Daryl E Klein

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (10)164.3 Total impact

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    Diego Alvarado, Daryl E Klein, Mark A Lemmon
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    ABSTRACT: Transmembrane signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) involves ligand-induced dimerization and allosteric regulation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Crystallographic studies have shown how ligand binding induces dimerization of the EGFR extracellular region but cannot explain the "high-affinity" and "low-affinity" classes of cell-surface EGF-binding sites inferred from curved Scatchard plots. From a series of crystal structures of the Drosophila EGFR extracellular region, we show here how Scatchard plot curvature arises from negatively cooperative ligand binding. The first ligand-binding event induces formation of an asymmetric dimer with only one bound ligand. The unoccupied site in this dimer is structurally restrained, leading to reduced affinity for binding of the second ligand, and thus negative cooperativity. Our results explain the cell-surface binding characteristics of EGF receptors and suggest how individual EGFR ligands might stabilize distinct dimeric species with different signaling properties.
    Cell 08/2010; 142(4):568-79. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    Diego Alvarado, Daryl E Klein, Mark A Lemmon
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    ABSTRACT: The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.
    Nature 10/2009; 461(7261):287-91. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or ErbB/HER family and their activating ligands are essential regulators of diverse developmental processes. Inappropriate activation of these receptors is a key feature of many human cancers, and its reversal is an important clinical goal. A natural secreted antagonist of EGFR signalling, called Argos, was identified in Drosophila. We showed previously that Argos functions by directly binding (and sequestering) growth factor ligands that activate EGFR. Here we describe the 1.6-A resolution crystal structure of Argos bound to an EGFR ligand. Contrary to expectations, Argos contains no EGF-like domain. Instead, a trio of closely related domains (resembling a three-finger toxin fold) form a clamp-like structure around the bound EGF ligand. Although structurally unrelated to the receptor, Argos mimics EGFR by using a bipartite binding surface to entrap EGF. The individual Argos domains share unexpected structural similarities with the extracellular ligand-binding regions of transforming growth factor-beta family receptors. The three-domain clamp of Argos also resembles the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor, which uses a similar mechanism to engulf the EGF-like module of uPA. Our results indicate that undiscovered mammalian counterparts of Argos may exist among other poorly characterized structural homologues. In addition, the structures presented here define requirements for the design of artificial EGF-sequestering proteins that would be valuable anti-cancer therapeutics.
    Nature 07/2008; 453(7199):1271-5. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Argos, a secreted inhibitor of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor, and the only known secreted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, acts by sequestering the EGFR ligand Spitz. We use computational modeling to show that this biochemically-determined mechanism of Argos action can explain available genetic data for EGFR/Spitz/Argos interactions in vivo. We find that efficient Spitz sequestration by Argos is key for explaining the existing data and for providing a robust feedback loop that modulates the Spitz gradient in embryonic ventral ectoderm patterning. Computational analysis of the EGFR/Spitz/Argos module in the ventral ectoderm shows that Argos need not be long-ranged to account for genetic data, and can actually have very short range. In our models, Argos with long or short length scale functions to limit the range and action of secreted Spitz. Thus, the spatial range of Argos does not have to be tightly regulated or may act at different ranges in distinct developmental contexts.
    Developmental Biology 09/2005; 284(2):523-35. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has critical functions in development and in many human cancers. During development, the spatial extent of EGFR signalling is regulated by feedback loops comprising both well-understood activators and less well-characterized inhibitors. In Drosophila melanogaster the secreted protein Argos functions as the only known extracellular inhibitor of EGFR, with clearly identified roles in multiple stages of development. Argos is only expressed when the Drosophila EGFR (DER) is activated at high levels, and downregulates further DER signalling. Although there is ample genetic evidence that Argos inhibits DER activation, the biochemical mechanism has not been established. Here we show that Argos inhibits DER signalling without interacting directly with the receptor, but instead by sequestering the DER-activating ligand Spitz. Argos binds tightly to the EGF motif of Spitz and forms a 1:1 (Spitz:Argos) complex that does not bind DER in vitro or at the cell surface. Our results provide an insight into the mechanism of Argos function, and suggest new strategies for EGFR inhibitor design.
    Nature 09/2004; 430(7003):1040-4. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FYVE domains are small zinc-finger-like domains found in many proteins that are involved in regulating membrane traffic and have been shown to bind specifically to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns-3-P). FYVE domains are thought to recruit PtdIns-3-P effectors to endosomal locations in vivo, where these effectors participate in controlling endosomal maturation and vacuolar protein sorting. We have compared the characteristics of PtdIns-3-P binding by the FYVE domain from Hrs-1 (the hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) with those of specific phosphoinositide binding by Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. Like certain PH domains (such as that from phospholipase C-delta(1)), the Hrs-1 FYVE domain specifically recognizes a single phosphoinositide. However, while phosphoinositide binding by highly specific PH domains is driven almost exclusively by interactions with the lipid headgroup, this is not true for the Hrs-1 FYVE domain. The phospholipase C-delta(1) PH domain shows a 10-fold preference for binding isolated headgroup over its preferred lipid (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) in a membrane, while the Hrs-1 FYVE domain greatly prefers (more than 50-fold) intact lipid in a bilayer over the isolated headgroup (inositol 1,3-bisphosphate). By contrast with reports for certain PH domains, we find that this preference for membrane binding over interaction with soluble lipid headgroups does not require FYVE domain oligomerization.
    Biochemistry 08/2001; 40(29):8581-7. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Biochemistry - BIOCHEMISTRY-USA. 01/2001; 40(29):8581-8587.
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    ABSTRACT: Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains are small protein modules involved in recruitment of signaling molecules to cellular membranes, in some cases by binding specific phosphoinositides. We describe use of a convenient "dot-blot" approach to screen 10 different PH domains for those that recognize particular phosphoinositides. Each PH domain bound phosphoinositides in the assay, but only two (from phospholipase C-delta1 and Grp1) showed clear specificity for a single species. Using soluble inositol phosphates, we show that the Grp1 PH domain (originally cloned on the basis of its phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) binding) binds specifically to D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4) (the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 headgroup) with KD = 27.3 nM, but binds D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4)P3) or D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) over 80-fold more weakly. We show that this specificity allows localization of the Grp1 PH domain to the plasma membrane of mammalian cells only when phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) is activated. The presence of three adjacent equatorial phosphate groups was critical for inositol phosphate binding by the Grp1 PH domain. By contrast, another PH domain capable of PI 3-K-dependent membrane recruitment (encoded by EST684797) does not distinguish Ins(1,3,4)P3 from Ins(1,3,4,5)P3 (binding both with very high affinity), despite selecting strongly against Ins(1,4,5)P3. The remaining PH domains tested appear significantly less specific for particular phosphoinositides. Together with data presented in the literature, our results suggest that many PH domains bind similarly to multiple phosphoinositides (and in some cases phosphatidylserine), and are likely to be regulated in vivo by the most abundant species to which they bind. Thus, using the same simple approach to study several PH domains simultaneously, our studies suggest that highly specific phosphoinositide binding is a characteristic of relatively few cases.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1998; 273(46):30497-508. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamins are 100-kDa GTPases involved in the scission event required for formation of endocytotic vesicles. The two main described mammalian dynamins (dynamin-1 and dynamin-2) both contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which has been implicated in dynamin binding to (and activation by) acidic phospholipids, most notably phosphoinositides. We demonstrate that the PH domains of both dynamin isoforms require oligomerization for high affinity phosphoinositide binding. Strong phosphoinositide binding was detected only when the PH domains were dimerized by fusion to glutathione S-transferase, or via a single engineered intermolecular disulfide bond. Phosphoinositide binding specificities agreed reasonably with reported effects of different phospholipids on dynamin GTPase activity. Although they differ in their ability to inhibit rapid endocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells, the dynamin-1 and dynamin-2 PH domains showed identical phosphoinositide binding specificities. Since oligomerization is required for binding of the dynamin PH domain to phosphoinositides, it follows that PH domain-mediated phosphoinositide binding will favor oligomerization of intact dynamin (which has an inherent tendency to self-associate). We propose that the dynamin PH domain thus mediates the observed cooperative binding of dynamin to membranes containing acidic phospholipids and promotes the self-assembly that is critical for both stimulation of its GTPase activity and its ability to achieve membrane scission.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1998; 273(42):27725-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Argos, a secreted inhibitor of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor, and the only known secreted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, acts by sequestering the EGFR ligand Spitz. We use computational modeling to show that this biochemically-determined mechanism of Argos action can explain available genetic data for EGFR/Spitz/Argos interactions in vivo. We find that efficient Spitz sequestration by Argos is key for explaining the existing data and for providing a robust feedback loop that modulates the Spitz gradient in embryonic ventral ectoderm patterning. Computational analysis of the EGFR/Spitz/Argos module in the ventral ectoderm shows that Argos need not be long-ranged to account for genetic data, and can actually have very short range. In our models, Argos with long or short length scale functions to limit the range and action of secreted Spitz. Thus, the spatial range of Argos does not have to be tightly regulated or may act at different ranges in distinct developmental contexts.