Pedro Besada

National Institutes of Health, Maryland, United States

Are you Pedro Besada?

Claim your profile

Publications (15)49.69 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3-5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 min. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly-selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models.
    Experimental Eye Research 10/2009; 90(1):146-54. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformationally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed.
    10/2008: pages 58 - 72; , ISBN: 9780470032244
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of the G(q)-coupled P2Y(6) receptor heterologously expressed in astrocytes significantly attenuates apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). We have extended the analysis of P2Y(6) receptor-induced cytoprotection to mouse skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing this receptor. The endogenous P2Y(6) receptor agonist UDP and synthetic agonist MRS2693 protected C2C12 skeletal muscle cells against apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner (0.1-10 nM) as determined by propidium iodide staining, histochemical analysis using hematoxylin and Hoechst 33258, and DNA fragmentation. The insurmountable P2Y(6) receptor antagonist MRS2578 blocked the protection. TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells correlated with activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. The NF-kappaB activation was attenuated by 10nM MRS2693, which activated the antiapoptic ERK1/2 pathway. In an in vivo mouse hindlimb model, MRS2693 protected against skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion injury. The P2Y(6) receptor is a novel cytoprotective receptor that deserves further exploration in ameliorating skeletal muscle injury.
    Pharmacological Research 09/2008; 58(3-4):232-9. · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phosphate, uracil, and ribose moieties of uracil nucleotides were varied structurally for evaluation of agonist activity at the human P2Y(2), P2Y(4), and P2Y(6) receptors. The 2-thio modification, found previously to enhance P2Y(2) receptor potency, could be combined with other favorable modifications to produce novel molecules that exhibit high potencies and receptor selectivities. Phosphonomethylene bridges introduced for stability in analogues of UDP, UTP, and uracil dinucleotides markedly reduced potency. Truncation of dinucleotide agonists of the P2Y(2) receptor, in the form of Up(4)-sugars, indicated that a terminal uracil ring is not essential for moderate potency at this receptor and that specific SAR patterns are observed at this distal end of the molecule. Key compounds reported in this study include 9, alpha,beta-methylene-UDP, a P2Y(6) receptor agonist; 30, Up(4)-phenyl ester and 34, Up(4)-[1]glucose, selective P2Y(2) receptor agonists; dihalomethylene phosphonate analogues 16 and 41, selective P2Y(2) receptor agonists; 43, the 2-thio analogue of INS37217 (P(1)-(uridine-5')-P(4)-(2'-deoxycytidine-5')tetraphosphate), a potent and selective P2Y(2) receptor agonist.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 07/2008; 16(12):6319-32. · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have prepared a caged form (MRS2703) of a potent dual agonist of the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) nucleotide receptors, 2-MeSADP, by blocking the beta-phosphate group with a 1-(3,4-dimethyloxyphenyl)eth-1-yl phosphoester. Although MRS2703 is itself inactive at human P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptors expressed heterologously in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells or in washed human platelets, this derivative readily regenerates the parent agonist upon mild irradiation with long-wave UV light (360 nm). The functional effect of the regenerated agonist was demonstrated by a rise in intracellular calcium mediated by either P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) receptors in transfected cells. Washed human platelets exposed to a solution of MRS2703 were induced to aggregate upon UV irradiation. At 1.0 microM MRS2703, full aggregation was achieved within 1 min of irradiation. Thus, this caged nucleotide promises to be a useful probe for potent P2Y receptor activation with light-directed spatial and temporal control.
    Biochemical pharmacology 04/2008; 75(6):1341-7. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: His272 (7.43) in the seventh transmembrane domain (TM7) of the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR) interacts with the 3' position of nucleosides, based on selective affinity enhancement at a H272E mutant A3 AR (neoceptor) of 3'-ureido, but not 3'-OH, adenosine analogues. Here, mutation of the analogous H278 of the human A1 AR to Ala, Asp, Glu, or Leu enhanced the affinity of novel 2'- and 3'-ureido adenosine analogues, such as 10 (N6-cyclopentyl-3'-ureido-3'-deoxyadenosine), by >100-fold, while decreasing the affinity or potency of adenosine and other 3'-OH adenosine analogues. His278 mutant receptors produced a similar enhancement regardless of the charge character of the substituted residue, implicating steric rather than electrostatic factors in the gain of function, a hypothesis supported by rhodopsin-based molecular modeling. It was also demonstrated that this interaction was orientationally specific; i.e., mutations at the neighboring Thr277 did not enhance the affinity for a series of 2'- and 3'-ureido nucleosides. Additionally, H-bonding groups placed on substituents at the N6 or 5' position demonstrated no enhancement in the mutant receptors. These reengineered human A1 ARs revealed orthogonality similar to that of the A3 but not the A2A AR, in which mutation of the corresponding residue, His278, to Asp did not enhance nucleoside affinity. Functionally, the H278D A1 AR was detectable only in a measure of membrane potential and not in calcium mobilization. This neoceptor approach should be useful for the validation of molecular modeling and the dissection of promiscuous GPCR signaling.
    Biochemistry 07/2007; 46(25):7437-48. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A rhodopsin-based homology model of the nucleotide-activated human P2Y2 receptor, including loops, termini, and phospholipids, was optimized with the Monte Carlo multiple minimum conformational search routine. Docked uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) formed a nucleobase pi-pi complex with conserved Phe3.32. Selectivity-enhancing 2'-amino-2'-deoxy substitution interacted through pi-hydrogen-bonding with aromatic Phe6.51 and Tyr3.33. A "sequential ligand composition" approach for docking the flexible dinucleotide agonist Up4U demonstrated a shift of conserved cationic Arg3.29 from the UTP gamma position to the delta position of Up4U and Up4 ribose. Synthesized nucleotides were tested as agonists at human P2Y receptors expressed in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. 2'-Amino and 2-thio modifications were synergized to enhance potency and selectivity; compound 8 (EC50 = 8 nM) was 300-fold P2Y2-selective versus P2Y4. 2'-Amine acetylation reduced potency, and trifluoroacetylation produced intermediate potency. 5-Amino nucleobase substitution did not enhance P2Y2 potency through a predicted hydrophilic interaction possibly because of destabilization of the receptor-favored Northern conformation of ribose. This detailed view of P2Y2 receptor recognition suggests mutations for model validation.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2007; 50(6):1166-76. · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The structure-activity relationships and molecular modeling of the uracil nucleotide activated P2Y6 receptor have been studied. Uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) analogues bearing substitutions of the ribose moiety, the uracil ring, and the diphosphate group were synthesized and assayed for activity at the human P2Y6 receptor. The uracil ring was modified at the 4 position, with the synthesis of 4-substituted-thiouridine 5'-diphosphate analogues, as well as at positions 2, 3, and 5. The effect of modifications at the level of the phosphate chain was studied by preparing a cyclic 3',5'-diphosphate analogue, a 3'-diphosphate analogue, and several dinucleotide diphosphates. 5-Iodo-UDP 32 (EC50 = 0.15 microM) was equipotent to UDP, while substitutions of the 2'-hydroxyl (amino, azido) greatly reduce potency. The 2- and 4-thio analogues, 20 and 21, respectively, were also relatively potent in comparison to UDP. However, most other modifications greatly reduced potency. Molecular modeling indicates that the beta-phosphate of 5'-UDP and analogues is essential for the establishment of electrostatic interactions with two of the three conserved cationic residues of the receptor. Among 4-thioether derivatives, a 4-ethylthio analogue 23 displayed an EC50 of 0.28 microM, indicative of favorable interactions predicted for a small 4-alkylthio moiety with the aromatic ring of Y33 in TM1. The activity of analogue 19 in which the ribose was substituted with a 2-oxabicyclohexane ring in a rigid (S)-conformation (P = 126 degrees , 1'-exo) was consistent with molecular modeling. These results provide a better understanding of molecular recognition at the P2Y6 receptor and will be helpful in designing selective and potent P2Y6 receptor ligands.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2006; 49(18):5532-43. · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the long-term goal of developing receptor subtype-selective high affinity agonists for the uracil nucleotide-activated P2Y receptors we have carried out a series of structure activity and molecular modeling studies of the human P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors. UTP analogues with substitutions in the 2'-position of the ribose moiety retained capacity to activate both P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors. Certain of these analogues were equieffective for activation of both receptors whereas 2'-amino-2'-deoxy-UTP exhibited higher potency for the P2Y2 receptor and 2'-azido-UTP exhibited higher potency for the P2Y4 receptor. 4-Thio substitution of the uracil base resulted in a UTP analogue with increased potency relative to UTP for activation of both the P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors. In contrast, 2-thio substitution and halo- or alkyl substitution in the 5-position of the uracil base resulted in molecules that were 3-30-fold more potent at the P2Y2 receptor than P2Y4 receptor. 6-Aza-UTP was a P2Y2 receptor agonist that exhibited no activity at the P2Y4 receptor. Stereoisomers of UTPalphaS and 2'-deoxy-UTPalphaS were more potent at the P2Y2 than P2Y4 receptor, and the R-configuration was favored at both receptors. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding mode of UTP is similar for both the P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptor binding pockets with the most prominent dissimilarities of the two receptors located in the second transmembrane domain (V90 in the P2Y2 receptor and I92 in the P2Y4 receptor) and the second extracellular loop (T182 in the P2Y2 receptor and L184 in the P2Y4 receptor). In summary, this work reveals substitutions in UTP that differentially affect agonist activity at P2Y2 versus P2Y4 receptors and in combination with molecular modeling studies should lead to chemical synthesis of new receptor subtype-selective drugs.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 03/2006; 71(4):540-9. · 4.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X(2/3)/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X(2/3)/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformationally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed.
    Novartis Foundation symposium 02/2006; 276:58-68; discussion 68-72, 107-12, 275-81.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 9-(β-D-Ribosfuranosyluronamide)adenine derivatives that are selective agonists and antagonists of the A<sub>3</sub> adenosine receptor (AR) have been derivatized as prodrugs for in vivo delivery. The free hydroxy groups at the 2' and 3' positions of the agonists 2-chloro- N <sup>6</sup>-(3-iodobenzyl)-9-( N -methyl-(β-D-ribosfuranosyluronamide)adenine 2b , the corresponding 4'-thio nucleoside 2c , and antagonists 4a and 4b (5'- N , N -dimethylamides related to 2b and 2c , respectively) were derivatized through simple acylation reactions. The prodrug derivatives were tested in radioligand binding assays at ARs and in a functional assay of adenylate cyclase at the A<sub>3</sub>AR and found to be considerably less active than the parent drugs. The hydrolysis of nucleoside 2',3'-diesters to regenerate the parent compound in the presence of human blood was demonstrated. 2',3'-Dipropionate esters of 2b and 4a were readily cleaved in a two-step reaction to regenerate the parent drug, on a time scale of two hours. The cleavage of a 2',3'-dihexanoate ester occurred at a slower rate. This indicates that the prodrugs are suitable as masked forms of the biologically active A<sub>3</sub>AR agonists and antagonists for future evaluation in vivo .
    01/2006;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diketopiperazines (DKPs) are a common motif in various biologically active natural products, and hence they may be useful scaffolds for the rational design of receptor probes and therapeutic agents. We constructed a new bicyclic scaffold that combines a DKP bridged with a 10-membered ring. In this way we obtained a three-dimensional molecular skeleton, with several amendable sites that provide a starting point to design a new combinatorial library having diverse substituent groups. Structural variation is based upon the flexibility of alkylation of the nitrogen atoms of the DKP and on the side-chain olefin. We obtained a 10-membered secondary ring through a ring-closure metathesis reaction using the second generation Grubbs catalyst. Rings containing both O-ethers and S-ethers were compared. N-Alkyl or arylalkyl groups were introduced optionally at the two Nalpha-atoms. This is a general scheme that will allow us to test rings of varying sizes, linkages, and stereochemical parameters. The DKP derivatives were tested for activity in astrocytoma cells expressing receptors coupled to phospholipase C. Inhibitory effects were observed for signaling elicited by activation of human nucleotide P2Y receptors but not m3 muscarinic receptors. Compound 20 selectively inhibited calcium mobilization (IC50 value of 486 +/- 16 nM) and phosphoinositide turnover elicited by a selective P2Y1 receptor agonist, but this compound did not compete for binding of a radiolabeled nucleotide-competitive receptor antagonist. Therefore, the new class of DKP derivatives shows utility as pharmacological tools for P2Y receptors.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 06/2005; 3(10):2016-25. · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transmembrane signaling through P2Y receptors for extracellular nucleotides controls a diverse array of cellular processes, including thrombosis. Selective agonists and antagonists of the two P2Y receptors present on the platelet surface-the G (q)-coupled P2Y (1) subtype and the G (i)-coupled P2Y (12) subtype-are now known. High-affinity antagonists of each have been developed from nucleotide structures. The (N)-methanocarba bisphosphate derivatives MRS2279 and MRS2500 are potent and selective P2Y (1) receptor antagonists. The carbocyclic nucleoside AZD6140 is an uncharged, orally active P2Y (12) receptor antagonist of nM affinity. Another nucleotide receptor on the platelet surface, the P2X (1) receptor, the activation of which may also be proaggregatory, especially under conditions of high shear stress, has high-affinity ligands, although high selectivity has not yet been achieved. Although alpha,beta-methylene-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the classic agonist for the P2X (1) receptor, where it causes rapid desensitization, the agonist BzATP is among the most potent in activating this subtype. The aromatic sulfonates NF279 and NF449 are potent antagonists of the P2X (1) receptor. The structures of the two platelet P2Y receptors have been modeled, based on a rhodopsin template, to explain the basis for nucleotide recognition within the putative transmembrane binding sites. The P2Y (1) receptor model, especially, has been exploited in the design and optimization of antagonists targeted to interact selectively with that subtype.
    Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 05/2005; 31(2):205-16. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of the P2Y(1) nucleotide receptor in platelets by ADP causes changes in shape and aggregation, mediated by activation of phospholipase C (PLC). Recently, MRS2500(2-iodo-N(6)-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphate) was introduced as a highly potent and selective antagonist for this receptor. We have studied the actions of MRS2500 in human platelets and compared these effects with the effects of two acyclic nucleotide analogues, a bisphosphate MRS2298 and a bisphosphonate derivative MRS2496, which act as P2Y(1) receptor antagonists, although less potently than MRS2500. Improved synthetic methods for MRS2500 and MRS2496 were devised. The bisphosphonate is predicted to be more stable in general in biological systems than phosphate antagonists due to the non-hydrolyzable CP bond. MRS2500 inhibited the ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets with an IC(50) value of 0.95 nM. MRS2298 and MRS2496 also both inhibited the ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets with IC(50) values of 62.8 nM and 1.5 microM, respectively. A similar order of potency was observed for the three antagonists in binding to the recombinant human P2Y(1) receptor and in inhibition of ADP-induced shape change and ADP-induced rise in intracellular Ca(2+). No substantial antagonism of the pathway linked to the inhibition of cyclic AMP was observed for the nucleotide derivatives, indicating no interaction of these three P2Y(1) receptor antagonists with the proaggregatory P2Y(12) receptor, which is also activated by ADP. Thus, all three of the bisphosphate derivatives are highly selective antagonists of the platelet P2Y(1) receptor, and MRS2500 is the most potent such antagonist yet reported.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 12/2004; 68(10):1995-2002. · 4.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In comparison to other classes of cell surface receptors, the medicinal chemistry at P2X (ligand-gated ion channels) and P2Y (G protein-coupled) nucleotide receptors has been relatively slow to develop. Recent effort to design selective agonists and antagonists based on a combination of library screening, empirical modification of known ligands, and rational design have led to the introduction of potent antagonists of the P2X(1) (derivatives of pyridoxal phosphates and suramin), P2X(3)(A-317491), P2X(7) (derivatives of the isoquinoline KN-62), P2Y(1)(nucleotide analogues MRS 2179 and MRS 2279), P2Y(2)(thiouracil derivatives such as AR-C126313), and P2Y(12)(nucleotide/nucleoside analogues AR-C69931X and AZD6140) receptors. A variety of native agonist ligands (ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, and UDP-glucose) are currently the subject of structural modification efforts to improve selectivity. MRS2365 is a selective agonist for P2Y(1)receptors. The dinucleotide INS 37217 potently activates the P2Y(2)receptor. UTP-gamma-S and UDP-beta-S are selective agonists for P2Y(2)/P2Y(4)and P2Y(6)receptors, respectively. The current knowledge of the structures of P2X and P2Y receptors, is derived mainly from mutagenesis studies. Site-directed mutagenesis has shown that ligand recognition in the human P2Y(1)receptor involves individual residues of both the TMs (3, 5, 6, and 7), as well as EL 2 and 3. The binding of the negatively-charged phosphate moiety is dependent on positively charged lysine and arginine residues near the exofacial side of TMs 3 and 7.
    Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 02/2004; 4(8):805-19. · 3.70 Impact Factor