[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The widespread use of coronary stents has exposed a growing population to the risk of stent thrombosis, but the importance in terms of risk of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) remains unclear.
We studied five years follow-up data for 2,098 all-comer patients treated with coronary stents in the randomized SORT OUT II trial (mean age 63.6 yrs. 74.8% men). Patients who following stent implantation were readmitted with STEMI were included and each patient was categorized ranging from definite- to ruled-out stent thrombosis according to the Academic Research Consortium definitions. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on selected covariates to assess odds ratios (ORs) for definite stent thrombosis.
85 patients (4.1%), mean age 62.7 years, 77.1% men, were admitted with a total of 96 STEMIs, of whom 60 (62.5%) had definite stent thrombosis. Notably, definite stent thrombosis was more frequent in female than male STEMI patients (81.8% vs. 56.8%, p = 0.09), and in very late STEMIs (p = 0.06). Female sex (OR 3.53 [1.01-12.59]) and clopidogrel (OR 4.43 [1.03-19.01]) was associated with increased for definite stent thrombosis, whereas age, time since stent implantation, use of statins, initial PCI urgency (STEMI [primary PCI], NSTEMI/unstable angina [subacute PCI] or stable angina [elective PCI]), and glucose-lowering agents did not seem to influence risk of stent thrombosis.
In a contemporary cohort of coronary stented patients, stent thrombosis was evident in more than 60% of subsequent STEMIs.
PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113399. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In overweight-related hypertension, the effect of weight changes on blood pressure (BP) is believed to be mediated by insulin. To test this hypothesis, we studied 5-year changes in weight, BP, and insulin in a general population of Danish adults (n = 3443; mean age 45.7 ± 7.6 years).
Journal of Hypertension 11/2014; 32(11):2231-2237. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS).
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107294. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) values are considered to be lower than conventional BP values, but data on this relation among younger individuals <50 years are scarce. Conventional and 24-hour ambulatory BP were measured in 9550 individuals not taking antihypertensive treatment from 13 population-based cohorts. We compared individual differences between daytime ambulatory and conventional BP according to 10-year age categories. Age-specific prevalences of white coat and masked hypertension were calculated. Among individuals aged 18 to 30, 30 to 40, and 40 to 50 years, mean daytime BP was significantly higher than the corresponding conventional BP (6.0, 5.2, and 4.7 mm Hg for systolic; 2.5, 2.7, and 1.7 mm Hg for diastolic BP; all P<0.0001). In individuals aged 60 to 70 and ≥70 years, conventional BP was significantly higher than daytime ambulatory BP (5.0 and 13.0 mm Hg for systolic; 2.0 and 4.2 mm Hg for diastolic BP; all P<0.0001).The prevalence of white coat hypertension exponentially increased from 2.2% to 19.5% from those aged 18 to 30 years to those aged ≥70 years, with little variation between men and women (8.0% versus 6.1%; P=0.0003). Masked hypertension was more prevalent among men (21.1% versus 11.4%; P<0.0001). The age-specific prevalences of masked hypertension were 18.2%, 27.3%, 27.8%, 20.1%, 13.6%, and 10.2% among men and 9.0%, 9.9%, 12.2%, 11.9%, 14.7%, and 12.1% among women. In conclusion, this large collaborative analysis showed that the relation between daytime ambulatory and conventional BP strongly varies by age. These findings may have implications for diagnosing hypertension and its subtypes in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergy is a systemic inflammatory disease that could theoretically affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes through inflammatory pathways or mast cell-induced coronary spasm. Whether allergy is associated with an increased risk of CVD and diabetes is largely unknown. We investigated the association between atopy as assessed by IgE sensitization, a well-accepted biomarker of allergy, and incidence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes in five Danish population-based cohorts. A total of 14,849 participants were included in the study. Atopy was defined as serum-specific IgE positivity to inhalant allergens. The Danish National Diabetes Register enabled identification of incident diabetes. Likewise, the Danish Registry of Causes of Death and the Danish National Patient Register provided information on fatal and non-fatal ischemic heart disease and stroke. Data were analyzed by Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis and adjusted for study cohort, gender, education, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking habits, physical activity during leisure time, serum lipids, and blood pressure. The prevalence of atopy was 26.9 % (n = 3,994). There were 1,170, 817, and 1,063 incident cases of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, respectively (median follow-up 11.2 years). The hazard ratios, HRs (95 % confidence intervals, CIs) for atopics versus non-atopics: for ischemic heart disease (HR 1.00, 95 % CI 0.86, 1.16), stroke (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.99, 1.41), and diabetes (HR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.91, 1.23). Our results did not support the hypothesis that atopy is associated with higher risk of ischemic heart disease, stroke, or diabetes. However, a small-moderately increased risk cannot be excluded from our data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension.
