R D Verschoyle

University of Leicester, Leiscester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (71)299.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been widely investigated for their potential to prevent prostate cancer. However, results from epidemiological and clinical studies are equivocal. Studies in the TRAMP (TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate) mouse suggest that the chemopreventive efficacy of GTP is higher in young animals with early stages of carcinogenesis than in old ones. Here, effects of GTP on prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice were assessed by comparing pathological changes with (1)H-NMR metabolic profiling of plasma and extracts of prostate tissue. Mice received 0.05% GTP in their drinking water for 4 or 25 weeks after weaning. Age-matched wild-type mice were included in the study in order to establish differences in GTP effects between normal and TRAMP mice. Dietary GTP did not markedly alter prostate carcinogenesis as reflected by pathology and prostate tissue metabolic profile. However, a systemic effect of GTP consumption was observed in young mice, regardless of genotype. Plasma lipid signals were decreased in 8 week old mice which received GTP compared to age-matched controls by 19, 61, 27, 34 and 15% (p <or= 0.05) in the CH(2)CH(2)C[double bond, length as m-dash]C (m 2.00 ppm), CH(2)CH(2)CO (m 1.58 ppm), CH(2) (m 1.26 ppm), CH(3) (m 0.88 ppm) and CH(3) fatty acid resonances (m 0.84 ppm), respectively. GTP consumption did not affect the plasma metabolic profile in 29 week old mice. These results suggest that age rather than disease state determines systemic effects of GTP. More studies are required to investigate factors, such as age or metabolic make-up, inherent to a population or an individual, which may modulate the chemopreventive efficacy of GTP.
    Molecular BioSystems 10/2010; 6(10):1911-6. DOI:10.1039/c004702c · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 07/2010; 24(14):2175. DOI:10.1002/rcm.4606 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) represents a non-invasive biomarker for oxidative stress and may be useful for monitoring chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive interventions associated with cancer-related alterations in oxidative stress. We describe the development and validation of two separate liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) methods for the determination of 8-oxodG and creatinine in both murine and human urine using stable isotope labelled internal standards. Levels of 8-oxodG were normalised to creatinine. The LC/MS/MS methods were applied to two chemoprevention studies utilising tea polyphenols in humans and TRAMP (TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate) mice. Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia received 1 g/day of green tea polyphenols (GTP), 1 g/day of black tea theaflavins (BTT) or no treatment for 4 weeks. TRAMP mice received GTP (0.05% in drinking water) for 4 or 25 weeks. Prostate pathology in TRAMP mice was not affected by GTP. Levels of 8-oxodG were not altered by tea polyphenols in either mice or humans. In TRAMP mice, urinary 8-oxodG levels were elevated with increasing age (p < 0.0001) but not changed by the presence of prostate tumours. In conclusion, the LC/MS/MS SRM methods described here are ideally suited for the accurate determination of 8-oxodG and creatinine in urine samples from both clinical and pre-clinical studies.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 01/2009; 23(2):258-66. DOI:10.1002/rcm.3873 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sensitive and reliable methods are required for the assessment of oxidative DNA damage, which can result from reactive oxygen species that are generated endogenously from cellular metabolism and inflammatory responses, or by exposure to exogenous agents. The development of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method is described, that utilises online column-switching valve technology for the simultaneous determination of two DNA adduct biomarkers of oxidative stress, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine (8-oxodA). To allow for the accurate quantitation of both adducts the corresponding [(15)N(5)]-labelled stable isotope internal standards were synthesised and added prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA samples to 2'-deoxynucleosides. The method required between 10 and 40 microg of hydrolysed DNA on-column for the analysis and the limit of detection for both 8-oxodG and 8-oxodA was 5 fmol. The analysis of calf thymus DNA treated in vitro with methylene blue (ranging from 5 to 200 microM) plus light showed a dose-dependent increase in the levels of both 8-oxodG and 8-oxodA. The level of 8-oxodG was on average 29.4-fold higher than that of 8-oxodA and an excellent linear correlation (r = 0.999) was observed between the two adducts. The influence of different DNA extraction procedures for 8-oxodG and 8-oxodA levels was assessed in DNA extracted from rat livers following dosing with carbon tetrachloride. The levels of 8-oxodG and 8-oxodA were on average 2.9 (p = 0.018) and 1.4 (p = 0.018) times higher, respectively, in DNA samples extracted using an anion-exchange column procedure than in samples extracted using a chaotropic procedure, implying artefactual generation of the two adducts. In conclusion, the online column-switching LC/MS/MS SRM method provides the advantages of increased sample throughput with reduced matrix effects and concomitant ionisation suppression, making the method ideally suited when used in conjunction with chaotropic DNA extraction for the determination of oxidative DNA damage.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 01/2009; 23(1):151-60. DOI:10.1002/rcm.3866 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silibinin is a flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle with cancer chemopreventive activity in preclinical models of prostate and colorectal cancer. A milk thistle extract, of which silibin is a major component, has recently been shown to exacerbate mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of silibinin or silipide, a silibinin formulation with pharmaceutical properties superior to the unformulated agent, affect breast cancer development in the C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic multiple mammary adenocarcinoma mouse model. Mice received silibinin or silipide (0.2% silibinin equivalents) with their diet from weaning, and tumour development was monitored by weekly palpation and the number and weight of neoplasms at the end of the experiment. Intervention neither promoted, nor interfered with, tumour development. The result suggests that promotion of carcinogenesis is not a feature of silibinin consistent across rodent models of mammary carcinogenesis.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2008; 62(2):369-72. DOI:10.1007/s00280-007-0611-8 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mouse model has frequently been used in preclinical studies with chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive rationales. Here the hypothesis was tested using (1)H-NMR-based metabolic profiling that the TRAMP tumor metabolic phenotype resembles that reported for human prostate cancer. Aqueous extracts or intact tissues of normal prostate from 8- ("young") or 28-("old") week-old C57BL/6J wild-type mice or of prostate tumor from age-matched TRAMP mice were analyzed by (1)H-NMR. Results were compared with immunohistochemical findings. Expression of choline kinase was studied at the protein and mRNA levels. In young TRAMP mice presenting with zonal hyperplasia, the ratio of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) to phosphocholine (PC) was 22% below that in wild-type mice (P < 0.05). In old TRAMP mice with well-defined malignancy, reduced tumor levels of citrate (49%), choline (33%), PC (57%), GPC (66%), and glycerophosphoinositol (61%) were observed relative to normal prostate (P < 0.05). Hierarchical cluster analysis of metabolite levels distinguished between normal and malignant tissue in old but not young mice. While the reduction in tissue citrate resembles human prostate cancer, low levels of choline species in TRAMP tumors suggest atypical phospholipid metabolism as compared to human prostate cancer. TRAMP tumor and normal prostate tissues did not differ in expression of choline kinase, which is overexpressed in human prostate cancer. Although prostate cancer in TRAMP mice shares some metabolic features with that in humans, it differs with respect to choline phospholipid metabolism, which could impact upon the interpretation of results from biomarker or chemotherapy/chemoprevention studies.
    The Prostate 07/2008; 68(10):1035-47. DOI:10.1002/pros.20761 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silibinin, a flavonolignan from milk thistle seeds, possesses cancer chemopreventive properties in rodent models of carcinogenesis. We tested the hypotheses that silibinin or silipide, silibinin formulated with phospholipids, delays tumour development in TRAMP or Apc(Min) mice, genetic models of prostate or intestinal malignancies, respectively. Mice received silibinin or silipide with their diet (0.2% silibinin equivalents) from weaning. Intervention with silipide reduced the size of well differentiated TRAMP adenocarcinomas by 31%. Silipide and silibinin decreased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinomas by 61% compared to mice on control diet. Silipide decreased plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 by 36%. Levels of circulating IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in mice on silipide or silibinin were 3.9- or 5.9-fold, respectively, elevated over those in control TRAMP mice. In Apc(Min) mice silibinin, but not silipide, had only a marginal adenoma number-reducing effect. The results cautiously support the advancement of silipide to the stage of clinical investigation in prostate cancer.
    European Journal of Cancer 05/2008; 44(6):898-906. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2008.02.020 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause oxidative DNA damage, resulting in the formation of adducts such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and the cyclic pyrimidopurinone N-1, N(2) malondialdehyde-2'-deoxyguanosine (M(1)dG). These adducts have been associated with carcinogenesis, genomic instability and clonal evolution. We tested two hypotheses in human prostate cancer cells grown in vitro and in a xenograft model: (1) treatment of androgen-sensitive cells with DHT increases levels of oxidative DNA adduct levels; (2) flutamide, a competitive androgen receptor antagonist, prevents DHT-induced changes. Levels of M(1)dG and 8-oxo-dG adducts were determined by immunoslot blot and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. M(1)dG and 8-oxo-dG levels were significantly higher than control levels in LNCaP cells exposed to supra-physiological concentrations (25-100 nM) of DHT (both P<0.05 by ANOVA). Flutamide pre-treatment completely prevented this increase. In the xenograft model, tumour levels of M(1)dG were decreased by 46% (P=0.001 by Mann-Whitney Test) in flutamide-treated animals compared to controls. The changes demonstrated suggest that oxidative DNA adducts may serve as biomarkers of the efficacy of androgen manipulation in chemoprevention trials.
    Cancer Letters 03/2008; 261(1):74-83. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.11.015 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that phorbol esters are cytotoxic to human thyroid epithelial cells expressing a mutant RAS oncogene. Here we explore the generality of this finding using cells derived from pancreatic cancer, which, like thyroid, shows a high frequency of RAS mutation, but is a much greater cause of cancer mortality. The response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and related agents was assessed on a panel of 9 pancreatic cancer cell lines, using a range of assays for cell growth and death in vitro and in vivo. In most lines, PMA induced non-apoptotic cell death which was, surprisingly, independent of its "classic" target, protein kinase C. With 24 hr exposure, the IC(50) in the most sensitive line (Aspc-1) was <1 ng/ml (1.6 nM), with survival undetectable at concentrations >/=>/=16 nM, and after only 1 hr exposure the IC(50) was still </=</=16 nM. Interestingly, the efficacy of a second phorbol ester, phorbol dibutyrate, was much lower, and the PMA analogue bryostatin-1, which is in clinical trials against other tumour types, was totally inactive. Pre-treatment of Aspc-1 cells with PMA before subcutaneous inoculation into nude mice prevented, or greatly retarded, subsequent xenograft tumour growth. Furthermore, treatment of established tumours with a single peri-tumoral injection of PMA induced extensive cell death and arrested tumour development. Taken together with recent Phase 1 clinical studies, these data suggest that activity against pancreatic cancer will be attainable by systemic administration of PMA, and point to potential novel therapeutic targets for this highly aggressive cancer.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2007; 121(7):1445-54. DOI:10.1002/ijc.22869 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin, a major constituent of the spice turmeric, suppresses expression of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) and has cancer chemopreventive properties in rodents. It possesses poor systemic availability. We explored whether formulation with phosphatidylcholine increases the oral bioavailability or affects the metabolite profile of curcumin. Male Wistar rats received 340 mg/kg of either unformulated curcumin or curcumin formulated with phosphatidylcholine (Meriva) by oral gavage. Rats were killed at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min post administration. Plasma, intestinal mucosa and liver were analysed for the presence of curcumin and metabolites using HPLC with UV detection. Identity of curcumin and metabolites was verified by negative ion electrospray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Curcumin, the