Sergio Rosales-Mendoza

Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

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Publications (36)118.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The high demand for less polluting, newer, and cheaper fuel resources has increased the search of the most innovative options for the production of the so-called biofuels. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic unicellular algae with multiple biotechnological advantages such as easy handling in the laboratory, a simple scale-up to industrial levels, as well as a feasible genetic modification at nuclear and chloroplast levels. Besides, its fatty acids can be used to produce biofuels. Previous studies in plants have found that the over expression of DOF-type transcription factor genes increases the synthesis and the accumulation of total lipids in seeds. In this context, the over-expression of a DOF-type transcription factor in C.reinhardtii was applied as approach to increase the amount of lipids. The results indicate higher amounts (around 2-fold) of total lipids, which are mainly fatty acids, in the genetically C. reinhardtii modified strains when compared with the non-genetically modified strain. In order to elucidate the possible function of the introduced Dof-type transcription factor, we performed a transcription profile of 8 genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and 6 genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis, by quantitative real time (qRT-PCR). Differential expression profile was observed, which can explain the increase in lipid accumulation. However, these strains did not show notable changes in the fatty acid profile. This work represents an early effort in generating a strategy to increase fatty acids production in C.reinhardtii and their use in biofuel synthesis.
    Journal of biotechnology. 05/2014;
  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Jorge A Salazar-González
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    ABSTRACT: Genetically engineered plants can be used for the biomanufacture and delivery of oral vaccines. Although a myriad of antigens have been produced using this approach, improving our knowledge of their oral immunogenic properties is a priority as this aspect has not been well researched. Some studies have provided evidence of a higher immunogenic activity for antigens that were orally administered in the form of plant-based vaccines in comparison with conventional pure antigens. The characteristics of the plant-derived vaccines that may influence oral immunogenicity are identified and discussed in this review. Among the hypotheses explaining these immunogenic properties are the following: bioencapsulation favors antigen uptake and displays a resistance to degradation; plant metabolites exert adjuvant activity; plant compounds, such as polysaccharides, exert mucoadhesive properties; differential glycosylation conferred by the plant cell machinery enhances immunogenicity. Perspectives on how these hypotheses may be assessed are examined.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 04/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plants are considered advantageous platforms for biomanufacturing recombinant vaccines. This constitutes a field of intensive research and some plant-derived vaccines are expected to be marketed in the near future. In particular, plant-based production of immunogens targeting molecules with implications on the pathology of Alzheimer's has been explored over the last decade. These efforts involve targeting amyloid beta and β-secretase with several immunogen configurations that have been evaluated in test animals. The results of these developments are analyzed in this review. Perspectives on the topic are identified, such as exploring additional antigen configurations and adjuvants in order to improve immunization schemes, characterizing in detail the elicited immune responses, and immunological considerations in the achievement of therapeutic humoral responses via mucosal immunization. Safety concerns related to these therapies will also be discussed.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 01/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The moss Physcomitrella patens has a number of advantages for the production of biopharmaceuticals, including: i) availability of standardized conditions for cultivation in bioreactors; ii) not being part of the food chain; iii) high biosafety; iv) availability of highly efficient transformation methods; v) a haploid, fully sequenced genome providing genetic stability and uniform expression; vi) efficient gene targeting at the nuclear level allows for the generation of mutants with specific post-translational modifications (e.g., glycosylation patterns); and vii) oral formulations are a viable approach as no toxic effects are attributed to ingestion of this moss. In the light of this panorama, this opinion paper analyzes the possibilities of using P. patens for the production of oral vaccines and presents some specific cases where its use may represent significant progress in the field of plant-based vaccine development. The advantages represented by putative adjuvant effects of endogenous secondary metabolites and producing specific glycosylation patterns are highlighted.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 01/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high demand for less polluting, newer, and cheaper fuel resources has increased the search of the most innovative options for the production of the so-called biofuels. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic unicellular algae with multiple biotechnological advantages such as easy handling in the laboratory, a simple scale-up to industrial levels, as well as a feasible genetic modification at nuclear and chloroplast levels. Besides, its fatty acids can be used to produce biofuels. Previous studies in plants have found that the over expression of DOF-type transcription factor genes increases the synthesis and the accumulation of total lipids in seeds. In this context, the over-expression of a DOF-type transcription factor in C. reinhardtii was applied as approach to increase the amount of lipids. The results indicate higher amounts (around 2-fold) of total lipids, which are mainly fatty acids, in the genetically C. reinhardtii modified strains when compared with the non-genetically modified strain. In order to elucidate the possible function of the introduced Dof-type transcription factor, we performed a transcription profile of 8 genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and 6 genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis, by quantitative real time (qRT-PCR). Differential expression profile was observed, which can explain the increase in lipid accumulation. However, these strains did not show notable changes in the fatty acid profile. This work represents an early effort in generating a strategy to increase fatty acids production in C. reinhardtii and their use in biofuel synthesis.