We examined the associations between leptin, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years).
We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex, age, lifestyle risk factors, lipids, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, and in the incident model also baseline heart rate and blood pressure, only leptin of the three candidate intermediates was significantly associated with both prevalent and IHT [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.32, P = 0.002, and OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.54, P = 0.044] for one standard deviation increase in log-transformed leptin levels, respectively. Log-transformed CRP was associated with prevalent (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.26, P < 0.001) but not IHT (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14, P = 0.76). Log-transformed adiponectin was neither associated with prevalent nor IHT (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.87-1.02, P = 0.11 and OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.08, P = 0.33). Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of sex-specific BMI levels, there was an almost two-fold increase in IHT (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25, P = 0.023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%.
Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin must be involved in the pathogenesis of overweight-related hypertension.
Journal of Hypertension 05/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the associations between suPAR and diabetes, including diabetes duration and complications, in patients with type 1 diabetes.Design, setting and subjectsFrom 2009 to 2011, 667 patients with type 1 diabetes and 51 non-diabetic control subjects were included in a cross-sectional study at Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark. suPAR levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Main outcome measuresThe investigated diabetic complications were cardiovascular disease (CVD: previous myocardial infarction, revascularisation, peripheral arterial disease and stroke), autonomic dysfunction (heart rate variability during deep breathing <11 beats/min), albuminuria [urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) ≥30 mg/24 h] or a high degree of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity ≥10 m/s). Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, UAER, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, body mass index, C-reactive protein, antihypertensive treatment and smoking.ResultssuPAR levels were lower in control subjects versus all patients, in control subjects versus normoalbuminuric patients (UAER <30 mg/24 h) and in normoalbuminuric patients with short (<10 years) versus long diabetes duration, and were increased with degree of albuminuria (adjusted P < 0.001 for all). Furthermore, suPAR levels were higher in patients with versus without CVD (n = 144; 21.3%), autonomic dysfunction (n = 349; 59.2%), albuminuria (n = 357; 53.1%) and a high degree of arterial stiffness (n = 297; 47.2%) (adjusted P ≤ 0.024). The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) values per 1 ln unit increase in suPAR were: 2.5 (1.1–5.7) for CVD: 2.7 (1.2–6.2) for autonomic dysfunction; 3.8 (1.3–10.9) for albuminuria and 2.5 (1.1–6.1) for a high degree of arterial stiffness (P ≤ 0.039).Conclusion
The suPAR level is higher in patients with type 1 diabetes, and is associated with diabetes duration and complications independent of other risk factors. suPAR is a potential novel risk marker for the management of diabetes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Internal Medicine 05/2014; · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a characteristic feature of obesity, the most important lifestyle risk factor for hypertension. Elevated plasma concentrations of the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of hypertension, but elevated plasma CRP concentrations are also closely associated with obesity. It is uncertain whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension or is only a marker of other pathogenic processes closely related to obesity.
We studied 103 obese men (body mass index (BMI) ≥30.0kg/m(2)); 63 of these men had 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥130/80mm Hg and comprised the obese hypertensive (OHT) group. The 40 remaining obese men had 24-hour ABP <130/80mm Hg and comprised the obese normotensive (ONT) group. Our control group comprised 27 lean normotensive (LNT) men. All participants were medication-free. We measured plasma CRP concentrations with a high-sensitivity assay and determined body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning.
There were no differences in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, or total fat mass percentage) between OHT and ONT groups (P ≥ 0.08). The obese groups had higher CRP concentrations than the LNT group (OHT: median = 2.30, interquartile range (IQR) = 1.10-4.10mg/L; ONT: median = 2.55, IQR = 1.25-4.80mg/L; LNT: median = 0.60, IQR = 0.30-1.00mg/L; P < 0.001), but there was no difference in CRP concentrations between OHT and ONT groups (P = 1.00). In the obese men, CRP was not correlated with either 24-hour systolic (r = 0.04; P = 0.71) or 24-hour diastolic ABP (r = -0.03; P = 0.78).
