Martin G Cole

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (122)412.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Depression is a common problem in long-term care (LTC) settings. We sought to characterize depression symptom trajectories over six months among older residents, and to identify resident characteristics at baseline that predict symptom trajectory. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a six-month prospective, observational, and multi-site study. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and with up to six monthly follow-up assessments. Participants were 130 residents with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 15 or more at baseline and of at least two of the six monthly follow-up assessments. Individual resident GDS trajectories were grouped using hierarchical clustering. The baseline predictors of a more severe trajectory were identified using the Proportional Odds Model. Three clusters of depression symptom trajectory were found that described "lower," "intermediate," and "higher" levels of depressive symptoms over time (mean GDS scores for three clusters at baseline were 2.2, 4.9, and 9.0 respectively). The GDS scores in all groups were generally stable over time. Baseline predictors of a more severe trajectory were as follows: Initial GDS score of 7 or more, female sex, LTC residence for less than 12 months, and corrected visual impairment. The six-month course of depressive symptoms in LTC is generally stable. Most residents who experience a more severe symptom trajectory can be identified at baseline.
    International Psychogeriatrics 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1041610215001179 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of use of a depression self-care toolkit with and without lay telephone coaching among primary care patients 40 years and older with depressive symptoms and comorbid chronic physical conditions. A single blind, individually randomized, pragmatic trial of a depression self-care toolkit (Toolkit) with or without lay telephone coaching was conducted among primary care adults with depressive symptoms and comorbid chronic physical conditions. Eligible patients were randomized to receive the Toolkit with (intervention) or without (control) telephone coaching provided by trained lay coaches. The primary outcome was depression severity [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)] at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were self-efficacy, satisfaction, and use of health services at 6 months. A total of 223 patients were randomized, and 172 (77.1%) completed 6-month follow-ups. PHQ-9 scores improved significantly in both groups over the 6-month follow-up; the differences in PHQ-9 scores between intervention and control groups were statistically significant at 3 months [effect size = 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16-0.72] but not at 6 months (effect size = 0.24; 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.60). Patients with moderate depression severity (PHQ-9 10-19) and high self-efficacy at baseline were most likely to benefit from the intervention. There was no significant effect of the intervention on the secondary outcomes. The incremental value of lay telephone coaching of a Toolkit appears short-lived. Targeting of coaching to those with moderate depression severity may be indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    General hospital psychiatry 05/2015; 37(3):257-265. DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.03.007 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-care programs for depression use educational and cognitive-behavioral techniques (e.g. written information, audiotapes, videotapes, computerized, or group courses) to assist patients in the management of depressive symptoms (Morgan and Jorm, 2008). In the UK, these interventions are recommended as step 1 in a stepped care program for treating depression in primary care (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2007). One meta-analysis suggests that supported self-care (self-care with coaching) is more effective than unsupported self-care (Gellatly et al. , 2007).
    International Psychogeriatrics 02/2015; 27(06):1-2. DOI:10.1017/S1041610215000204 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed adherence to and predictors of two components of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among primary care adults aged 40 and above with chronic physical illnesses and comorbid depressive symptoms. Participants received a “toolkit” containing six self-care tools. Trained lay self-care “coaches” negotiated a contact schedule of up to weekly contacts. Study outcomes were levels of completion of the self-care tool and the coach contacts at the 2-month follow-up. Coaches reported the number of completed contacts. In all, 57 of 63 participants completed the 2-month follow-up. Of these, 67% completed at least 1 tool; the mean number of coach contacts was 5.7 (SD = 2.4) of a possible 9 contacts (63% adherence). Higher disease comorbidity and lower initial depression severity independently predicted better tool adherence. Findings suggest that people with chronic physical illnesses can achieve acceptable levels of adherence to a depression self-care intervention similar to those reported for other populations.
    SAGE Open 01/2015; 5(1). DOI:10.1177/2158244015572486
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the 6-month outcomes of co-occurring delirium (full syndrome and subsyndromal symptoms), depression, and dementia in a long-term care (LTC) population. Observational, prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up conducted from 2005 to 2009. Seven LTC facilities in the province of Quebec, Canada. Newly admitted and long-term residents recruited consecutively from lists of residents aged 65 and older admitted for LTC, with stratification into groups with and without severe cognitive impairment. The study sample comprised 274 residents with complete data at baseline on delirium, dementia, and depression. Outcomes were 6-month mortality, functional decline (10-point decline from baseline on 100-point Barthel scale), and cognitive decline (3-point decline on 30-point Mini-Mental State Examination). Predictors included delirium (full syndrome or subsyndromal symptoms, using the Confusion Assessment Method), depression (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia), and dementia (chart diagnosis). The baseline prevalences of delirium, subsyndromal symptoms of delirium (SSD), depression, and dementia were 11%, 44%, 19%, and 66%, respectively. By 6 months, 10% of 274 had died, 19% of 233 had experienced functional decline, and 17% of 246 had experienced cognitive decline. An analysis using multivariable generalized linear models found the following significant interaction effects (P < .15): between depression and dementia for mortality, between delirium and depression for functional decline, and between SSD and dementia for cognitive decline. Co-occurrence of delirium, SSD, depression, and dementia in LTC residents appears to affect some 6-month outcomes. Because of limited statistical power, it was not possible to draw conclusions about the effects of the co-occurrence of some syndromes on poorer outcomes. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 12/2014; 62(12). DOI:10.1111/jgs.13159 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) affect approximately all residents in nursing homes at some point; however, the course of BPSD among this group is not well known. The goal of the current study was to describe the course of each measured BPSD over a period of 6 months. A secondary explorative objective was to identify which BPSD are associated with as-needed (PRN) antipsychotic drug use. This secondary analysis study of 146 nursing home residents was drawn from a prospective, observational, multisite (N = 7) cohort study. Results showed that BPSD lasted for an average of 2.3 months, and the BPSD saying things that do not make sense had the longest duration, with 3.6 months. PRN antipsychotic drug administration was associated with nocturnal BPSD and requesting help unnecessarily. Within 3 months, most BPSD were resolved by usual care; use of PRN antipsychotic medication was not associated with behaviors that put the residents or their caregivers at risk. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(xx), xx-xx.].
    Journal of Gerontological Nursing 11/2014; 41(1):1-15. DOI:10.3928/00989134-20141030-01 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: The immediate clinical significance of Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium is unclear. This study proposed to determine if such symptoms are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, mood and behavior problems and increased Burden of Care (BOC) in older long-term care (LTC) residents. Methods: The study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective cohort study of delirium. Two hundred and fifty-eight LTC residents aged 65 years and older in seven LTC facilities had monthly assessments (for up to six months) of CAM - defined core symptoms of delirium (fluctuation, inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness) and five outcome measures: Mini-Mental State Exam, Barthel Index, Cornell Scale for Depression, Nursing Home Behavioral Problems Scale, and Burden of Care. Associations between core symptoms and the five outcome measures were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium among residents with and without dementia were associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems but not increased BOC. The associations appear to be intermediate between those of full delirium and no core symptoms and were greater for residents with than without dementia. Conclusion: CAM-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium appear to be associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems in LTC residents with or without dementia. These findings may have implications for the prevention and management of such impairments and problems in LTC settings.
    International Psychogeriatrics 03/2014; 26(7):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S1041610214000313 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 12/2013; 58(3). DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2013.11.010 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this participatory action research study, researchers conducted a total of 3 implementation cycles to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a new delirium prevention program (DPP) for cognitively impaired residents in long term care (LTC) settings. Researchers interviewed 95 health care staff to obtain feedback on their use of the DPP and then modified the DPP and tested the changes in the next implementation cycle. Our results indicated that the DPP was feasible and that health care staff would accept it under certain conditions. We found there were 4 keys to successful implementation of the DPP: support for the program from both the administration and the users; effective clinician leadership to ensure proper delivery of the DPP (format, content and values) and its appropriate adaptation to the LTC facility's internal culture and policies; a sense of ownership among the DPP users; and, last, practical hands-on training as well as theoretical training for staff.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 10/2013; 15(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jamda.2013.08.013 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, risk factors, course and outcomes of subsyndromal delirium (SSD) in older people by systematically reviewing evidence on these topics. METHODS: Subsyndromal delirium was defined as the presence of one or more symptoms of delirium, not meeting criteria for delirium and not progressing to delirium. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Web of Science were searched for potentially relevant articles published from 1996 to June 2011. The bibliographies of relevant articles were searched for additional references. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. The validity of included studies was assessed according to Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Information about the study population and methods, age, gender, proportion with dementia, diagnostic criteria, period and frequency of observation, and the topics above was systematically abstracted, tabulated and synthesized using standard meta-analysis techniques. RESULTS: The combined prevalence of SSD was 23% (95% CI, 9-42%); the combined incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6-23%). Risk factors were similar to those for delirium. Episodes lasted up to 133 days and were often recurrent. Outcomes were poor and often intermediate between those of older people with or without delirium. Of note, there was significant unexplained heterogeneity in the results of studies of prevalence, incidence and some risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: SSD in older people may be a frequent and clinically important condition that falls on a continuum between no symptoms and full delirium. Because of significant unexplained heterogeneity in the results of studies of SSD, however, the results of this review must be interpreted cautiously. Further research is necessary. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 08/2013; 28(8). DOI:10.1002/gps.3891 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Martin G Cole
    International Psychogeriatrics 04/2013; 25(6):1-4. DOI:10.1017/S1041610213000434 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify potentially modifiable environmental factors (including number of medications) associated with changes over time in the severity of delirium symptoms and to explore the interactions between these factors and resident baseline vulnerability. Prospective, observational cohort study. Seven long-term care (LTC) facilities. Two hundred seventy-two LTC residents aged 65 and older with and without delirium. Weekly assessments (for up to 6 months) of the severity of delirium symptoms using the Delirium Index (DI), environmental risk factors, and number of medications. Baseline vulnerability measures included a diagnosis of dementia and a delirium risk score. Associations between environmental factors, medications, and weekly changes in DI were analyzed using a general linear model with correlated errors. Six potentially modifiable environmental factors predicted weekly changes in DI (absence of reading glasses, aids to orientation, family member, and glass of water and presence of bed rails and other restraints) as did the prescription of two or more new medications. Residents with dementia appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of these factors. Six environmental factors and prescription of two or more new medications predicted changes in the severity of delirium symptoms. These risk factors are potentially modifiable through improved LTC clinical practices.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 04/2013; 61(4):502-11. DOI:10.1111/jgs.12164 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the course of incident subsyndromal delirium (SSD) in older long-term care (LTC) residents. A secondary objective was to explore the use of a more restrictive definition of SSD on the findings of the study. Cohort study with repeated weekly assessments for up to 6 months. Seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. LTC residents aged 65 and more and free of delirium core symptoms at baseline. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, and Barthel Index were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for 6 months. SSD1 required one or more CAM core symptoms; SSD2, a more restrictive definition, required two or more CAM core symptoms. Sixty-eight residents had 129 incident episodes of SSD1: 32 had one episode and 36 had two or more episodes. Episodes lasted 7 - 133 days, mean 13.7 (SD: 14.8) days; mean number of symptoms per episode was 1.1 (SD: 0.4). Rates of recovery at 1, 2, and 4 weeks and 6 months were 45.7%, 61.2%, 64.6%, and 78.3%, respectively. Thirty-three residents had 49 episodes of SSD2: 21 had 1 episode and 12 had 2 or more episodes. Use of the more restrictive definition significantly increased time to recovery and reduced rate of recovery. Episodes of SSD in older LTC residents appeared to last 7-133 days (mean: 13.7) and were often recurrent. Use of a more restrictive definition resulted in a more protracted course.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 03/2013; 21(3):289-96. DOI:10.1016/j.jagp.2012.12.008 · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Detection of long-term care (LTC) residents at risk of delirium may lead to prevention of this disorder. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the presence of one or more Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) core symptoms of delirium at baseline assessment predicts incident delirium. Secondary objectives were to determine if the number or the type of symptoms predict incident delirium. Methods: The study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective study of delirium among older residents of seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), CAM, Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Barthel Index, and Cornell Scale for Depression were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for six months. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to determine if baseline symptoms predict incident delirium. Results: Of 273 residents, 40 (14.7%) developed incident delirium. Mean (SD) time to onset of delirium was 10.8 (7.4) weeks. When one or more CAM core symptoms were present at baseline, the Hazard Ratio (HR) for incident delirium was 3.5 (95% CI = 1.4, 8.9). The HRs for number of symptoms present ranged from 2.9 (95% CI = 1.0, 8.3) for one symptom to 3.8 (95% CI = 1.3, 11.0) for three symptoms. The HR for one type of symptom, fluctuation, was 2.2 (95% CI = 1.2, 4.2). Conclusion: The presence of CAM core symptoms at baseline assessment predicts incident delirium in older LTC residents. These findings have potentially important implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings.
    International Psychogeriatrics 03/2013; 25(6):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S1041610213000215 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study on nursing documentation in long-term care facilities, a set of 9 delirium symptoms was used to evaluate the agreement between symptoms reported by nurses during monthly interviews and those documented in the nursing notes for the same 7-day observation period. Residents aged 65 and above (N = 280) were assessed monthly over a 6-month period for the presence of delirium and its symptoms using the Confusion Assessment Method. The proportion of symptoms documented in the nursing notes ranged from 1.9% to 53.5%. A trend toward a lower proportion of documented symptoms for higher resident-nurse ratios was observed, although the difference was not statistically significant. Efforts should be made to improve the situation by revisiting the content of academic and clinical training given to nurses in addition to exploring innovative ways to make nursing documentation more efficient and less time-consuming within the current context of nurses' work overload.
    Clinical Nursing Research 02/2013; 23(4). DOI:10.1177/1054773813475809 · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We assessed the feasibility and acceptability to patients of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults aged 40 years or over with one of six targeted chronic physical illnesses and comorbid depressive symptoms in family practice settings. Methods An open, uncontrolled trial (feasibility study) was conducted among patients treated in Montreal family practices. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or over, had one or more of the targeted chronic physical illnesses for at least 6 months (arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and were evaluated as having at least mild depressive symptoms (a score of ≥ 5 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9). Participants received a package of six self-care tools (information booklet, video, Internet programme, action plan, workbook and mood-monitoring tool) with telephone support by a lay coach for up to 6 months. Results In total, 63 eligible patients provided written consent and completed the baseline interview; 57 (90%) and 55 (87%) patients completed 2-month and 6-month follow-up interviews, respectively. The mean number of telephone calls made by coaches to participants was 10.5 (SD 4.0), and the average length of these calls was 10.6 minutes. At the 6-month follow-up, 83.6% of the participants reported that one or more of the tools were helpful. Clinically significant improvements were seen in depressive symptoms (as assessed by the PHQ-9) at 6 months, with an effect size of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.55, 1.14). Conclusion A telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression was feasible, was acceptable to patients, and was associated with a significant 6-month improvement in depressive symptoms. A randomised trial of this intervention is justified.
    Mental Health in Family Medicine 12/2012; 9(4):257-273.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the course of delirium in older long-term care (LTC) residents. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 279 residents in seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, was conducted. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Barthel Index, and Cornell Scale for Depression were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for 6 months. Information on medical problems and medication was abstracted from resident charts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazard regression, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 279 residents, 41 (14.7%) had 61 CAM-defined incident episodes of delirium: 28 (10%) had one episode and 13 (4.7%) had two or more episodes. Episode duration was 7-63 days, mean, 11.3 (SD, 10.1) days. The mean episode DI score was 11.5 (SD, 3.5). Rates of recovery at 1, 2, 4, and 24 weeks were 57.4%, 67.2% 77.1%, and 80.3%, respectively. Most episodes were preceded or followed by one or more CAM core symptoms of delirium, sometimes lasting many weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Confusion Assessment Method-defined incident episodes of delirium in older LTC residents appear to last longer than episodes in acute care hospital patients, but rates of recovery at 4 and 24 weeks are similar. Notably, most episodes were preceded or followed by one or more CAM core symptoms of delirium. These findings have implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12/2012; 27(12). DOI:10.1002/gps.3782 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) core symptoms of delirium occurring before and after incident episodes of delirium in older long-term care (LTC) residents. A secondary objective was to describe the mean number of symptoms before and after episodes by dementia status. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective cohort study of delirium, with repeated weekly assessments for up to 6 months. SETTING: Seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one older LTC residents who had at least one CAM-defined incident episode of delirium. MEASUREMENTS: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), CAM, Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Barthel Index, and Cornell Scale for Depression were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for 6 months. The frequency, mean number, type, and duration of CAM core symptoms of delirium occurring before and after incident episodes were examined using descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, and survival analysis. RESULTS: CAM core symptoms of delirium preceded 38 (92.7%) episodes of delirium for many weeks; core symptoms followed 37 (90.2%) episodes for many weeks. Symptoms of inattention and disorganized thinking occurred most commonly. The mean number of symptoms was higher in residents with dementia but not significantly so. CONCLUSION: CAM core symptoms of delirium were frequent and protracted before and after most incident episodes of delirium in LTC residents with and without dementia. If replicated, these findings have potentially important implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 11/2012; 60(12). DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04237.x · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to develop a delirium risk screening tool for use in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The sample comprised residents aged 65 years and over of seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, admitted for LTC. Primary analyses were conducted among residents without delirium at baseline. Incident delirium was diagnosed using multiple data sources during the 6-month follow-up. Risk factors, all measured at or prior to baseline, included the following six groups: sociodemographic, medical, cognitive status, physical function, agitated behavior, and symptoms of depression. Variables were analyzed individually and by group using Cox regression models. Clinical judgment was used to select the most feasible among similarly performing factors. The cohort comprised 206 residents without delirium at baseline; 69 cases of incident delirium were observed (rate 7.6 per 100 person weeks). The best-performing screening tool comprised five items, with an overall area under the curve of 0.82 (95% CI 0.76, 0.88). These items included brief measures of cognitive status, physical function, behavioral, and emotional problems. Using cut-points of 2 (or 3) over 5, the scale has a sensitivity of 90% (63%), specificity of 59% (85%), and positive predictive value of 52% (66%). This brief screening tool allows nurses to identify LTC residents at increased risk for delirium. These residents can be targeted for closer monitoring and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2012; 27(10):999-1007. DOI:10.1002/gps.2812 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Martin G Cole
    International Psychogeriatrics 08/2012; 24(8):1193-6. DOI:10.1017/S1041610212000671 · 1.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
412.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2015
    • McGill University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2005–2013
    • St. Mary's Hospital Center (Canada)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1992–2013
    • Saint Mary's Hospital Center
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2010
    • Government of Quebec
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2006
    • Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1998
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China