Chang-Min Lee

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (65)195.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The prototypic chitinase-like protein Chi3l1 is induced in cancers and portends a poor prognosis, but whether it contributes to cancer progression is unknown. To address this gap in knowledge we investigated the production of Chi3l1 in melanoma lung metastases. We found that Chi3l1 was induced during pulmonary melanoma metastasis and that this induction was regulated by the semaphorin Sema7a, interacting in stimulatory or inhibitory ways with its β1 integrin or Plexin C1 receptors, respectively. In mouse strains with genetic deletions of Chi3l1 or Sema7a, there was a significant reduction in pulmonary metastasis. Notably, antiserum raised against Chi3l1 or Sema7a phenocopied the reduction produced by genetic deletions. Melanoma lung metastasis was also decreased in the absence of IL-13Rα2, a recently identified receptor for Chi3l1, consistent with a key role for Chi3l1 in melanoma spread. We confirmed roles for Sema7a and Chi3l1 in pulmonary metastasis of EMT6 breast cancer cells. Taken together, our studies establish a novel pathway through which Sem7a and its receptors regulate Chi3l1, revealing a host axis involving IL-13Rα2 that plays a critical role in generating a pulmonary microenvironment that is critical to license metastasis. Copyright © 2014, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer research. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Microglia are main immune cells to exacerbate neural disorders in persistent overactivating. Therefore, it is a good strategy to regulate microglia for the treatment of neural disorders. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a novel compound, 5-O-isoferuloyl-2-deoxy-D-ribono-γ-lacton (5-DRL) from Clematis mandshurica, and evaluated its anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 microglial cells. 5-DRL inhibited the expression of LPS-stimulated proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as their regulatory genes inducible NO syntheses (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). 5-DRL also downregulated the LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) through suppression of the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits, p65 and p50. Consistent with the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 via NF-κB activity with 5-DRL, an inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), also led to the suppression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. Additionally, 5-DRL corresponding with antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH), remarkably inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Both NAC and GSH, thus attenuated the expression of iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing NF-κB activation, indicating that 5-DRL suppresses LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through downregulation of the ROS-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway. The present study also indicated that 5-DRL suppresses NO and PGE2 production by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Taken together, the present data indicate that 5-DRL attenuates the production of proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 as well as their regulatory genes in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting ROS-dependent NF-κB activation and stimulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway. These data may be implicated in the application of 5-DRL in LPS-stimulated inflammatory disease.
    International Immunopharmacology. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Expression of various inflammatory mediators in corneal fibroblasts contributes to corneal inflammation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the expression of inflammatory mediators during an inflammatory response in human corneal fibroblasts. Materials and methods: The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) from IL-1β-exposed human corneal fibroblasts were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The regulatory mechanisms of CAPE on cellular signaling pathways were examined using Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. A functional validation was carried out by evaluating the inhibitory effects of CAPE on neutrophil and monocyte migration in vitro. Results: CAPE inhibited the expression of IL-6, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in corneal fibroblasts. The activation of AKT and NF-κB by IL-1β was markedly inhibited by CAPE, whereas the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was not affected. CAPE significantly suppressed the IL-1β-induced migration of differentiated (d)HL-60 and THP-1 cells. Discussion: These anti-inflammatory effects of CAPE may be expected to inhibit the infiltration of leukocytes into the corneal stroma in vivo.
    Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 08/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: α-Viniferin is an oligostilbene of trimeric resveratrol and has anticancer activity; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of α-viniferin has not been completely elucidated thus far. Therefore, we determined the mechanism by which α-viniferin regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of proinflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells. Treatment with α-viniferin isolated from Clematis mandshurica decreased LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). α-Viniferin also downregulated the LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory genes such as iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) via dephosphorylation of Akt/PI3K. Treatment with a specific NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), indirectly showed that NF-κB is a crucial transcription factor for expression of these genes in the early stage of inflammation. Additionally, our results indicated that α-viniferin suppresses NO and PGE2 production in the late stage of inflammation through induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) regulated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Taken together, our data indicate that α-viniferin suppresses the expression of proinflammatory genes iNOS and COX-2 in the early stage of inflammation by inhibiting the Akt/PI3K-dependent NF-κB activation and inhibits the production of proinflammatory mediators NO and PGE2 in the late stage by stimulating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. These results suggest that α-viniferin may be a potential candidate to regulate LPS-induced inflammation.
    Cellular Immunology 07/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial injury, alternative macrophage accumulation, and fibroproliferation coexist in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a prototypic chitinase-like protein that has been retained over species and evolutionary time. However, the regulation of CHI3L1 in IPF and its ability to regulate injury and/or fibroproliferative repair have not been fully defined. We demonstrated that CHI3L1 levels were elevated in patients with IPF. High levels of CHI3L1 are associated with progression-as defined by lung transplantation or death-and with scavenger receptor-expressing circulating monocytes in an ambulatory IPF population. In preterminal acute exacerbations of IPF, CHI3L1 levels were reduced and associated with increased levels of apoptosis. We also demonstrated that in bleomycin-treated mice, CHI3L1 expression was acutely and transiently decreased during the injury phase and returned toward and eventually exceeded baseline levels during the fibrotic phase. In this model, CHI3L1 played a protective role in injury by ameliorating inflammation and cell death, and a profibrotic role in the repair phase by augmenting alternative macrophage activation, fibroblast proliferation, and matrix deposition. Using three-dimensional culture system of a human fibroblast cell line, we found that CHI3L1 is sufficient to induce low grade myofibroblast transformation. In combination, these studies demonstrate that CHI3L1 is stimulated in IPF, where it represents an attempt to diminish injury and induce repair. They also demonstrate that high levels of CHI3L1 are associated with disease progression in ambulatory patients and that a failure of the CHI3L1 antiapoptotic response might contribute to preterminal disease exacerbations.
    Science translational medicine 06/2014; 6(240):240ra76. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal progressive disease with no effective therapy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has long been regarded as a central mediator of tissue fibrosis that involves multiple organs including skin, liver, kidney, and lung. Thus, TGF-β1 and its signaling pathways have been attractive therapeutic targets for the development of antifibrotic drugs. However, the essential biological functions of TGF-β1 in maintaining normal immune and cellular homeostasis significantly limit the effectiveness of TGF-β1-directed therapeutic approaches. Thus, targeting downstream mediators or signaling molecules of TGF-β1 could be an alternative approach that selectively inhibits TGF-β1-stimulated fibrotic tissue response while preserving major physiological function of TGF-β1. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that TGF-β1 crosstalk with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by induction of amphiregulin, a ligand of EGFR, plays a critical role in the development or progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, chitotriosidase, a true chitinase in humans, has been identified to have modulating capacity of TGF-β1 signaling as a new biomarker and therapeutic target of scleroderma-associated pulmonary fibrosis. These newly identified modifiers of TGF-β1 effector function significantly enhance the effectiveness and flexibility in targeting pulmonary fibrosis in which TGF-β1 plays a significant role.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 05/2014; 29(3):281-290.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been found in various ocular tissues; the activity of PAF depends on the binding to its specific receptor, PAF-receptor. We investigated the therapeutic effects of PAF-receptor antagonists (CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B) on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). Methods: CNV was induced by applying a 0.2 N sodium hydroxide (3 µl, NaOH) solution directly on mice corneas. CV-3988 (1 mM/10 µl) and Ginkgolide B (1 mM/10 µl) were administered topically on the corneas three times daily for three consecutive days. CNV was evaluated under a slit-lamp microscope. Corneas were processed for histological, immunohistochemical and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used for the migration and tube formation assay. Results: Application of CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B inhibited CNV caused by alkali burn. CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B attenuated the expression of PAF-receptor mRNA. Alkali injury induced a massively increased intraocular mRNA expression of an angiogenic factor in cornea tissues, whereas these increments were attenuated by the application of CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B. Conclusions: CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B reversed opacity and neovascularization in alkali burn-induced corneas. Our findings suggest that CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B may be therapeutically useful in the treatment of CNV and inflammation.
    Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 04/2014; · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A well-recognized natural ligand of PPARγ, 15-deoxy-δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) possesses immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether 15d-PGJ2 was able to attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which are involved in ocular immune responses. In addition, we examined whether the platelet activating factor (PAF) is associated with the anti-inflammatory activity of 15d-PGJ2. ARPE19 cells treated with varying concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 and a PAF antagonist (CV3988) were used in this study. The activity of PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) was assayed by treatment with 15d-PGJ2 and CV3988 in the presence of LPS. 15d-PGJ2 and CV3988 inhibited the LPS-induced mRNA expression and protein production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in ARPE19 cells. These effects resulting from 15d-PGJ2 were not abrogated by the PPARγ antagonist, indicating that the actions were PPARγ-independent. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ2 and CV3988 enhanced the PAF-AH activity. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 inhibited the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). These results demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 reduced LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in ARPE19 cells by enhancing the PAH-AH activity. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ2 may have potent anti-inflammatory activity against ocular inflammation.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 12/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the 18 glycosyl hydrolase (GH 18) gene family have been conserved over species and time and are dysregulated in inflammatory, infectious, remodeling, and neoplastic disorders. This is particularly striking for the prototypic chitinase-like protein chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3l1), which plays a critical role in antipathogen responses where it augments bacterial killing while stimulating disease tolerance by controlling cell death, inflammation, and remodeling. However, receptors that mediate the effects of GH 18 moieties have not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that Chi3l1 binds to interleukin-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) and that Chi3l1, IL-13Rα2, and IL-13 are in a multimeric complex. We also demonstrate that Chi3l1 activates macrophage mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/AKT, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling and regulates oxidant injury, apoptosis, pyroptosis, inflammasome activation, antibacterial responses, melanoma metastasis, and TGF-β1 production via IL-13Rα2-dependent mechanisms. Thus, IL-13Rα2 is a GH 18 receptor that plays a critical role in Chi3l1 effector responses.
    Cell Reports 08/2013; · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Although previous literature suggests that IL-13, a T helper type 2 cell effector cytokine, might be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH), direct proof is lacking. Further, a potential mechanism underlying IL-13-induced PH has never been explored. Objective: This study's goal was to investigate the role and mechanism of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of PH. Methods and Results: Lung-specific IL-13 overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice were examined for hemodynamic changes and pulmonary vascular remodeling. IL-13 Tg mice spontaneously developed PH phenotype by the age of 2 months with increased the expression and activity of arginase 2 (Arg2). The role of Arg2 in the development of IL-13-stimulated PH was further investigated using Arg2 and IL-13Rα2 null mutant mice and siRNA silencing approach in vivo and in vitro, respectively. IL-13-stimulated medial thickening of pulmonary arteries and RV systolic pressure were significantly decreased in the IL-13 Tg mice with Arg2 null mutation. On the other hand, the production of NO was further increased in the lungs of these mice. In our in vitro evaluations, the recombinant IL-13 treatment significantly enhanced the proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hpaSMC) in an Arg2 and dependent manner. The IL-13-stimulated cellular proliferation and the expression of Arg2 in hpaSMC were markedly decreased with IL-13Rα2 siRNA silencing. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that IL-13 contributes to the development of PH via an IL-13Rα2-Arg2 dependent pathway. The intervention of this pathway could be a potential therapeutic target in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 11/2012; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysregulated amphiregulin (AR) expression and EGFR activation have been described in animal models of pulmonary fibrosis and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact role of AR in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis has not been clearly defined. Here, we show that a potent pro-fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 significantly induced the expression of AR in lung fibroblasts in vitro and in murine lungs in vivo. AR stimulated NIH3T3 fibroblast cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing of AR expression by siRNA or chemical inhibition of EGFR signaling, utilizing AG1478 and Gefitinib, significantly reduced the ability of TGF-β1 to stimulate fibroblast proliferation and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen, and other extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes. TGF-β1-stimulated activation of Akt, Erk, and Smad signaling was also significantly inhibited by these interventions. Consistent with these in vitro findings, AR expression was impressively increased in the lungs of TGF-β1 transgenic mice, and either siRNA silencing of AR or chemical inhibition of EGFR signaling significantly reduced TGF-β1-stimulated collagen accumulation in the lung. These studies showed a novel regulatory role for AR in the pathogenesis of TGF-β1-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, these studies suggest that AR, or AR-activated EGFR signaling, is a potential therapeutic target for IPF associated with TGF-β1 activation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) with pulmonary fibrosis is an important manifestation in systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) where it portends a poor prognosis. However, biomarkers that predict the development and or severity of SSc-ILD have not been validated, and the pathogenetic mechanisms that engender this pulmonary response are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate in two different patient cohorts that the levels of chitotriosidase (Chit1) bioactivity and protein are significantly increased in the circulation and lungs of SSc patients compared with demographically matched controls. We also demonstrate that, compared with patients without lung involvement, patients with ILD show high levels of circulating Chit1 activity that correlate with disease severity. Murine modeling shows that in comparison with wild-type mice, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis was significantly reduced in Chit1⁻/⁻ mice and significantly enhanced in lungs from Chit1 overexpressing transgenic animals. In vitro studies also demonstrated that Chit1 interacts with TGF-β1 to augment fibroblast TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 expression and TGF-β-induced Smad and MAPK/ERK activation. These studies indicate that Chit1 is potential biomarker for ILD in SSc and a therapeutic target in SSc-associated lung fibrosis and demonstrate that Chit1 augments TGF-β1 effects by increasing receptor expression and canonical and noncanonical TGF-β1 signaling.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2012; 189(5):2635-44. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane), belonging to a family of natural compounds that are abundant in broccoli, has received significant therapeutic interest in recent years. However, the molecular basis of its effects remains to be elucidated. In this study, we attempt to determine whether sulforaphane regulates the inflammatory response in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized with OVA, treated with sulforaphane, and then challenged with OVA. Sulforaphane administration significantly alleviated the OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine. Additionally, sulforaphane suppressed the increase in the levels of SOCS-3 and GATA-3 and IL-4 expression in the OVA-challenged mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that sulforaphane regulates Th2 immune responses. This sutdy provides novel insights into the regulatory role of sulforaphane in allergen-induced Th2 inflammation and airway responses, which indicates its therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases.
    BMB reports 05/2012; 45(5):311-6. · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and airway and vascular remodeling. However, the mechanisms that lead to these diverse alterations have not been defined. We hypothesized that IL-18 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. We generated and characterized lung-specific, inducible IL-18 transgenic mice. Here we demonstrate that the expression of IL-18 in the mature murine lung induces inflammation that is associated with the accumulation of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD19(+), and NK1.1(+) cells; emphysema; mucus metaplasia; airway fibrosis; vascular remodeling; and right ventricle cardiac hypertrophy. We also demonstrate that IL-18 induces type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines with IFN-γ-inhibiting macrophage, lymphocyte, and eosinophil accumulation while stimulating alveolar destruction and genes associated with cell cytotoxicity and IL-13 and IL-17A inducing mucus metaplasia, airway fibrosis, and vascular remodeling. We also highlight interactions between these responses with IL-18 inducing IL-13 via an IL-17A-dependent mechanism and the type 1 and type17/type 2 responses counterregulating each another. These studies define the spectrum of inflammatory, parenchymal, airway, and vascular alterations that are induced by pulmonary IL-18; highlight the similarities between these responses and the lesions in COPD; and define the selective roles that type 1, type 2, and type 17 responses play in the generation of IL-18-induced pathologies.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/2012; 185(11):1205-17. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In asthma, T helper 2 (T(H)2)-type cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are produced by activated CD4(+) T cells. Dendritic cells played an important role in determining the fate of naive T cells into either T(H)1 or T(H)2 cells. We determined whether RG-II regulates the T(H)1/T(H)2 immune response by using an ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma. RG-II reduced IL-4 production but increased interferon- gamma production, and inhibited GATA-3 gene expression. RG-II also inhibited asthmatic reactions including an increase in the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, an increase in inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissues, airway luminal narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. This study provides evidence that RG-II plays a critical role in ameliorating the pathogenic process of asthmatic inflammation in mice. These findings provide new insights into the immunotherapeutic role of RG-II in terms of its effects in a murine model of asthma.
    BMB reports 02/2012; 45(2):79-84. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The downstream of kinase (DOK)-1 is involved in the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) pathway in mast cells, but the role of DOK-1 in the pathogenesis of asthma has not been defined. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel regulatory role of DOK-1 in airway inflammation and physiologic responses in a murine model of asthma using lentiviral vector containing DOK-1 cDNA or DOK-1-specific ShRNA. The OVA-induced inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 cytokine expression, and mucus response were significantly reduced in DOK-1 overexpressing mice compared to OVA-challenged control mice. The transgenic introduction of DOK-1 significantly stimulated the activation and expression of STAT-4 and T-bet, while impressively inhibiting the activation and expression of STAT-6 and GATA-3 in airway epithelial cells. On the other hand, DOK-1 knockdown mice enhanced STAT-6 expression and its nuclear translocation compared to OVA-challenged control mice. When viewed in combination, our studies demonstrate DOK-1 regulates allergen-induced Th2 immune responses by selective stimulation and inhibition of STAT-4 and STAT-6 signaling pathways, respectively. These studies provide a novel insight on the regulatory role of DOK-1 in allergen-induced Th2 inflammation and airway responses, which has therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34554. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Life Science. 11/2011; 21(11):1573-1578.

Publication Stats

956 Citations
195.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Busan Veterans Hospital
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Yale University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Pusan National University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Microbiology
      • • Division of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • College of Medicine
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2008–2011
    • Chosun University
      • • Department of Biology
      • • Department of Marine Life Sciences
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Chungnam National University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2006–2007
    • Cheju Halla University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea