Martin G Cole

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (107)363.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: The immediate clinical significance of Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium is unclear. This study proposed to determine if such symptoms are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, mood and behavior problems and increased Burden of Care (BOC) in older long-term care (LTC) residents. Methods: The study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective cohort study of delirium. Two hundred and fifty-eight LTC residents aged 65 years and older in seven LTC facilities had monthly assessments (for up to six months) of CAM - defined core symptoms of delirium (fluctuation, inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness) and five outcome measures: Mini-Mental State Exam, Barthel Index, Cornell Scale for Depression, Nursing Home Behavioral Problems Scale, and Burden of Care. Associations between core symptoms and the five outcome measures were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium among residents with and without dementia were associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems but not increased BOC. The associations appear to be intermediate between those of full delirium and no core symptoms and were greater for residents with than without dementia. Conclusion: CAM-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium appear to be associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems in LTC residents with or without dementia. These findings may have implications for the prevention and management of such impairments and problems in LTC settings.
    International Psychogeriatrics 03/2014; · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 12/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this participatory action research study, researchers conducted a total of 3 implementation cycles to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a new delirium prevention program (DPP) for cognitively impaired residents in long term care (LTC) settings. Researchers interviewed 95 health care staff to obtain feedback on their use of the DPP and then modified the DPP and tested the changes in the next implementation cycle. Our results indicated that the DPP was feasible and that health care staff would accept it under certain conditions. We found there were 4 keys to successful implementation of the DPP: support for the program from both the administration and the users; effective clinician leadership to ensure proper delivery of the DPP (format, content and values) and its appropriate adaptation to the LTC facility's internal culture and policies; a sense of ownership among the DPP users; and, last, practical hands-on training as well as theoretical training for staff.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 10/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Martin G Cole
    International Psychogeriatrics 04/2013; · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify potentially modifiable environmental factors (including number of medications) associated with changes over time in the severity of delirium symptoms and to explore the interactions between these factors and resident baseline vulnerability. Prospective, observational cohort study. Seven long-term care (LTC) facilities. Two hundred seventy-two LTC residents aged 65 and older with and without delirium. Weekly assessments (for up to 6 months) of the severity of delirium symptoms using the Delirium Index (DI), environmental risk factors, and number of medications. Baseline vulnerability measures included a diagnosis of dementia and a delirium risk score. Associations between environmental factors, medications, and weekly changes in DI were analyzed using a general linear model with correlated errors. Six potentially modifiable environmental factors predicted weekly changes in DI (absence of reading glasses, aids to orientation, family member, and glass of water and presence of bed rails and other restraints) as did the prescription of two or more new medications. Residents with dementia appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of these factors. Six environmental factors and prescription of two or more new medications predicted changes in the severity of delirium symptoms. These risk factors are potentially modifiable through improved LTC clinical practices.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 04/2013; 61(4):502-11. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the course of incident subsyndromal delirium (SSD) in older long-term care (LTC) residents. A secondary objective was to explore the use of a more restrictive definition of SSD on the findings of the study. Cohort study with repeated weekly assessments for up to 6 months. Seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. LTC residents aged 65 and more and free of delirium core symptoms at baseline. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, and Barthel Index were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for 6 months. SSD1 required one or more CAM core symptoms; SSD2, a more restrictive definition, required two or more CAM core symptoms. Sixty-eight residents had 129 incident episodes of SSD1: 32 had one episode and 36 had two or more episodes. Episodes lasted 7 - 133 days, mean 13.7 (SD: 14.8) days; mean number of symptoms per episode was 1.1 (SD: 0.4). Rates of recovery at 1, 2, and 4 weeks and 6 months were 45.7%, 61.2%, 64.6%, and 78.3%, respectively. Thirty-three residents had 49 episodes of SSD2: 21 had 1 episode and 12 had 2 or more episodes. Use of the more restrictive definition significantly increased time to recovery and reduced rate of recovery. Episodes of SSD in older LTC residents appeared to last 7-133 days (mean: 13.7) and were often recurrent. Use of a more restrictive definition resulted in a more protracted course.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 03/2013; 21(3):289-96. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Detection of long-term care (LTC) residents at risk of delirium may lead to prevention of this disorder. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the presence of one or more Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) core symptoms of delirium at baseline assessment predicts incident delirium. Secondary objectives were to determine if the number or the type of symptoms predict incident delirium. Methods: The study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective study of delirium among older residents of seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), CAM, Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Barthel Index, and Cornell Scale for Depression were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for six months. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to determine if baseline symptoms predict incident delirium. Results: Of 273 residents, 40 (14.7%) developed incident delirium. Mean (SD) time to onset of delirium was 10.8 (7.4) weeks. When one or more CAM core symptoms were present at baseline, the Hazard Ratio (HR) for incident delirium was 3.5 (95% CI = 1.4, 8.9). The HRs for number of symptoms present ranged from 2.9 (95% CI = 1.0, 8.3) for one symptom to 3.8 (95% CI = 1.3, 11.0) for three symptoms. The HR for one type of symptom, fluctuation, was 2.2 (95% CI = 1.2, 4.2). Conclusion: The presence of CAM core symptoms at baseline assessment predicts incident delirium in older LTC residents. These findings have potentially important implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings.
    International Psychogeriatrics 03/2013; · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study on nursing documentation in long-term care facilities, a set of 9 delirium symptoms was used to evaluate the agreement between symptoms reported by nurses during monthly interviews and those documented in the nursing notes for the same 7-day observation period. Residents aged 65 and above (N = 280) were assessed monthly over a 6-month period for the presence of delirium and its symptoms using the Confusion Assessment Method. The proportion of symptoms documented in the nursing notes ranged from 1.9% to 53.5%. A trend toward a lower proportion of documented symptoms for higher resident-nurse ratios was observed, although the difference was not statistically significant. Efforts should be made to improve the situation by revisiting the content of academic and clinical training given to nurses in addition to exploring innovative ways to make nursing documentation more efficient and less time-consuming within the current context of nurses' work overload.
    Clinical Nursing Research 02/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We assessed the feasibility and acceptability to patients of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults aged 40 years or over with one of six targeted chronic physical illnesses and comorbid depressive symptoms in family practice settings. Methods An open, uncontrolled trial (feasibility study) was conducted among patients treated in Montreal family practices. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or over, had one or more of the targeted chronic physical illnesses for at least 6 months (arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and were evaluated as having at least mild depressive symptoms (a score of ≥ 5 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9). Participants received a package of six self-care tools (information booklet, video, Internet programme, action plan, workbook and mood-monitoring tool) with telephone support by a lay coach for up to 6 months. Results In total, 63 eligible patients provided written consent and completed the baseline interview; 57 (90%) and 55 (87%) patients completed 2-month and 6-month follow-up interviews, respectively. The mean number of telephone calls made by coaches to participants was 10.5 (SD 4.0), and the average length of these calls was 10.6 minutes. At the 6-month follow-up, 83.6% of the participants reported that one or more of the tools were helpful. Clinically significant improvements were seen in depressive symptoms (as assessed by the PHQ-9) at 6 months, with an effect size of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.55, 1.14). Conclusion A telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression was feasible, was acceptable to patients, and was associated with a significant 6-month improvement in depressive symptoms. A randomised trial of this intervention is justified.
    Mental Health in Family Medicine 12/2012; 9(4):257-273.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) core symptoms of delirium occurring before and after incident episodes of delirium in older long-term care (LTC) residents. A secondary objective was to describe the mean number of symptoms before and after episodes by dementia status. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective cohort study of delirium, with repeated weekly assessments for up to 6 months. SETTING: Seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one older LTC residents who had at least one CAM-defined incident episode of delirium. MEASUREMENTS: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), CAM, Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Barthel Index, and Cornell Scale for Depression were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for 6 months. The frequency, mean number, type, and duration of CAM core symptoms of delirium occurring before and after incident episodes were examined using descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, and survival analysis. RESULTS: CAM core symptoms of delirium preceded 38 (92.7%) episodes of delirium for many weeks; core symptoms followed 37 (90.2%) episodes for many weeks. Symptoms of inattention and disorganized thinking occurred most commonly. The mean number of symptoms was higher in residents with dementia but not significantly so. CONCLUSION: CAM core symptoms of delirium were frequent and protracted before and after most incident episodes of delirium in LTC residents with and without dementia. If replicated, these findings have potentially important implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 11/2012; · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, risk factors, course and outcomes of subsyndromal delirium (SSD) in older people by systematically reviewing evidence on these topics. METHODS: Subsyndromal delirium was defined as the presence of one or more symptoms of delirium, not meeting criteria for delirium and not progressing to delirium. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Web of Science were searched for potentially relevant articles published from 1996 to June 2011. The bibliographies of relevant articles were searched for additional references. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. The validity of included studies was assessed according to Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Information about the study population and methods, age, gender, proportion with dementia, diagnostic criteria, period and frequency of observation, and the topics above was systematically abstracted, tabulated and synthesized using standard meta-analysis techniques. RESULTS: The combined prevalence of SSD was 23% (95% CI, 9-42%); the combined incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6-23%). Risk factors were similar to those for delirium. Episodes lasted up to 133 days and were often recurrent. Outcomes were poor and often intermediate between those of older people with or without delirium. Of note, there was significant unexplained heterogeneity in the results of studies of prevalence, incidence and some risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: SSD in older people may be a frequent and clinically important condition that falls on a continuum between no symptoms and full delirium. Because of significant unexplained heterogeneity in the results of studies of SSD, however, the results of this review must be interpreted cautiously. Further research is necessary. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11/2012; · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Martin G Cole
    International Psychogeriatrics 08/2012; 24(8):1193-6. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Delirium among long-term care (LTC) residents is frequent and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Identification of clinical changes during the prodromal phase of delirium could lead to prevention of a full-blown episode and perhaps limit the deleterious consequences of this syndrome. The aim of the present study was to identify clinical changes observable in the 2-week period prior to the onset of full-blown delirium. Methods: Long-term care (LTC) residents aged 65 years and over, with or without dementia were eligible for this nested case-control study. Delirium was assessed weekly over a 6-month period using the Confusion Assessment Method. Cases with incident delirium were matched by time since enrolment to one or more controls without delirium. Results: When compared to the controls, LTC residents who developed delirium (cases = 85) were more likely to have new-onset perceptual disturbances (OR = 4.75; 95% CI 1.65-13.66) and disorganized thinking (OR = 3.09; 95% CI 1.33-7.19) and a worsening of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) item measuring registration (OR = 2.59; 95% CI 1.24-5.41) during the preceding 2 weeks. However, the frequency of these changes was low. Residents with at least 3 clinical changes were more likely to develop delirium than those without any clinical change (OR = 2.52; 95% CI 1.08-5.87). Conclusions: This study provides evidence of clinical changes during the prodromal phase of delirium among LTC residents. More studies are needed to further explore the role and relevance of these clinical changes as warning signs of imminent delirium.
    International Psychogeriatrics 05/2012; 24(11):1855-64. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the course of delirium in older long-term care (LTC) residents. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 279 residents in seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, was conducted. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Barthel Index, and Cornell Scale for Depression were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for 6 months. Information on medical problems and medication was abstracted from resident charts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazard regression, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 279 residents, 41 (14.7%) had 61 CAM-defined incident episodes of delirium: 28 (10%) had one episode and 13 (4.7%) had two or more episodes. Episode duration was 7-63 days, mean, 11.3 (SD, 10.1) days. The mean episode DI score was 11.5 (SD, 3.5). Rates of recovery at 1, 2, 4, and 24 weeks were 57.4%, 67.2% 77.1%, and 80.3%, respectively. Most episodes were preceded or followed by one or more CAM core symptoms of delirium, sometimes lasting many weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Confusion Assessment Method-defined incident episodes of delirium in older LTC residents appear to last longer than episodes in acute care hospital patients, but rates of recovery at 4 and 24 weeks are similar. Notably, most episodes were preceded or followed by one or more CAM core symptoms of delirium. These findings have implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 04/2012; · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to develop a delirium risk screening tool for use in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The sample comprised residents aged 65 years and over of seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, admitted for LTC. Primary analyses were conducted among residents without delirium at baseline. Incident delirium was diagnosed using multiple data sources during the 6-month follow-up. Risk factors, all measured at or prior to baseline, included the following six groups: sociodemographic, medical, cognitive status, physical function, agitated behavior, and symptoms of depression. Variables were analyzed individually and by group using Cox regression models. Clinical judgment was used to select the most feasible among similarly performing factors. The cohort comprised 206 residents without delirium at baseline; 69 cases of incident delirium were observed (rate 7.6 per 100 person weeks). The best-performing screening tool comprised five items, with an overall area under the curve of 0.82 (95% CI 0.76, 0.88). These items included brief measures of cognitive status, physical function, behavioral, and emotional problems. Using cut-points of 2 (or 3) over 5, the scale has a sensitivity of 90% (63%), specificity of 59% (85%), and positive predictive value of 52% (66%). This brief screening tool allows nurses to identify LTC residents at increased risk for delirium. These residents can be targeted for closer monitoring and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 02/2012; 27(10):999-1007. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the problem of clustering time-dependent data. The model is a mixture of regressions, with variance–covariance matrices that are allowed to vary within the extended linear mixed model family. We discuss applications to biomedical data and analyze two longitudinal data sets: one on patients with delirium, and the other on mosquito gene expression following infection.
    Communications in Statistics-simulation and Computation - COMMUN STATIST-SIMULAT COMPUT. 01/2012; 41(7):992-1005.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes of subsyndromal delirium (SSD) in older long-term care (LTC) residents and, secondarily, to explore the use of a more-restrictive definition of SSD. Cohort study with repeated weekly assessments for up to 6 months. Seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. One hundred four LTC residents aged 65 and older and free of delirium core symptoms at baseline. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale (HDS), and Barthel Index (BI) were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for 6 months. SSD1 required one or more CAM core symptoms; SSD2, a more-restrictive definition, required two or more CAM core symptoms. Outcomes at 6 months were decline on the MMSE, HDS, and BI; mortality; and a composite outcome. Sixty-eight of 104 residents had SSD1. In survival analysis, the incidence was 5.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.1-6.7) per 100 person-weeks of follow-up. In multivariate analysis, risk factors were male sex and more-severe cognitive impairment at baseline. The differences in outcomes between residents with and without SSD1 were small and not statistically significant. SSD2 had a lower incidence (1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.9), similar risk factors, and statistically significantly worse cognitive outcomes. SSD2 appears to be a clinically important disorder in older LTC residents. Despite limited statistical power, these findings have potentially important implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 10/2011; 59(10):1829-36. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inappropriate and widespread prescribing of antipsychotics in LTCF is of concern. This study aimed to explore the association of resident and room characteristics with antipsychotic use in this setting. This is cross-sectional secondary analysis of the baseline data of 280 residents ≥ 65 years old, from a prospective, observational, LTCF multi-site (n=7) cohort study on delirium. Demographic data included age, sex and length of stay. Resident characteristics assessed were presence of dementia, disruptive behavior, delirium and use of restraints. Room characteristics assessed were single room, clock/calendar, and telephone. Separate logistic regression models were used to explore the association of resident and room characteristics with antipsychotic use, adjusting for demographic variables. Mean age was 84.9 ± 7.0 years (± S.D.) with 56% female. The mean prevalence of antipsychotics use was 31.1% (range: 25.6-50.0%). The regression model of resident characteristics revealed a significant association between disruptive behavior (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.12-1.25) and antipsychotic use. The model of room characteristics revealed a significant association between absence of a clock or calendar (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.04-3.56) and absence of a telephone (OR=2.79, 95% CI=1.48-5.25). Our results suggest that behavior problems are associated with a higher likelihood of antipsychotic use. Absence of a clock/calendar and of a telephone was related to antipsychotic use. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 08/2011; 55(1):66-9. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study of mental disorders in the elderly presents substantial challenges due to population heterogeneity, coexistence of different mental disorders, and diagnostic uncertainty. While reliable tools have been developed to collect relevant data, new approaches to study design and analysis are needed. We focus on a new analytic approach. Our framework is based on latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains. From repeated measurements of a multivariate disease index, we extract the notion of underlying state of a patient at a time point. The course of the disorder is then a sequence of transitions among states. States and transitions are not observable; however, the probability of being in a state at a time point, and the transition probabilities from one state to another over time can be estimated. Data from 444 patients with and without diagnosis of delirium and dementia were available from a previous study. The Delirium Index was measured at diagnosis, and at 2 and 6 months from diagnosis. Four latent classes were identified: fairly healthy, moderately ill, clearly sick, and very sick. Dementia and delirium could not be separated on the basis of these data alone. Indeed, as the probability of delirium increased, so did the probability of decline of mental functions. Eight most probable courses were identified, including good and poor stable courses, and courses exhibiting various patterns of improvement. Latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains offer a promising tool for studying mental disorders in the elderly. Its use may show its full potential as new data become available.
    International Psychogeriatrics 06/2011; 23(10):1659-70. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term cognitive effect of antidepressant medications in older persons is not well understood, especially in those with minor depression and complex medical conditions. The objective of this study is to examine this relationship in older medical patients with different depression diagnoses. 281 medical inpatients aged 65 years and older from 2 acute care hospitals in Montreal, Canada, were diagnosed as with major or minor depression or without depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. They were followed up with the Mini-Mental State Examination for cognitive function and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depressive symptoms at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge. Antidepressant medication was ascertained from a provincial prescription database and quantified as cumulative exposures over each follow-up interval. During the 12-month follow-up period, 1027 antidepressant prescriptions were filled. The most frequently prescribed antidepressant agents were citalopram (0.81 prescriptions per person), sertraline (0.76), and paroxetine (0.66). Antidepressant use was not associated with cognitive changes among patients with major depression or without depression but was associated with an increased Mini-Mental State Examination score in patients with minor depression (1.4 points; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-2.6), independent of change in the severity of depression symptoms, concomitant benzodiazepine or psychotropic drug use, and other potentially important confounders. In this cohort of older medical patients, antidepressant use for 12 months did not lead to significant cognitive impairment. The small cognitive improvement among minor depression associated with antidepressant use deserves further investigation.
    Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 06/2011; 31(4):429-35. · 5.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
363.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2013
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies
      • • Department of Family Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1992–2013
    • Saint Mary's Hospital Center
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008–2012
    • St. Mary's Hospital Center (Canada)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2011
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Laval University
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2003–2010
    • Government of Quebec
      Québec, Quebec, Canada