Obese hypertensive men, matched for anthropometric measurements, have plasma CRP concentrations similar to those of obese normotensive men.
American Journal of Hypertension 03/2014; · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (<120/<80mm Hg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89mm Hg), and hypertension (≥140/≥90mm Hg).
To assess the potential differential contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in predicting risk across CBP strata, we analyzed outcomes in 7,826 untreated people recruited from 11 populations.
During an 11.3-year period, 809 participants died (276 cardiovascular deaths) and 639, 383, and 225 experienced a cardiovascular, cardiac, or cerebrovascular event. Compared with normotension (n = 2,639), prehypertension (n = 3,076) carried higher risk (P ≤ 0.015) of cardiovascular (+41%) and cerebrovascular (+92%) endpoints; compared with hypertension (n = 2,111) prehypertension entailed lower risk (P ≤ 0.005) of total mortality (-14%) and cardiovascular mortality (-29%) and of cardiovascular (-34%), cardiac (-33%), or cerebrovascular (-47%) events. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke associated with 24-hour and daytime diastolic ABP (+5mm Hg) were higher (P ≤ 0.045) in normotension than in prehypertension and hypertension (1.98 vs.1.19 vs.1.28 and 1.73 vs.1.09 vs. 1.24, respectively) with similar trends (0.03 ≤ P ≤ 0.11) for systolic ABP (+10mm Hg). However, HRs for fatal endpoints and cardiac events associated with ABP did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.13) across CBP categories. Of normotensive and prehypertensive participants, 7.5% and 29.3% had masked hypertension (daytime ABP ≥135/≥85mm Hg). Compared with true normotension (P ≤ 0.01), HRs for stroke were 3.02 in normotension and 2.97 in prehypertension associated with masked hypertension with no difference between the latter two conditions (P = 0.93).
ABP refines risk stratification in normotension and prehypertension mainly by enabling the diagnosis of masked hypertension.
American Journal of Hypertension 02/2014; · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate age-related shifts in the relative importance of SBP and DBP as predictors of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors.
Using 42 cohorts from the MORGAM Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 85 772 apparently healthy Europeans and Australians aged 19-78 years were included. During 13.3 years of follow-up, 9.2% died (of whom 7.2% died due to stroke and 21.1% due to coronary heart disease, CHD).
Mortality risk was analyzed using hazard ratios per 10-mmHg/5-mmHg increase in SBP/DBP by multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, including SBP and DBP simultaneously. Because of nonlinearity, SBP and DBP were analyzed separately for blood pressure (BP) values above and below a cut-point wherein mortality risk was the lowest. For the total population, significantly positive associations were found between stroke mortality and SBP [hazard ratio = 1.19 (1.13-1.25)] and DBP at least 78 mmHg [hazard ratio = 1.08 (1.02-1.14)], CHD mortality and SBP at least 116 mmHg [1.20 (1.16-1.24)], and all-cause mortality and SBP at least 120 mmHg [1.09 (1.08-1.11)] and DBP at least 82 mmHg [1.03 (1.02-1.05)]. BP values below the cut-points were inversely related to mortality risk. Taking into account the age × BP interaction, there was a gradual shift from DBP (19-26 years) to both DBP and SBP (27-62 years) and to SBP (63-78 years) as risk factors for stroke mortality and all-cause mortality, but not CHD mortality. The age at which the importance of SBP exceeded DBP was for stroke mortality influenced by sex, cholesterol, and country risk.
Age-related shifts to the superiority of SBP exist for stroke mortality and all-cause mortality, and for stroke mortality was this shift influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors.
