural host. The only documented reports of natural papillomavirus cross-species infection are of BPV-1/BPV-2, which can infect horses and induce equine sarcoids. BPV DNA has not been detected in non-sarcoid equine tumours or equine papillomas, but its presence has been reported in some cases of equine dermatitis. In the present study, we show that equine inflammatory skin conditions harbour episomal circular double stranded BPV-1 genomes, with copy numbers ranging from 0.2 to 155 copies/cell. BPV-1 E1, E2 and E5 genes were expressed in these inflammatory skin lesions, indicating active infection. We conclude that some cases of equine dermatitis are associated with the presence of circular, episomally maintained BPV-1 genomes that express viral transcripts.
Virus Research 04/2007; 124(1-2):245-9. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2006.10.012 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased telomerase activity (TA) has been found in human and canine solid tumours, stem cells and somatic tissues with enhanced proliferative potential. The relationship between TA in normal and malignant lymphoid tissues remains unclear. The TA and the expression of canine telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (dogTERT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed in malignant lymph nodes from 30 dogs with lymphoma, from two dogs with non-neoplastic illness and from two clinically normal dogs, demonstrating a statistically significant difference between TA in lymphoma lymph nodes (n = 30) and normal nodes (n = 4) but no significant difference in dogTERT mRNA expression. In addition, the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (TERT) protein and Ki67 was analyzed in malignant lymph nodes from 10 dogs with lymphoma and from two clinically normal dogs by immunohistochemistry. TERT expression was associated with Ki67 in all lymphoma nodes (n = 10), and differences were illustrated between TERT and Ki67 expression between lymphoma (n = 10) and non-lymphoma (n = 2) nodes. This data support further investigation of telomerase in canine haematopoietic neoplasia through large-scale prospective studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyse the direct antiproliferative effects of both piroxicam and meloxicam at a variety of concentrations on a series of canine cancer cell lines and the mechanism of cell death.
The in vitro effects of piroxicam and meloxicam at various concentrations on canine cell cultures (Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, osteosarcoma, mammary carcinoma, and lymphoma) were assessed with respect to proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. Western blot analysis of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression was performed on all cell lines.
All cell lines used in this study were cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 positive apart from Madin-Darby canine kidney cells which were negative for both cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Both meloxicam and piroxicam were able to inhibit proliferation in cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. However, the drug concentration required for a given effect was cell line dependent.
The results suggest that significant inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis would only occur when drug concentrations were in excess of those that can be achieved in vivo following maximum recommended dose rates. It is possible, however, that local or topical treatment or altered dosing regimens may offer alternative approaches to the use of these drugs as antineoplastic agents.
Journal of Small Animal Practice 02/2006; 47(1):14-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00006.x · 1.09 Impact Factor