[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified a novel cancer-testis antigen, cell division cycle associated 1 (CDCA1) using genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis, and CDCA1-derived cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-epitopes. In this study, we attempted to identify CDCA1-derived long peptides (LPs) that induce both CD4+ helper T (Th) cells and CTLs. We combined information from a recently developed computer algorithm predicting HLA class II-binding peptides with CDCA1-derived CTL-epitope sequences presented by HLA-A2 (A*02:01) or HLA-A24 (A*24:02) to select candidate CDCA1-LPs encompassing both Th cell epitopes and CTL-epitopes. We studied the immunogenicity of CDCA1-LPs and the cross-priming potential of LPs bearing CTL-epitopes in both human in vitro and HLA-class I transgenic mice in vivo. Then we analyzed the Th cell response to CDCA1 in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients before and after vaccination with a CDCA1-derived CTL-epitope peptide using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assays. We identified two CDCA1-LPs, CDCA1(39–64)-LP and CDCA1(55–78)-LP, which encompass naturally processed epitopes recognized by Th cells and CTLs. CDCA1-specific CTLs were induced through cross-presentation of CDCA1-LPs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, CDCA1-specific Th cells enhanced induction of CDCA1-specific CTLs. Furthermore, significant frequencies of CDCA1-specific Th cell responses were detected after short-term in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with CDCA1-LPs in HNC patients (CDCA1(39–64)-LP, 74%; CDCA1(55–78)-LP, 68%), but not in healthy donors. These are the first results demonstrating the presence of CDCA1-specific Th cell responses in HNC patients and underline the possible utility of CDCA1-LPs for propagation of both CDCA1-specific Th cells and CTLs.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2014; 134(2):352-66. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To identify long peptides (LPs) derived from a novel tumor-associated antigen (TAA), kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A), which induce tumor-specific T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells and CTLs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We combined information from a recently developed computer algorithm predicting HLA class II-binding peptides with KIF20A-derived CTL-epitope sequences presented by HLA-A2 (A*02:01) or HLA-A24 (A*24:02) to select candidate promiscuous Th1 cell epitopes containing CTL-epitopes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from healthy donors or patients with head-and-neck malignant tumor (HNMT) were used to study the immunogenicity of KIF20A-LPs, and the in vitro cross-priming potential of KIF20A-LPs bearing CTL-epitopes. We used HLA-A24 transgenic mice to address whether vaccination with KIF20A-LP induces efficient cross-priming of CTLs in vivo. The Th1 cell response to KIF20A-LPs in HNMT patients receiving immunotherapy with TAA-derived CTL-epitope peptides was analyzed using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assays. RESULTS: We identified promiscuous KIF20A-LPs bearing naturally processed epitopes recognized by CD4(+) T-cells and CTLs. KIF20A-specific CTLs were induced by vaccination with a KIF20A-LP in vivo. KIF20A expression was detected in 55% of HNMT by immunohistochemistry, and significant frequencies of KIF20A-specific Th1 cell responses were detected after short-term in vitro stimulation of PBMCs with KIF20A-LPs in 50% of HNMT patients, but not in healthy donors. Furthermore, these responses were associated with KIF20A expression in HNMT tissues. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first results demonstrating the presence of KIF20A-specific Th1 cell responses in HNMT patients and underline the possible utility of KIF20A-LPs for propagation of Th1 cells and CTLs.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) is the most serious side effect of amiodarone. Although severe APT, such as ARDS, is rare, mortality of severe APT is high. Polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) is a medical device that reduces blood endotoxin levels in sepsis. Recent reports have shown that PMX-DHP improves oxygenation in patients with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and drug-induced severe interstitial pneumonia. Here, we present a case study of a patient with severe APT treated with PMX-DHP with complete recovery. The patient rapidly developed respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation. Despite corticosteroid pulse therapy, no clinical improvement was noted. PMX-DHP was then started, and severe respiratory failure improved with reduction of serum levels of amiodarone and its metabolite monodesethylamiodarone. The patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation and has done well without recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PMX-DHP therapy for severe APT. We speculate that PMX-DHP could be a new treatment strategy for severe APT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers are rarely subject to inflammatory disorders in multiple organs, other than the well-known complication, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). HTLV-1 associated bronchiolo-alveolar disorder (HABA) has been proposed as an immune mediated pulmonary reaction seen rarely in HTLV-1 carriers. The reported clinico-pathological patterns of HABA are diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP). We here report three cases of HTLV-1 carriers showing miliary micro-nodules throughout both lungs. Microscopic examination in the video assisted thoracic surgery biopsies demonstrated that all cases had multiple discrete micro-nodules which consisted of marked lymphoid infiltration, granulomas, eosinophils and a few foci of necrosis inside the granuloma. No findings indicating ATLL, other neoplastic conditions, infection or interstitial pneumonia, including DPB and LIP, were present following panels of special staining and immunohistochemical examinations. Two patients improved without treatment within one month, with no evidence of recurrence after 7 years. One patient showed slow deterioration of lung reticular shadows in spite of a low dose corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone 10 mg/day). We believe these cases may be a newly recognized variant of HABA.
Pathology International 02/2013; 63(2):108-12. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present 3 cases of rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia (RPIP) associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (C-ADM) that were treated with two courses of direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX-DHP). Despite initial treatment with high-dose corticosteroids, pulsed cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporine, the lung disease and hypoxemia deteriorated in all the patients. After PMX-DHP treatment, the PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio and serum LDH and KL-6 were improved, the abnormal shadows in chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans gradually decreased, and, finally, all patients survived. These findings indicate that PMX-DHP treatment could be effective in the management of RPIP in patients with C-ADM in combination with conventional therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with erlotinib-induced toxicity and the pharmacokinetics in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.
After erlotinib 150 mg was administered to 50 patients, ABCB1 polymorphisms were analyzed via either TaqMan(®) assays or direct nucleotide sequencing. Plasma concentrations were measured by HPLC.
The trough concentration at steady state in patients with the ABCB1 1236TT-2677TT-3435TT genotype was higher compared with others groups (p = 0.021) and patients carrying this genotype had a higher risk of developing higher grade 2 toxicity (p = 0.012).
The present study suggested that the ABCB1 1236TT-2677TT-3435TT genotype was associated with higher plasma concentration and the risk of developing higher toxicity in patients treated with erlotinib.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether the extent of fibroproliferative changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan influences prognosis, ventilator dependency and the associated outcomes in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
A prospective observational cohort study.
Intensive care unit in a teaching hospital.
85 patients with ARDS who met American-European Consensus Conference Criteria and eligible criteria.
HRCT scans were performed and prospectively evaluated by two independent observers on the day of diagnosis and graded into six findings according to the extent of fibroproliferation. An overall HRCT score was obtained by previously published method. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was 60-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included the number of ventilator-free days, organ failure-free days, the incidence of barotraumas and the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Higher HRCT scores were associated with statistically significant decreases in organ failure-free days as well as ventilator-free days. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that the HRCT score remained an independent risk factor for mortality (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.36; p=0.005). Multivariate analysis also revealed that the CT score had predictive value for ventilator weaning within 28 days (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.82; p=0.0006) as well as for an incidence of barotraumas (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.38; p=0.018) and for an occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.89; p=0.004). A HRCT score <210 enabled prediction of 60-day survival with 71% sensitivity and 72% specificity and of ventilator-weaning within 28 days with 75% sensitivity and 76% specificity.
Pulmonary fibroproliferation assessed by HRCT in patients with early ARDS predicts increased mortality with an increased susceptibility to multiple organ failure, including ventilator dependency and its associated outcomes.
BMJ Open 01/2012; 2(2):e000545. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an autopsy case of a patient with Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) who presented with rapid progressive pulmonary fibrosis following the onset of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) without cryoglobulinemia. Despite early and aggressive immunosuppressive therapy, pulmonary fibrosis progressed and the patient succumbed to his illness. An autopsy was performed and revealed DAH and interstitial pneumonia with a fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern. We could not find any previously-reported underlying causes of DAH. The findings from this case suggest that DAH can occur as a pulmonary manifestation of SjS as well as other connective tissue diseases or vasculitis.
Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(3):295-9. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancer was metastasized at the septal side of right atrium in 59-year-old woman who had undergone surgery for lung cancer 11 years ago. The cardiac metastasis was found by whole-body 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), and cytologically confirmed by myocardial aspiration biopsy with right heart catheterization. The patient was treated with 4 cycles of carboplatin/pemetrexed followed by maintenance therapy with pemetrexed. The metastatic cardiac tumor shrank, and the atrioventricular (AV) block in ECG was improved. In this case, FDG-PET and chemotherapy were valuable for diagnosis and treatment of cardiac metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer.
Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(14):1909-12. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of secondary amyloidosis with pleural involvement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. A 77-year-old man had received a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis 10 years previously. Bilateral pleural effusion of unknown etiology was noted 2 years prior to admission. A biopsy of the left pleura by video-assisted thoracic surgery did not reveal any evidence of the cause of his pleural effusion. The histological findings revealed chronic inflammation of the pleura on a hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stain, but treatment with an increased dose of corticosteroid did not improve his effusion. Right pneumothorax then developed. Based on the histological findings of a Congo red stain, the diagnosis was changed to pleural amyloidosis. An initial attempt at pleurodesis with OK-432 and a pleural patch with the patient's own blood was attempted but was not successful. Subsequently, pleurodesis with OK-432 and the patient's own blood improved his pleural effusion and pneumothorax. Pleural involvement in amyloidosis is extremely rare and is difficult to treat.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 12/2011; 49(12):897-902.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 41-year-old man with fever, diarrhea and skin rash received a diagnosis of drug-induced lupus. He was given corticosteroids for 3 months and was subsequently admitted to a local hospital due to dyspnea. Pneumonia was then diagnosed and he was given a new quinolone antibacterial agent. Despite this treatment, his symptoms and signs gradually worsened and he was referred to our hospital. High resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest showed diffuse ground-glass opacities, reticular shadows, parenchymal abnormalities, traction bronchiectasis, a subpleural curvilinear shadow and septal lines. Serological examinations were positive for anti-myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (MPO-ANCA) and subsequent HRCT findings were consistent with ANCA-related lung disease. However, the patient had complications such as previous syphilis infection, oral candidiasis, herpes zoster, hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus infection. Additionally, his serum was positive for HIV antibody and HIV-1 RNA, and therefore we diagnosed AIDS. His bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed Pneumocystis jirovecii. It is known that HIV infection is associated with many types of autoantibodies including MPO-ANCA. Therefore, in HIV/AIDS patients with interstitial lung diseases, it is important to differentiate opportunistic Pneumocystis pneumonia infection from collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial lung diseases.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 12/2011; 49(12):929-35.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 52-year-old man presented with a pulmonary bulky mass, fever and cough. Chest CT showed a necrotizing bulky mass 10 cm in diameter in the right lung lower lobe. Transbronchial biopsy and CT-guided biopsy of the tumor and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of the right hilar lymph node did not yield a definitive diagnosis, but the histological findings showed necrosis. We performed CT-guided biopsy of the part of the lesion where a high uptake of FDG-PET was observed. The histological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The immunohistochemical findings were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Because the patient was more than 50 years old and had no underlying diseases, he was given a diagnosis of EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of an elderly patient. The pulmonary manifestation of this disease as a bulky tumor is extremely rare. In spite of the presence of a bulky pulmonary tumor, the EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma contained necrotizing tissue, and it was difficult to obtain tissue specimens for histological examination.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 11/2011; 49(11):833-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 69-year-old asymptomatic woman was admitted because of an abnormal chest shadow. Chest X-ray films showed a tumorous shadow behind the heart. Chest CT scans showed an aberrant artery branching from the thoracic aorta and supplying the left basal segment, but the bronchial tree was normal. The left lung vein was normal but wide, and the left lower pulmonary artery could not be observed. Based on these findings, we diagnosed anomalous systemic arterial supply to the normal basal segment of the left lower lobe. Because this patient had a high risk of heart failure and pulmonary hypertension, we decided to perform a left lower lobectomy, but she refused the operation. As this disease is generally found in younger patients, diagnosis in older age, as in the present case, is rare. In this report we also summarize 39 other reports of this disease in Japan.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 07/2011; 49(7):528-33.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Galectin (Gal)-9 plays a crucial role in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity.
To investigate whether Gal-9 plays a role in a murine acute lung injury (ALI) model.
C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with Gal-9 by subcutaneous injection 24 and 48 hours before intranasal LPS inoculation.
Gal-9 suppressed pathological changes of ALI induced by LPS. Gal-9 reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and keratinocyte-derived cytokine; decreased neutrophils; and increased IL-10 and CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ALI mice. In Gal-9-deficient mice, pathological changes of ALI were exaggerated, and the number of neutrophils and the TNF-α level were increased. CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells were increased in the spleen of both Gal-9-treated and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated ALI mice, but only Gal-9 increased the ability of CCR2-expressing macrophages to migrate toward monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Transfer of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) macrophages obtained from Gal-9-treated mice ameliorated ALI. CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) macrophages obtained from Gal-9-treated but not PBS-treated mice suppressed TNF-α and keratinocyte-derived cytokine production from LPS-stimulated macrophages, and down-regulated Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and TLR2 expression on thioglycollate-elicited macrophages. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed that CD14 is negligible on CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) macrophages obtained from Gal-9-treated mice, although those from both groups resembled plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Gal-9 down-regulated CD14 on pDC-like macrophages from PBS-treated mice independently of Gal-9/Tim-3 (T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-containing molecule-3) interaction, resulting in the acquisition of suppressive function, suggesting that the loss of CD14 by Gal-9 is critical for the suppression of pDC-like macrophages.
Gal-9 attenuates ALI by expanding CD14(-)CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) pDC-like macrophages by preferentially suppressing macrophage functions to release proinflammatory cytokines through TLR4 and TLR2 down-regulation.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 05/2011; 184(3):328-39. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum levels of pneumocyte biomarkers KL-6 and surfactant protein D (SP-D) are useful diagnostic markers for interstitial lung diseases. However, associations of serum KL-6 and SP-D with radiologic findings in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) remain unclear.
To determine whether serum levels of KL-6 and SP-D reflect fibrotic and/or inflammatory processes in NSIP, we investigated the correlation between high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings and serum KL-6 and SP-D levels.
Serum levels of KL-6 and SP-D were measured in 21 patients with biopsy-confirmed NSIP. The radiographic extent of 6 HRCT patterns and total HRCT score, defined as the scored fibrotic index, were assessed. Changes in the levels of serum markers and CT findings during follow-up were also monitored. Results: Serum levels of KL-6 in NSIP positively correlated with the total HRCT score and overall extent of interstitial disease. Serum levels of SP-D in NSIP showed a positive correlation with the area of ground-glass attenuation without traction bronchiectasis and the inflammatory CT pattern, but the levels were inversely correlated with the area of ground-glass attenuation with traction bronchiectasis and the fibrotic CT pattern. The follow-up CT and serum marker changes after treatment showed that percent change of disease extent was reflected in both markers, especially KL-6. Further, the decreased fibrotic pattern correlated with both biomarkers.
The results indicate that serum levels of KL-6 in NSIP reflect the overall extent of interstitial lesions, which include both inflammatory and fibrotic lesions, while the levels of SP-D mainly reflect the extent of inflammatory lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 44-year-old man was admitted because he had a mass in the right upper lung field showing high uptake of FDG-PET. Although he had already received video-assisted thoracic surgery to remove the mass in another hospital, the procedure had been unsuccessful because of severe adhesion to the superior vena cava. The pathological diagnosis of a specimen obtained in surgery was pleomorphic carcinoma, clinical stage IIIb (c-T4N2M0). We performed concurrent chemoradiotherapy consisting of systemic chemotherapy twice with both cisplatin and vinorelbine, and radiation therapy (60Gy). The tumor size reduced by 46% immediately after chemoradiotherapy. Because there was still no evidence of distant metastasis, we performed a right upper lobectomy and resection of the superior vena cava to remove the tumor completely. We did not detect any microscopic cancer cells in the surgical specimens and the pathological diagnosis was complete response (CR). It is thought that chemotherapy and radiotherapy are ineffective for pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma. However, in this case, concurrent chemoradiotherapy with surgical therapy was highly effective and no recurrence has been observed 13 months after surgery.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 02/2011; 49(2):131-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study attempted to identify a useful tumor-associated antigen (TAA) for lung cancer immunotherapy and potential immunogenic peptides derived from the TAA. We focused on cell division cycle 45-like (CDC45L), which has a critical role in the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication, as a novel candidate TAA for immunotherapy based on a genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis of lung cancer. The CDC45L was overexpressed in the majority of lung cancer tissues, but not in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues or in many normal adult tissues. We examined the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) specific to CDC45L-derived peptides induced from HLA-A24 (A*24:02)-positive donors. We identified three CDC45L-derived peptides that could reproducibly induce CDC45L-specific and HLA-A24-restricted CTL from both healthy donors and lung cancer patients. The CTL could effectively lyse lung cancer cells that endogenously expressed both CDC45L and HLA-A24. In addition, we found that CDC45L (556) KFLDALISL(564) was eminent in that it induced not only HLA-A24 but also HLA-A2 (A*02:01)-restricted antigen specific CTL. Furthermore, the adoptive transfer of the CDC45L-specific CTL inhibited the growth of human cancer cells engrafted into immunocompromised mice. These results suggest that these three CDC45L-derived peptides are highly immunogenic epitopes and CDC45L is a novel TAA that might be a useful target for lung cancer immunotherapy.
Cancer Science 01/2011; 102(4):697-705. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, there is very limited longitudinal data on COPD and incidence estimates in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the 12-year cumulative incidence of airflow obstruction (COPD) in Japanese males.
This study included 913 male subjects, aged 30-76 years, who underwent lung function tests at a medical check-up in 1994 (baseline), 1999, and 2006. The study group consisted of 263 persistent never smokers, 296 early quitters, 117 late quitters, and 237 persistent smokers without airflow obstruction at baseline. The 12-year cumulative incidence of airflow obstruction was estimated. The spirometric criteria for diagnosis of airflow obstruction were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <0.7 and 5th percentile lower limit of normal (FEV(1)/FVC<LLN).
The 12-year cumulative incidences of airflow obstruction using fixed criteria and LLN criteria were 5.3%, 7.6% in persistent never smokers, 10.5%, 10.1% in early quitters, 12.0%, 14.5% in late quitters, 13.5%, 17.3% in persistent smokers, respectively. In logistic regression models, the odds ratio (OR) of developing airflow obstruction defined using the fixed criteria and the LLN criteria increased with a history of smoking status and increasing pack-years of smoking. When using the LLN criteria to define obstruction compared with fixed criteria, higher incidence rates among aged <60 and lower incidence rates among aged ≥60 were observed.
The cumulative incidence of airflow obstruction defined using the fixed ratio and LLN criteria was strongly associated with smoking status. This study suggested that early cessation of smoking may prevent the development of airflow obstruction among smokers.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(15):1537-44. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 75-year-old man with pneumoconiosis, interstitial pneumonia and diabetes mellitus, who had carcinoma of the buccal mucosa. After resection of the carcinoma, he was given corticosteroids for the deterioration of interstitial pneumonia, but 38 days after initiating steroid therapy, he was admitted to our hospital with severe hypoxemia and multiple cavitary lesions superimposed on ground-glass attenuation in both lung fields. The Aspergillus antigen was positive in his serum and examination of his bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid revealed mixed infections with filamentous fungus and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Pulmonary aspergillosis and pneumocystis pneumonia with an immunocompromised state was diagnosed, and voriconazole, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and high-dose corticosteroids were given. At 20 days after these treatments he developed bloody sputum, and Cunninghamella bertholletiae was isolated from the BAL fluid obtained at admission. A diagnosis of pulmonary zygomycosis was finally established. Amphotericin B therapy was started, and the dose was increased thereafter. Despite intensive treatment he died 18 days later. Histological examination of lung tissue obtained at autopsy showed invasive growth of zygomycetes in the necrotic tissue and the cavity wall. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent Cunninghamella bertholletiae and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection during steroid therapy for interstitial pneumonia.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 11/2010; 48(11):847-54.