    Journal of Biotechnology. 01/2014; 184:27–38.
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    ABSTRACT: The development of a vaccine is still a priority in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Since conventional vaccine strategies have failed to provide a highly immunoprotective effect, approaches based on the rational design of vaccines composed of multiple HIV neutralizing epitopes have been proposed as potential vaccines. The aim of this study is to design a multiepitopic protein (Multi-HIV) carrying several neutralizing epitopes from both gp120 and gp41 as an effort to develop a new broad immunization scheme against HIV. This Multi-HIV was initially produced in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain either as a single protein or fused to glutathione-S-transferase. These proteins were purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and shown to be antigenic by positive reactivity in Western blot analyses using sera from HIV-positive patients for labeling. Since global immunization strategies are often limited by costs, platforms that require minimal processing are the priority in this field. Therefore, we explored the possibility of using transplastomic tobacco plants as an experimental model of a low cost plant-based vaccine against HIV. Transplastomic tobacco plants carrying the multi-HIV gene were developed and verified by PCR analyses. The expected Multi-HIV recombinant protein was localized in the chloroplast as proven first by confocal microscopy and subsequently by Western blot analysis. Tobacco-derived Multi-HIV protein was clearly able to evoke humoral responses in mice when orally administered without adjuvants. This report constitutes an effort to explore a new low-cost candidate that could have future implications on the development of affordable HIV vaccines.
    Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 01/2014; · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to traditional pharmacological treatments for hypertension, immunotherapies serve as promising alternatives as they are low-cost and afford better patient compliance. In this study, a chimeric protein targeting Angiotensin II via genetic fusion to a nucleocapsid antigen from Hepatitis B virus (HBcAg), serving as a carrier, is designed. This candidate immunogen designated as HBcAgII has been expressed in the alga specie Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, serving as an attractive vaccine expression system and delivery host. This alga can be grown on minimal media under controlled environmental conditions, and can serve as a safe oral delivery vehicle. Transgenic C. reinhardtii lines have been developed, and the expected recombinant protein has been detected by Western blot and ELISA analyses. Levels of expression of this recombinant protein in some transgenic lines have reached 0.05 % of total soluble protein. The immunogenic properties of the HBcAgII algae-derived antigen will be assessed.
    Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 01/2014; · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
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    ABSTRACT: Besides serving as a valuable model in biological sciences, Chamydomonas reinhardtii has been used during the last decade in the biotechnology arena to establish models for the low cost production of vaccines. Antigens from various pathogens including Plasmodium falciparum, foot and mouth disease virus, Staphylococcus aureus, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) as well as some auto-antigens, have been produced in C. reinhardtii. Although some of them have been functionally characterized with promising results, this review identifies future directions for the advancement in the exploitation of this robust and safe vaccine production platform. The present analysis reflects that important immunological implications exist for this system and remain unexplored, including the possible adjuvant effects of algae biomolecules, the effect of bioencapsulation on immunogenicity and the possible development of whole-cell vaccines as an approach to trigger cytotoxic immune responses. Recently described molecular strategies that aim to optimize the expression of nuclear-encoded target antigens are also discussed.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2013; 12(9):1011-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elicitation of broad humoral immune responses is a critical factor in the development of effective HIV vaccines. In an effort to develop low-cost candidate vaccines based on multiepitopic recombinant proteins, this study has been undertaken to assess and characterize the immunogenic properties of a lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 multiepitopic protein. This protein consists of V3 loops corresponding to five different HIV isolates, including MN, IIIB, RF, CC, and RU. In this study, both Escherichia coli and lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 have elicited local and systemic immune responses when orally administered to BALB/c mice. More importantly, lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 has shown a higher immunogenic potential than that of E. coli-derived C4(V3)6. Moreover, when reactivity of sera from mice immunized with C4(V3)6 are compared with those elicited by a chimeric protein carrying a single V3 sequence, broader responses have been observed. The lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 has elicited antibodies with positive reactivity against V3 loops from isolates MN, RF, and CC. In addition, splenocyte proliferation assays indicate that significant T-helper responses are induced by the C4(V3)6 immunogen. Taken together, these findings account for the observed elicitation of broader humoral responses by the C4(V3)6 multiepitopic protein. Moreover, they provide further validation for the production of multiepitopic vaccines in plant cells as this serves not only as a low-cost expression system, but also as an effective delivery vehicle for orally administered immunogens.