accompanying curcuminoids desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin, and the metabolites tetrahydrocurcumin, hexahydrocurcumin, curcumin glucuronide and curcumin sulfate were identified in plasma, intestinal mucosa and liver of rats which had received Meriva. Peak plasma levels and area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) values for parent curcumin after administration of Meriva were fivefold higher than the equivalent values seen after unformulated curcumin. Similarly, liver levels of curcumin were higher after administration of Meriva as compared to unformulated curcumin. In contrast, curcumin concentrations in the gastrointestinal mucosa after ingestion of Meriva were somewhat lower than those observed after administration of unformulated curcumin. Similar observations were made for curcumin metabolites as for parent compound. The results suggest that curcumin formulated with phosphatidylcholine furnishes higher systemic levels of parent agent than unformulated curcumin.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2007; 60(2):171-7. DOI:10.1007/s00280-006-0355-x · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brown rice is a staple dietary constituent in Asia, whereas rice consumed in the Western world is generally white, obtained from brown rice by removal of the bran. We tested the hypothesis that rice bran interferes with development of tumours in TAg, TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) or Apc(Min) mice, genetic models of mammary, prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis, respectively. Mice received rice bran (30%) in AIN-93G diet throughout their post-weaning lifespan. In TAg and TRAMP mice, rice bran did not affect carcinoma development. In TRAMP or wild-type C57Bl6/J mice, dietary rice bran increased kidney weight by 18 and 20%, respectively. Consumption of rice bran reduced numbers of intestinal adenomas in Apc(Min) mice by 51% (P<0.01), compared to mice on control diet. In parallel, dietary rice bran decreased intestinal haemorrhage in these mice, as reflected by increased haematocrit. At 10% in the diet, rice bran did not significantly retard Apc(Min) adenoma development. Likewise, low-fibre rice bran (30% in the diet) did not affect intestinal carcinogenesis, suggesting that the fibrous constituents of the bran mediate chemopreventive efficacy. The results suggest that rice bran might be beneficially evaluated as a putative chemopreventive intervention in humans with intestinal polyps.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2007; 96(2):248-54. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603539 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    Richard D Verschoyle, William P Steward, Andreas J Gescher
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    ABSTRACT: As cancer chemopreventive agents are intended for use by healthy individuals as prophylactics to prevent or retard the development of cancer, they must be amenable to ingestion over prolonged periods without toxicity. Therefore, putative chemopreventive agents need to undergo stringent testing to ensure their safety with regard to chronic exposure in humans. The diet is thought to be a source of chemopreventive agents, and dietary compounds are generally considered to be of low hazard, albeit this notion has not often been put to the test. Here the safety information available for 5 dietary putative chemopreventive compounds, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), curcumin, quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and capsaicin is reviewed. For these agents, normal dietary intake, doses used in clinical trials, efficacious doses in rodents, and where available, toxic doses are compared. For curcumin, quercetin and capsaicin, toxicological data is only available from studies in rodents. Information on long-term effects in animals beyond 28 or 90 days is lacking for EGCG. Capsaicin and quercetin are suspected carcinogens. I3C and quercetin can modulate the absorption of other drugs given concomitantly. Without further investigation of their toxicology, it is difficult to recommend any of these agents for long-term use in the healthy population.
    Nutrition and Cancer 02/2007; 59(2):152-62. DOI:10.1080/01635580701458186 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring flavonoids such as quercetin and genistein possess cancer chemopreventive properties in experimental models. However, adverse effects such as their mutagenicity confound their potential clinical usefulness. Furthermore in leukaemia cells some flavonoids cleave the breakpoint cluster region of the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene as a consequence of inhibition of topoisomerase II. The choice of flavonoids to be developed as cancer chemopreventive agents depends crucially on their safety. Here, we explored safety aspects of the novel flavone tricin, a constituent of rice bran and other grass species, which has recently been found to interfere with murine gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Evidence of pathological or morphological changes in liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas or thymus tissues was studied in mice which received tricin, genistein or quercetin 1,000 mg/kg daily by the oral route on five consecutive days. The ability of tricin (50 microM) to cleave the MLL gene was studied in human leukaemia cells by Southern blotting, and its effect on human topoisomerase II activity was investigated in incubations with supercoiled DNA. The mutagenicity of tricin was assessed in the Salmonella/Escherichia coli assay, and its clastogenicity was adjudged by chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells and occurrence of micronuclei in bone marrow erythrocytes in Swiss-Webster mice. Neither tricin, quercetin, or genistein caused pathological or morphological changes in any of the murine tissues studied. Tricin (50 microM) failed to cause MLL gene breakage, and it inhibited topoisomerase II only at 500 microM, but not at 10, 50 or 100 microM. Tricin lacked genotoxic properties in the systems studied here. The results tentatively suggest that tricin may be considered safe enough for clinical development as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/2006; 57(1):1-6. DOI:10.1007/s00280-005-0039-y · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the biological effects of quercetin, authentic products of quercetin metabolism are required as standards. The synthesis of quercetin sulfate standards is thus described. Quercetin was reacted with a 10-fold molar excess of sulfur trioxide-N-triethylamine, and the products were analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Four monosulfates and three disulfates were identified, and structural inferences were drawn by 1H NMR spectrometry of HPLC peak isolates. Analysis of the urine of rats that had received quercetin (1.9 g/kg po) yielded a single peak, which by comparison with the products of the reaction between quercetin and sulfur trioxide-N-triethylamine was identified as quercetin 3'-O-sulfate.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 01/2006; 13(24):6727-31. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2005.07.021 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ET-743, an experimental antitumor drug with promising activity in sarcoma, breast and ovarian carcinoma, is currently under phase 2 clinical evaluation. It is hepatotoxic in animals and patients. We tested the hypothesis that indole-3-carbinol (I3C), the hydrolysis product of glucosinolates occurring in cruciferous vegetables, may protect against ET-743-induced hepatotoxicity in the female Wistar rat, the animal species with the highest sensitivity toward the adverse hepatic effect of this drug. Hepatotoxicity was adjudged by measurement of plasma levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and by liver histopathology. The effect of I3C on the kinetics of ET-743 in rat plasma and liver was investigated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The effect of I3C on the antitumor efficacy of ET-743 was explored in rats bearing the 13762 mammary carcinoma. ET-743 (40 microg/kg i.v.) alone caused an elevation of plasma bilirubin, ALP and AST levels and degeneration and patchy focal necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells. Addition of I3C to the diet (0.5%) for 6 days prior to ET-743 administration almost completely abolished manifestations of hepatotoxicity. In contrast, a dietary concentration of 0.1% I3C did not protect, nor did dietary diindolylmethane (0.2%), an acid-catalyzed condensation product of I3C. Ingestion by rats of I3C for 6 days prior to ET-743 (40 microg/kg i.v.) decreased plasma but not hepatic concentrations of ET-743 compared to animals that received ET-743 alone. I3C did not interfere with the antitumor efficacy of ET-743. The results suggest that ingestion of I3C may counteract the unwanted effect of ET-743 in the liver. I3C should be investigated as a hepatoprotectant in patients who receive ET-743 therapy.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2004; 111(6):961-7. DOI:10.1002/ijc.20356 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tricin, a flavone found in rice bran, inhibits the growth of human-derived malignant MDA-MB-468 breast tumour cells at submicromolar concentrations. As part of the exploration of tricin as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent, we investigated the duration and cell cycle specificity of growth inhibition elicited by tricin in vitro and the effect of tricin on the development of MDA-MB-468 tumours grown in immune-compromised MF-1 mice in vivo. Preincubation of MDA-MB-468 cells with tricin (1-40 microM) for 72 h compromised cell growth after tricin removal, and such irreversibility was not observed in human breast-derived nonmalignant HBL-100 cells. Tricin (>/=5 microM) arrested MDA-MB-468 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle without inducing apoptosis as adjudged by annexin V staining. In nude mice consumption of tricin with the diet (0.2%, w w(-1)) from 1 week prior to MDA-MB-468 cell implantation failed to impede tumour development. Steady-state levels of tricin in plasma, breast tumour tissue and intestinal mucosa, as measured by HPLC, were 0.13 microM and 0.11 and 63 nmol g(-1), respectively. Cells were exposed to tricin (0.11, 1.1 or 11 microM) in vitro for 72 h and then implanted into mice. The volume of tumours in animals bearing cells pre-exposed to 11 microM tricin was less than a third of that in mice with control cells, while tumours from cells incubated with 0.1 or 1.1 microM tricin were indistinguishable from controls. These results suggest that the potent breast tumour cell growth-inhibitory activity of tricin in vitro does not directly translate into activity in the nude mouse bearing the MDA MB-468 tumour. While the results do not support the notion that tricin is a promising candidate for breast cancer chemoprevention, its high levels in the gastrointestinal tract after dietary intake render exploration of its ability to prevent colorectal carcinogenesis propitious.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2004; 91(7):1364-71. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602124 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a flavone with putative ability to prevent cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Its metabolism was evaluated in rats and human. Rats received quercetin via the intravenous (i.v.) route and metabolites were isolated from the plasma, urine and bile. Analysis was by high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmation of species identity was achieved by mass spectrometry. Quercetin and isorhamnetin, the 3'-O-methyl analogue, were found in both the plasma and urine. In addition, several polar peaks were characterised as sulphated and glucuronidated conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin. Extension of the metabolism studies to a cancer patient who had received quercetin as an i.v. bolus showed that (Quercetin removed) isorhamnetin and quercetin 3'-O-sulphate were major plasma metabolites. As a catechol, quercetin can potentially be converted to a quinone and subsequently conjugated with glutathione (GSH). Oxidation of quercetin with mushroom tyrosinase in the presence of GSH furnished GSH conjugates of quercetin, two mono- and one bis-substituted conjugates. However, these species were not found in biomatrices in rats treated with quercetin. As cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is mechanistically linked to carcinogenesis, we examined whether quercetin and its metabolites can inhibit COX-2 in a human colorectal cancer cell line (HCA-7). Isorhamnetin and its 4'-isomer tamarixetin were potent inhibitors, reflected in a 90% decrease in prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels, a marker of COX-2 activity. Quercetin was less effective, with a 50% decline. Quercetin 3- and 7-O-sulphate had no effect on PGE-2. The results indicate that quercetin may exert its pharmacological effects, at least in part, via its metabolites.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2004; 91(6):1213-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602091 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) are promising cancer chemopreventive agents in rodent models, but there is a paucity of data on their pharmacokinetics and tissue disposition. The disposition of I3C and its acid condensation products, DIM, [2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)-indol-3-yl]indol-3-ylmethane (LTr(1)), indolo[3,2b]carbazole (ICZ) and 1-(3-hydroxymethyl)-indolyl-3-indolylmethane (HI-IM) was studied, after oral administration of I3C (250 mg/kg) to female CD-1 mice. Blood, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and brain were collected between 0.25 and 24 h after administration and the plasma and tissue concentrations of I3C and its derivatives determined by high-performance liquid chromotography. I3C was rapidly absorbed, distributed, and eliminated from plasma and tissues, falling below the limit of detection by 1 h. Highest concentrations of I3C were detected in the liver where levels were approximately 6-fold higher than those in the plasma. Levels of DIM, LTr(1), and HI-IM were much lower, although they persisted in plasma and tissues for considerably longer. DIM and HI-IM were still present in the liver 24 h after I3C administration. Tissue levels of DIM and LTr(1) were found to be in equilibrium with plasma at almost every time point measured. In addition to acid condensation products of I3C, a major oxidative metabolite (indole-3-carboxylic acid) and a minor oxidative metabolite (indole-3-carboxaldehyde) were detected in plasma of mice after oral administration of I3C. ICZ was also tentatively identified in the liver of these mice. This study shows for the first time that, after oral administration to mice, I3C, in addition to its acid condensation products, is absorbed from the gut and distributed systemically into a number of well-perfused tissues, thus allowing the possibility for some pharmacological activity of the parent compound in vivo.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2004; 10(15):5233-41. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0163 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a naturally occurring indole, which is currently under investigation as a potential chemopreventive agent. The concentrations of DIM in plasma, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and brain tissues were determined following oral administration of two different formulations to mice (250 mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed periodically from 0 to 24 h after administration of either a crystalline or an absorption-enhanced formulation (Bio-Response-DIM; Indolplex) of DIM, and plasma and tissue concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (UV detection, 280 nm). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of the two different formulations. The final model included parameters reflecting linear first-order absorption, systemic clearance, and distributional clearance in the remainder compartment, which were considered independent of formulation. All pharmacokinetic profiles from the two formulations were fitted simultaneously to estimate unknown model parameters. Plasma and tissue concentration-time profiles exhibited a rapid rise to peak values at 0.5 to 1 h, followed by a polyexponential decline with an extended terminal phase. These profiles were well described by the final model and unknown parameters were estimated with relatively low coefficients of variation. Relative drug exposure and absorption parameters suggest that BioResponse-DIM exhibited approximately 50% higher bioavailability than the crystalline formulation. Clearance of DIM was estimated as 7.18 ml/h. This is the first study to characterize the pharmacokinetics of DIM in mice, and the established PBPK model should prove useful in the design and analysis of future preclinical studies aimed at evaluating the in vivo pharmacological effects of DIM.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 07/2004; 32(6):632-8. DOI:10.1124/dmd.32.6.632 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Yondelis (ET-743), a tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from a marine tunicate, is a novel drug with demonstrated anticancer activity in early clinical trials against sarcoma, breast and ovarian carcinoma. Yondelis has myelotoxic and hepatotoxic side effects, the latter reflected by reversible transaminitis and cholangitis. In the female rat pretreatment with high-dose dexamethasone has been shown to abrogate yondelis-mediated hepatotoxicity, an effect tentatively linked to its ability to induce cytochrome P450 CYP3A isoenzymes, which metabolize yondelis. Here we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment of rats with modulators of hepatic drug metabolism, beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbitone or N-acetylcysteine, protect rat livers against the effects of yondelis. Female rats received yondelis (40 microg/kg intravenously) and liver damage in vivo was assessed in terms of changes in plasma levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and by histopathology. In order to investigate yondelis toxicity in vitro, hepatocytes isolated from untreated rats or from rats pretreated with dexamethasone, beta-naphthoflavone or phenobarbitone were maintained in culture and exposed to yondelis. Pretreatment with beta-naphthoflavone and phenobarbitone ameliorated yondelis-mediated hepatotoxicity in vivo. The former abrogated plasma indicators on day 3, but hardly on day 6, and the latter suppressed elevation of bilirubin, but not of ALP or AST. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine did not protect from, but slightly exacerbated, yondelis-induced liver changes. Hepatocytes from naive animals or from pretreated rats did not differ in their susceptibility towards yondelis-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Nor did inclusion of N-acetylcysteine (1 m M) in the cellular incubation medium affect yondelis-induced hepatocytotoxicity. The results suggest that certain inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes such as dexamethasone and beta-naphthoflavone can protect rat liver against the unwanted effects of yondelis, but such protection cannot be mimicked in in vitro experiments using liver cells in culture.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2004; 53(4):305-12. DOI:10.1007/s00280-003-0744-3 · 2.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
299.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2010
    • University of Leicester
      • • Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine
      • • Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • University of Dundee
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1987
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom