[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate hydrochloride is the most widely used medication for treatment and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the chronic effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride on anxiety- and depressive-like rat behaviors remain poorly investigated. In this context, the present study evaluated the effects of treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors using young and adult rats during the light and the dark cycle.
Male Wistar rats (25 or 60 days old) received a once-daily (in either the light or dark cycle) methylphenidate hydrochloride (2mg/kg) or saline intraperitoneal injection for 28 days. We performed elevated plus maze and forced swimming test two hours after the last injection.
The light/dark cycle was a significant factor in the anxiety-like behaviors; however, no significant interaction between all three factors (cycle, age and methylphenidate hydrochloride) was found. Nevertheless, we observed a nominally significant interaction between the light/ dark cycle and age in the forced swimming test.
Our results have shown that age and the light/dark cycle are more significant modulators of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors than methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment.
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 03/2011; 33(1):55-8. DOI:10.1590/S1516-44462010005000018 · 1.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a very effective treatment option for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nevertheless, there have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of MPH on learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the treatment with MPH during the morning differs from that during the night on learning and memory (short and long term) in young and adult male Wistar rats. The animals received once daily intraperitoneal injection of either MPH (2 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) for 28 days (either in the morning or at night). The animals underwent two behavioral tasks to evaluate learning and memory: inhibitory avoidance task and continuous multiple trials step-down inhibitory avoidance (CMIA). Young rats treated in the morning showed significant impaired long-term memory for inhibitory avoidance training and facilitated acquisition in the CMIA. Adult rats treated in the night showed impaired long-term retention in the CMIA. We observed similar performances in both tests for young rats treated at night or adult rats treated in the morning. Our results suggest that age and time of treatment can alter the MPH effects in learning and memory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study age-, circadian rhythm- and methylphenidate administration- effect on open field habituation and object recognition were analyzed. Young and adult male Wistar rats were treated with saline or methylphenidate 2.0 mg/kg for 28 days. Experiments were performed during the light and the dark cycle. Locomotor activity was significantly altered by circadian cycle and methylphenidate treatment during the training session and by drug treatment during the testing session. Exploratory activity was significantly modulated by age during the training session and by age and drug treatment during the testing session. Object recognition memory was altered by cycle at the training session; by age 1.5 h later and by cycle and age 24 h after the training session. These results show that methylphenidate treatment was the major modulator factor on open-field test while cycle and age had an important effect on object recognition experiment.
Current neurovascular research 10/2009; 6(4):259-66. DOI:10.2174/156720209789630357 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prescription of methylphenidate (MPH) has dramatically increased in this decade for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. The action mechanism of MPH is not completely understood and studies have been demonstrated that MPH can lead to neurochemical adaptations. Superoxide radical anion is not very reactive per se. However, severe species derived from superoxide radical anion mediate most of its toxicity. In this study, the superoxide level in submitochondrial particles was evaluated in response to treatment with MPH in the age-dependent manner in rats. MPH was administrated acutely or chronically at doses of 1, 2 or 10 mg/kg i.p. The results showed that the acute administration of MPH in all doses in young rats increased the production of superoxide in the cerebellum and only in the high dose (10mg/kg) in the hippocampus, while chronic treatment had no effect. However, acute treatment in adult rats had no effect on production of superoxide, but chronic treatment decreased the production of superoxide in the cerebellum at the lower doses. Our data suggest that the MPH treatment can influence on production of superoxide in some brain areas, but this effect depends on age of animals and treatment regime with MPH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine may alter the phosphorylation state of DARPP-32 that plays a central role in the dopaminergic neurons biology. Studies have shown that DARPP-32/protein phosphatase 1 cascade is a major target for psychostimulants drugs. Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant that acts blocking the dopamine transporter has been used as an effective treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. We investigated if methylphenidate could alter DARPP-32 expression in five brain regions (striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, cortex and cerebellum) in young and adult rats. Our results showed that methylphenidate treatment is able to alter DARPP-32 expression in rat brain. Acute methylphenidate treatment has reduced hippocampal DARPP-32 protein levels in old rats, while chronic methylphenidate treatment has decreased them in old rat hippocampus and young rat cerebellum. It was found an increased cortical expression after chronic methylphenidate administration in old rats. Our results provide the first experimental demonstration that methylphenidate induces changes in total DARPP-32 expression that are posology- and age-related in some rat brain areas, although further studies are needed to shed more light on the mechanisms behind these findings.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 12/2008; 27(1):1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2008.11.001 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing debate exists about the potential of early exposure to methylphenidate to increase the risk for drug abuse. In addition, little is known about the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate. This study was designed to investigate whether chronic treatment with methylphenidate induces behavioral sensitization to subsequent methylphenidate and D-amphetamine challenge in adolescent Wistar rats. Young Wistar rats (P25) were treated with either methylphenidate (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline for 28 days. After 14 days of washout, animals were challenged with methylphenidate 2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or D-amphetamine 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (P67). Locomotor behavior was assessed using the open field test. Rats chronically treated with methylphenidate in the adolescent period showed augmented locomotor sensitization to D-amphetamine but not to methylphenidate in the adult phase. These findings suggest that early exposure do methylphenidate might increase the risk for subsequent D-amphetamine abuse. Further studies focusing on the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate are warranted.