    Planta 07/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Jorge Alberto Salazar-González, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
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    ABSTRACT: Alternatives to pharmacological treatments for atherosclerosis are highly desirable in terms of cost and compliance. During the last two decades several vaccination strategies have been reported as an effort to develop immunotherapeutic treatments. This approach consists on eliciting immune responses able to modulate either the atherosclerosis-associated inflammatory processes or the activity of some physiological mechanisms that are up-regulated under this pathologic condition. In particular, the apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) and the cholesterilester transferase protein (CETP) have been targeted in these strategies. It is considered that recent progress in the development of experimental models of oral vaccines against atherosclerosis has opened a new avenue in the field: as plant-based vaccines are considered a viable platform for vaccine production and delivery at low costs, they could serve as an oral-delivered therapeutic approach for atherosclerosis in an economical and patient-friendly manner. The rationale of the design, development and evaluation of possible plant-based vaccines against atherosclerosis is discussed in this review. We identify within this approach a significant trend that will positively impact the field of atherosclerosis vaccination.
    Vaccine 01/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) impair the lives of 1 billion people worldwide, and threaten the health of millions more. Although vaccine candidates have been proposed to prevent some NTDs, no vaccine is available at the market yet. Vaccines against NTDs should be low-cost and needle-free to reduce the logistic cost of their administration. Plant-based vaccines meet both requirements: plant systems allow antigen production at low cost, and also yield an optimal delivery vehicle that prevents or delays digestive hydrolysis of vaccine antigens. This review covers recent reports on the development of plant-based vaccines against NTDs. Efforts conducted by a number of research groups to develop vaccines as a mean to fight rabies, cysticercosis, dengue, and helminthiasis are emphasized. Future perspectives are identified, such as the need to develop vaccination models for more than ten pathologies through a plant-based biotechnological approach. Current limitations on the method are also noted, and molecular approaches that might allow us to address such limitations are discussed.
    Vaccine 11/2012; · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccines against hypertension constitute a viable approach to decrease blood pressure. In particular, two vaccines against hypertension (HP) targeting angiotensin II (AgII) have showed promising results and these are currently on evaluation in clinical trials. In parallel, plant-based vaccines have become a biotechnological application that has been assessed in clinical trials for some cases. This report proposes a hypothesis that involves developing a plant-based vaccine against HP. It is hypothesized that a plant-based vaccine having AgII or its AT1 receptor (ATR1) as targets, constitutes a safe, suitable and efficient therapeutic approach for HP. It is known that a number of carrier proteins can be produced in plants retaining its adjuvanticity. Therefore the production in plants of chimeric proteins where either AgII or ATR1 domains are fused to these carriers would be a promising approach to be investigated. Mucosal immunization using plant-derived AgII/ATR1 chimeric proteins would imply several advantages such as low cost and friendly delivery. However due to the lack of a detailed knowledge on the physiological role of AgII at the gastrointestinal tract, the effects of partially blocking the AgII action must be extensively evaluated. An alternative related to this aspect would be the use of transient expression systems where productivity is sufficiently high to allow the purification of the antigen of interest at convenient yields, so that it can constitute a parenteral vaccine. Proving the concept for a plant-based vaccine against HP may have profound implications on the development of a new HP therapy which offers convenient features such as low cost and easier compliance in comparison to pharmacological treatment.
    Medical Hypotheses 08/2012; 79(5):555-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious disease of swine and contributes to severe worldwide economic losses in swine production. Current vaccines against PRRS rely on the use of an attenuated-live virus; however, these are unreliable. Thus, alternative effective vaccines against PRRS are needed. Plant-based subunit vaccines offer viable, safe, and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional vaccines. In this study, efforts have been undertaken to develop a soybean-based vaccine against PRRSV. A construct carrying a synthesized PRRSV-ORF7 antigen, nucleocapsid N protein of PRRSV, has been introduced into soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. cvs. Jack and Kunitz, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants carrying the sORF7 transgene have been successfully generated. Molecular analyses of T(0) plants confirmed integration of the transgene and transcription of the PRRSV-ORF7. Presence of a 15-kDa protein in seeds of T(1) transgenic lines was confirmed by Western blot analysis using PRRSV-ORF7 antisera. The amount of the antigenic protein accumulating in seeds of these transgenic lines was up to 0.65% of the total soluble protein (TSP). A significant induction of a specific immune response, both humoral and mucosal, against PRRSV-ORF7 was observed following intragastric immunization of BALB/c female mice with transgenic soybean seeds. These findings provide a 'proof of concept', and serve as a critical step in the development of a subunit plant-based vaccine against PRRS.
    Planta 03/2012; 235(3):513-22. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide, attempts to develop an effective vaccine remain elusive. Designing recombinant proteins capable of eliciting significant and protective mammalian immune responses remain a priority. Moreover, large-scale production of proteins of interest at affordable cost remains a challenge for modern biotechnology. In this study, a synthetic gene encoding a C4V3 recombinant protein, known to induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mammalian systems, has been introduced into tobacco chloroplasts to yield high levels of expression. Integration of the transgene into the tobacco plastome has been verified by Southern blot hybridization. The recombinant C4V3 protein is also detected in tobacco chloroplasts by confocal microscopy. Reactivity of the heterologous protein with both an anti-C4V3 rabbit serum as well as sera from HIV positive patients have been assayed using Western blots. When administered by the oral route in a four-weekly dose immunization scheme, the plant-derived C4V3 has elicited both systemic and mucosal antibody responses in BALB/c mice, as well as CD4+ T cell proliferation responses. These findings support the viability of using plant chloroplasts as biofactories for HIV candidate vaccines, and could serve as important vehicles for the development of a plant-based candidate vaccine against HIV.
    Plant Molecular Biology 03/2012; 78(4-5):337-49. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetically engineered plants are economical platforms for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins and have been used over the last 21 years as models for oral vaccines against a wide variety of human infectious and autoimmune diseases with promising results. The main inherent advantages of this approach consist in the absence of purification needs and easy production and administration. One relevant infectious agent is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), since AIDS evolved as an alarming public health problem implicating very high costs for government agencies in most African and developing countries. The design of an effective and inexpensive vaccine able to limit viral spread and neutralizing the viral entry is urgently needed. Due to the limited efficacy of the vaccines assessed in clinical trials, new HIV vaccines able to generate broad immune profiles are a priority in the field. This review discusses the current advances on the topic of using plants as alternative expression systems to produce functional vaccine components against HIV, including antigens from Env, Gag and early proteins such as Tat and Nef. Ongoing projects of our group based on the expression of chimeric proteins comprising C4 and V3 domains from gp120, as an approach to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies are mentioned. The perspectives of the revised approaches, such as the great need of assessing the oral immunogenicity and a detailed immunological characterization of the elicited immune responses, are also discussed.
    Plant Cell Reports 12/2011; 31(3):495-511. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has many advantages compared with traditional systems for the molecular farming of recombinant proteins. These include low production costs, rapid scalability at pilot level, absence of human pathogens and the ability to fold and assemble complex proteins accurately. Currently, the successful expression of several proteins with pharmaceutical relevance has been reported from the nuclear and the chloroplastic genome of this alga, demonstrating its usefulness for biotechnological applications. However, several factors affect the level of recombinant protein expression in Chlamydomonas such as enhancer elements, codon dependency, sensitivity to proteases and transformation-associated genotypic modification. The present review outlines a number of strategies to increase protein yields and summarizes recent achievements in algal protein production including biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines, antibodies, hormones and enzymes with implications on health-related approaches. The current status of bioreactor developments for algal culture and the challenges of scale-up and optimization processes are also discussed.