Journal of Hypertension 02/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Millions of patients were treated with the sirolimus-eluting Cypher™ and the paclitaxel-eluting Taxus™ coronary stents with potential late occurring increase in event rates. Therefore, the long-term outcome follow up is of major clinical interest. Design. In total, 2.098 unselected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI, stable or unstable angina pectoris were randomized to receive Cypher™ (n = 1.065) or Taxus™ (n = 1.033) stents and were followed for 5 years. Results. The primary end-point; the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization (MACE), occurred in 467 patients (22.3%); Cypher™ n=222 (20.8%), Taxus™ n=245 (23.7%), ns. Definite and probable stent thrombosis occurred in 107 patients (5.1%); Cypher™ n=51 (4.8%), Taxus™ n=56 (5.4%), ns. There were no statistically significant differences in the elements of the primary endpoint or in other secondary endpoints between the two stent groups. After one year, the yearly rates of stent thrombosis and MACE remained constant. Conclusions. During five year follow up, the Cypher™ and the Taxus™ coronary stents had similar clinic outcome with no signs of increasing rates of adverse events over time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the putative associations of plasma copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin and a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, with obesity-related health problems, such as hyperlipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia, high blood pressure and an android fat distribution.
In 103 obese men (mean age ± standard deviation: 49.4 ± 10.2 years) and 27 normal weight control men (mean age: 51.5 ± 8.4 years), taking no medication, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of copeptin, lipids, glucose and insulin, and determined body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.
The obese men had higher [median (interquartile range)] plasma copeptin concentrations [6.6 (4.6-9.5) vs. 4.9 (3.5-6.8) pmol/l, P = 0.040] compared with the normal weight men. In the obese men, plasma copeptin was not related to 24-h systolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.29), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.28), BMI (r = 0.09, P = 0.37), total body fatness percentage (r = 0.10, P = 0.33), android fat mass percentage (r = 0.04, P = 0.66) or serum triglyceride concentrations (r = 0.04; P = 0.68). In contrast, plasma copeptin was associated with higher serum insulin concentrations (r = 0.26, P = 0.0085) and insulin resistance as assessed by the homeostasis assessment model (r = 0.28, P = 0.0051).
Plasma copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is higher in obese men compared with normal weight men, and is associated with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, but not with higher blood pressure or an android fat distribution in obese men. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP load as percentage (%) of systolic/diastolic readings ≥135/≥85 mm Hg and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg during day and night, respectively, or as the area under the BP curve (mm Hg×h) using the same ceiling values. During a period of 10.7 years (median), 1284 participants died and 1109 experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (P<0.001), but BP load did not substantially refine risk prediction based on 24-hour systolic or diastolic BP level (generalized R(2) statistic ≤0.294%; net reclassification improvement ≤0.28%; integrated discrimination improvement ≤0.001%). Systolic/diastolic BP load of 40.0/42.3% or 91.8/73.6 mm Hg×h conferred a 10-year risk of a composite cardiovascular end point similar to a 24-hour systolic/diastolic BP of 130/80 mm Hg. In analyses dichotomized according to these thresholds, increased BP load did not refine risk prediction in the whole study population (R(2)≤0.051) or in untreated participants with 24-hour ambulatory normotension (R(2)≤0.034). In conclusion, BP load does not improve risk stratification based on 24-hour BP level. This also applies to subjects with normal 24-hour BP for whom BP load was proposed to be particularly useful in risk stratification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overweight clusters with high blood pressure (BP), but the independent contribution of both risk factors remains insufficiently documented. In a prospective population study involving 8467 participants (mean age 54.6 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations, we studied the contribution of body mass index (BMI) to risk over and beyond BP, taking advantage of the superiority of ambulatory over conventional BP. Over 10.6 years (median), 1271 participants (15.0%) died and 1092 (12.9%), 637 (7.5%) and 443 (5.2%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac or cerebrovascular event. Adjusted for sex and age, low BMI (<20.7 kg m(-2)) predicted death (hazard ratio (HR) vs average risk, 1.52; P<0.0001) and high BMI (30.9 kg m(-2)) predicted the cardiovascular end point (HR, 1.27; P=0.006). With adjustments including 24-h systolic BP, these HRs were 1.50 (P<0.001) and 0.98 (P=0.91), respectively. Across quartiles of the BMI distribution, 24-h and nighttime systolic BP predicted every end point (1.13standardized HR 1.67; 0.046 P<0.0001). The interaction between systolic BP and BMI was nonsignificant (P0.22). Excluding smokers removed the contribution of BMI categories to the prediction of mortality. In conclusion, BMI only adds to BP in risk stratification for mortality but not for cardiovascular outcomes. Smoking probably explains the association between increased mortality and low BMI.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 16 January 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2013.145.
Journal of human hypertension 01/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence-based thresholds for risk stratification based on pulse pressure (PP) are currently unavailable. To derive outcome-driven thresholds for the 24-hour ambulatory PP, we analyzed 9938 participants randomly recruited from 11 populations (47.3% women). After age stratification (<60 versus ≥60 years) and using average risk as reference, we computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) to assess risk by tenths of the PP distribution or risk associated with stepwise increasing (+1 mm Hg) PP levels. All adjustments included mean arterial pressure. Among 6028 younger participants (68 853 person-years), the risk of cardiovascular (HR, 1.58; P=0.011) or cardiac (HR, 1.52; P=0.056) events increased only in the top PP tenth (mean, 60.6 mm Hg). Using stepwise increasing PP levels, the lower boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the successive thresholds did not cross unity. Among 3910 older participants (39 923 person-years), risk increased (P≤0.028) in the top PP tenth (mean, 76.1 mm Hg). HRs were 1.30 and 1.62 for total and cardiovascular mortality, and 1.52, 1.69, and 1.40 for all cardiovascular, cardiac, and cerebrovascular events. The lower boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the HRs associated with stepwise increasing PP levels crossed unity at 64 mm Hg. While accounting for all covariables, the top tenth of PP contributed less than 0.3% (generalized R(2) statistic) to the overall risk among the elderly. Thus, in randomly recruited people, ambulatory PP does not add to risk stratification below age 60; in the elderly, PP is a weak risk factor with levels below 64 mm Hg probably being innocuous.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:The aim was to examine the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a multiple instrument Mendelian randomization approach.Subjects/Methods:Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum total or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured in two Danish population-based studies: the Inter99 study (6405 adults, 30-60 years) conducted in 1999-2001, and the MONICA10 study (2656 adults, 41-71 years) conducted in 1993-1994.Results:In the Inter99 study, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with total adiponectin (the effect estimate in % per doubling of 25(OH)D was 4.78, 95% CI: 1.96, 7.68, P<0.001). Using variations in the vitamin D-binding protein gene and the filaggrin gene as instrumental variables, the causal effect in % was estimated to 61.46, 95% CI: 17.51, 120.28, P=0.003 higher adiponectin per doubling of 25(OH)D. In the MONICA10 cohort, no significant association was observed between the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and HMW adiponectin (the effect estimate in % per doubling of 25(OH)D was -1.51, 95% CI: -5.80, 2.98, P=0.50), although the instrumental variables analysis to some extent supported a positive causal association (the effect estimate in % per doubling of 25(OH)D was 37.13, 95% CI: -3.67, 95.20, P=0.080).Conclusions:The results indicate a possible causal association between serum 25(OH)D and total adiponectin. However, the association was not replicated for HMW adiponectin. Thus, further studies are needed to confirm a causal relationship.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 13 November 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.233.
European journal of clinical nutrition 11/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that obese persons have lower circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. The cause of the relative NP deficiency seen in obese persons is poorly understood, although variation in body composition and metabolic abnormalities has been suggested to play a role. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether variation in circulating NP concentrations would be associated with differences in metabolic disturbances rather than with differences in body composition.
In 27 normal weight men (body mass index (BMI) = 20.0-24.9kg/m(2)) and 103 obese men (BMI ≥ 30kg/m(2)), we determined body composition (total, android, and gynoid fat mass) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, and we measured fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose concentrations.
Mean weight ± SD was 74.9±6.7kg in the normal weight men and 106.1±10.8kg in obese men. Applying multiple regressions, adjusting for age and weight status (normal weight vs. obese), serum MR-proANP concentrations were significantly inversely associated with serum insulin concentrations (β = -0.39; P < 0.0001) and plasma glucose concentrations (β = -0.21; P = 0.02) but not with total (β = 0.00), android (β = -0.01), or gynoid (β = 0.03) fat mass percentage (P > 0.76). No significant interaction effects between metabolic measurements or body composition measurements and weight status on MR-proANP concentrations were found (P > 0.08).
In normal weight and obese men, lower circulating NP concentrations are associated with higher insulin and glucose concentrations and not with the proportion of total fat mass or the distribution of fat mass.
American Journal of Hypertension 09/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor