[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that age-related deterioration in trabecular microarchitecture and changes in collagen cross-link concentrations may contribute to skeletal fragility. To further explore this hypothesis, we determined the relationships among trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), microarchitecture, collagen cross-link content, and bone turnover in human vertebral trabecular bone. Trabecular bone specimens from L2 vertebrae were collected from 51 recently deceased donors (54-95 years of age; 20 men and 30 women). Trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture was assessed by microCT and bone formation, reflected by osteoid surface (OS/BS, %), was measured by 2D histomorphometry. Pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), pentosidine (PEN) and collagen content in the cancellous bone were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Associations between variables were investigated by Pearson correlations and multiple regression models, which were constructed with BV/TV and collagen cross-links as explanatory variables and microarchitecture parameters as the dependent variables. RESULTS: Microarchitecture parameters were modestly to strongly correlated with BV/TV (r(2)=0.10-0.71). The amount of mature enzymatic PYD and DPD cross-links were not associated with the microarchitecture, either before or after adjustment for BV/TV. However, there was a positive correlation between PEN content and trabecular number (r=0.45, p=0.001) and connectivity density (r=0.40, p=0.004), and a negative correlation between PEN content and trabecular separation (r=-0.29, p=0.04). In the multiple regression models including BV/TV, age and PEN content was still significantly associated with several of the microarchitecture variables. In summary, this study suggests a link between trabecular microarchitecture and the collagen cross-link profile. As PEN reflects non-enzymatic glycation of collagen and generally increases with bone age, the association between PEN and trabecular architecture suggests that the preserved trabeculae may contain mainly old bone and have undergone little remodeling. Thus, vertebral fragility may not only be due to alterations in bone architecture but also to modification of collagen cross-link patterns thereby influencing bone's mechanical behavior.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed including an internal standard for the measurement of mature and senescent crosslinks concentration in non-demineralized bone hydrolysates. To avoid the demineralization which is a tedious step, we developed a method based on the use of a solid-phase extraction procedure to clean-up the samples. It resulted in sensitive and accurate measurements: the detection limits as low as 0.2 pmol for the pyridimium crosslinks and 0.02 pmol for the pentosidine. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were as low as 5% and 2%, respectively, for all crosslinks.
Journal of Chromatography B 12/2008; 877(1-2):1-7. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed an in vitro model which provides the ability to test the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), specifically pentosidine (PEN) and one of its inhibitors, the aminoguanidine (AMG), on cortical bone. This model allows modification of the extent of collagen cross-linking, while controlling other factors known to influence bone strength. In this in vitro model, young bovine cortical bone specimens were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)+/-ribose (RIB, an inducer of AGEs formation)+/-AMG for 15 days at 37 degrees C. The mineral and organic matrix as well as biomechanical properties were examined. We found that (i) incubation+/-treatments did not induce collagen denaturation compared to specimens that were not incubated; (ii) neither treatment or incubation time effected the concentration of trivalent enzymatic cross-links pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. The non-enzymatic cross-link PEN was undetectable in specimens that were not incubated or that were incubated in PBS or AMG alone. However, PEN concentration increased significantly in specimens incubated with RIB, whereas ribose-induced PEN formation was markedly inhibited by AMG. (iii) Incubation+/-treatments did not change the mineral maturity, crystallinity or microhardness assessed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray microscopy analyses, FTIRM and micro-indentation tests. (iv) PEN concentration was not associated with biomechanical properties assessed by 3-point bending. In conclusion, this in vitro incubation model of young bovine cortical bone induced physiologic concentrations of PEN in the RIB+AMG group and is the first to show that AMG inhibits ribose-induced formation of PEN cross-links in bone while not affecting the organic and mineral phases. AGE concentration did not influence bending mechanical properties; however, the simple 3-point bending test we used was likely inadequate to demonstrate effects of AGEs on mechanical properties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagen characteristics contribute to bone biomechanical properties. Yet, few studies have analyzed the independent contributions of bone mineral density (BMD) and post-translational modifications of type I collagen to whole bone strength. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the relative contributions of BMD and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic collagen crosslink concentration to the biomechanical properties of human vertebrae. Nineteen L3 vertebrae were collected after necropsy (age 26-93; 10 males, 9 females). BMD of the vertebral body was measured by DXA, and the vertebrae were compressed to failure to assess the stiffness, failure load and work to fracture. After mechanical testing, the concentration of both enzymatic crosslinks pyridinoline (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) as well as, and the non-enzymatic crosslinks pentosidine (PEN) were analyzed in trabecular and cortical bone by reversed-phase HPLC. The extent of aspartic acid isomerization of type I collagen C telopeptide (CTX) was evaluated by ELISA of native (alpha CTX) and isomerized (beta CTX) forms. BMD was significantly positively related with stiffness (R(2) = 0.74; P < 0.0001), failure load (R(2) = 0.69; P < 0.0001) and work to fracture (R(2) = 0.44; P = 0.002). Bivariate regression analysis showed no association between collagen traits and biomechanical properties. However, in a multiple regression model, BMD and trabecular PEN were both significantly associated with failure load and work to fracture (multiple R(2) = 0.83, P = 0.001 and R(2) = 0.67, P = 0.001, respectively). Similarly, BMD and trabecular alpha/beta CTX ratio were both associated with stiffness (multiple R(2) = 0.83, P = 0.015). These findings indicate that post-translational modifications of type I collagen have an impact on skeletal fragility.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone is a complex tissue of which the principal function is to resist mechanical forces and fractures. Bone strength depends not only on the quantity of bone tissue but also on the quality, which is characterized by the geometry and the shape of bones, the microarchitecture of the trabecular bones, the turnover, the mineral, and the collagen. Different determinants of bone quality are interrelated, especially the mineral and collagen, and analysis of their specific roles in bone strength is difficult. This review describes the interactions of type I collagen with the mineral and the contribution of the orientations of the collagen fibers when the bone is submitted to mechanical forces. Different processes of maturation of collagen occur in bone, which can result either from enzymatic or nonenzymatic processes. The enzymatic process involves activation of lysyl oxidase, which leads to the formation of immature and mature crosslinks that stabilize the collagen fibrils. Two type of nonenzymatic process are described in type I collagen: the formation of advanced glycation end products due to the accumulation of reducible sugars in bone tissue, and the process of racemization and isomerization in the telopeptide of the collagen. These modifications of collagen are age-related and may impair the mechanical properties of bone. To illustrate the role of the crosslinking process of collagen in bone strength, clinical disorders associated with bone collagen abnormalities and bone fragility, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis, are described.
Osteoporosis International 02/2006; 17(3):319-36. · 4.04 Impact Factor