    Plant Cell Reports 11/2011; 31(3):479-94. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic engineering revolutionized the concept of traditional vaccines since subunit vaccines became reality. Additionally, over the past two decades plant-derived antigens have been studied as potential vaccines with several advantages, including low cost and convenient administration. More specifically, genetic fusions allowed the expression of fusion proteins carrying two or more components with the aim to elicit immune responses against different targets, including antigens from distinct pathogens or strains. This review aims to provide an update in the field of the production of plant-based vaccine, focusing on those approaches based on the production of chimeric proteins comprising antigens from human pathogens, emphasizing the case of cholera toxin/E. coli enterotoxin fusions, chimeric viruses like particles approaches as well as the possible use of adjuvant-producing plants as expression hosts. Challenges for the near future in this field are also discussed.
    Plant Cell Reports 04/2011; 30(8):1367-82. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DPT vaccine, designed to immunize against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, has been shown to be effective in humans. Nevertheless, dissatisfaction with the whole-cell preparations is due to the reactogenicity, which has to lead to the development of new safer formulations. Previously, we described the expression in tomato of a plant-optimized synthetic gene encoding the recombinant polypeptide sDPT, containing mainly immunoprotective epitopes of the diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus exotoxins and two adjuvants. In this study, we examined whether the ingestion of tomato-derived sDPT protein induces specific antibodies in mice after three weekly doses scheme. A positive group immunized with DPT toxoids was included. Specific antibody levels were assessed in serum, gut and lung. Sera tested for IgG antibody response to pertussis, tetanus and diphtheria toxin showed responses to the foreign antigens; interestingly, the response to diphtheria epitope was similar to those observed in the positive group. We found higher IgG1 than IgG2a responses in serum. A modest IgG response was observed in the tracheopulmonary fluid. High response of IgA against tetanus toxin was evident in gut, which was statistically comparable to that obtained in the positive group. The levels of response in these groups were higher than those in mice that received wild-type tomato. These findings support the concept of using transgenic tomatoes expressing sDPT polypeptide as model for edible vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus.
    Plant Cell Reports 03/2011; 30(3):417-24. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in infants and for travelers. Inclusion of a heat-stable (ST) toxin into vaccine formulations is mandatory as most ETEC strains can produce both heat-labile (LT) and ST enterotoxins. In this study, a genetic fusion gene encoding for an LTB:ST protein has been constructed and transferred into tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying the LTB:ST gene are then subjected to GM1-ELISA revealing that the LTB:ST has assembled into pentamers and displays antigenic determinants from both LTB and ST. Protein accumulation of up to 0.05% total soluble protein is detected. Subsequently, mucosal and systemic humoral responses are elicited in mice orally dosed with transgenic tobacco leaves. This has suggested that the plant-derived LTB:ST is immunogenic via the oral route. These findings are critical for the development of a plant-based vaccine capable of eliciting broader protection against ETEC and targeting both LTB and ST. Features of this platform in comparison to transplastomic approaches are discussed.
    Plant Cell Reports 02/2011; 30(6):1145-52. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the protective F1 and V antigens of Yersinia pestis, as a fusion protein, in carrot was pursued in an effort to develop an alternative vaccine production system against the serious plague disease. Transgenic carrot plants carrying the F1-V encoding gene were developed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Presence, integration, and expression of the F1-V encoding gene were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA gel blot analysis, and reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses, respectively. An ELISA assay confirmed the antigenicity of the plant-derived F1-V fusion protein. Immunogenicity was evaluated subcutaneously in mice using a soluble protein extract of freeze-dried transgenic carrot. Significant antibody levels were detected following immunization. These results demonstrated that the F1-V protein could be expressed in carrot tap roots, and that the carrot F1-V recombinant protein retained its antigenicity and immunogenicity.
    Journal of plant physiology 01/2011; 168(2):174-80. · 2.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

254 Citations
118.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí
      • Facultad de Ciencias Químicas
      San Luis, San Luis Potosí, Mexico
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007–2012
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences
      Urbana, IL, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica
      San Luis, San Luis Potosí, Mexico