Nor Muhammad Mahadi

Malaysia Genome Institute, Kuala Lumpor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Publications (57)159.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A maltogenic amylase (MAG1) from alkaliphilicBacillus lehensisG1 was cloned, expressed inEscherichia coli, purified and characterised for its hydrolysis and transglycosylation properties. The enzyme exhibited high stability at pH values from 7.0 to 10.0. The hydrolysis of b-cyclodextrin (b-CD) produced malto-oligosaccharides of various lengths. In addition to hydrolysis, MAG1 also demonstrated transglycosylation activity for the synthesis of longer malto-oligosaccharides. The thermodynamic equilibrium of the multiple reactions was shifted towards synthesis when the reaction conditions were optimised and the water activity was suppressed, which resulted in a yield of 38% transglycosylation products consisting of malto-oligosaccharides of various lengths. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed the presence of malto-oligosaccharides with a higher degree of polymerisation than maltoheptaose, which has never been reported for other maltogenic amylases. The addition of organic solvents into the reaction further suppressed the water activity. The increase in the transglycosylation-to-hydrolysis ratio from 1.29 to 2.15 and the increased specificity toward maltopentaose production demonstrated the enhanced synthetic property of the enzyme. The high transglycosylation activity of maltogenic amylase offers a great advantage for synthesising malto-oligosaccharides and rare carbohydrates.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus lehensis G1 is a Gram-positive, moderately alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil samples. B. lehensis produces cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), an enzyme that has enabled the extensive use of cyclodextrin in foodstuffs, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The genome sequence of B. lehensis G1 consists of a single circular 3.99 Mb chromosome containing 4017 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 2818 (70.15%) have assigned biological roles, 936 (23.30%) have conserved domains with unknown functions, and 263 (6.55%) have no match with any protein database. Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 was established as the closest relative to B. lehensis G1 based on gene content similarity and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. A total of 2820 proteins from B. lehensis G1 were found to have orthologues in B. clausii, including sodium–proton antiporters, transport proteins, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. A comparative analysis of these proteins and those in B. clausii and other alkaliphilic Bacillus species was carried out to investigate their contributions towards the alkalitolerance of the microorganism. The similarities and differences in alkalitolerance-related genes among alkalitolerant/alkaliphilic Bacillus species highlight the complex mechanism of pH homeostasis. The B. lehensis G1 genome was also mined for proteins and enzymes with potential viability for industrial and commercial purposes.
    Gene 07/2014; 545(2):253–261. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Pichia pastoris transformant carrying the cutinase cDNA of Glomerella cingulata was over-expressed in a 5 L bioreactor (2.0L working volume) under fed-batch conditions. Bioreactor experiments rely on varying selected parameters in repeated rounds of optimisation: here these included duration of induction, pH and temperature. Highest cell densities (320g.L(-1) wet cell weight) with a cutinase production of 3,800mg.L(-1) and an activity of 434 U.mL(-1) were achieved 24h after induction with methanol in basal salt medium (at pH 5 and 28°C). Characterisation of the cutinase showed that it was stable between pH 6 and pH 11, had an optimum pH of 8.0 and retained activity for 30min at 50°C (optimum temperature 25°C).The preferred substrates of G. cingulata cutinase were the medium- to long-chain ρ-nitrophenyl esters of ρ-nitrophenylcaprylate (C8), ρ-nitrophenyllaurate (C12) and ρ-nitrophenylmyristate (C14), with the highest catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km of 7.7±0.7mM(-1)s(-1) for ρ-nitrophenylcaprylate. Microscopic analyses showed that the G. cingulata cutinase was also capable of depolymerising the high molecular weight synthetic polyester, polyethylene terephthalate.
    Journal of Biotechnology 06/2014; · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus lehensis G1 is a Gram-positive, moderately alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil samples. B. lehensis produces cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), an enzyme that has enabled the extensive use of cyclodextrin in foodstuffs, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The genome sequence of B. lehensis G1 consists of a single circular 3.99Mb chromosome containing 4017 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 2818 (70.15%) have assigned biological roles, 936 (23.30%) have conserved domains with unknown functions, and 263 (6.55%) have no match with any protein database. Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 was established as the closest relative to B. lehensis G1 based on gene content similarity and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. A total of 2820 proteins from B. lehensis G1 were found to have orthologues in B. clausii, including sodium-proton antiporters, transport proteins, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. A comparative analysis of these proteins and those in B. clausii and other alkaliphilic Bacillus species was carried out to investigate their contributions towards the alkalitolerance of the microorganism. The similarities and differences in alkalitolerance-related genes among alkalitolerant/alkaliphilic Bacillus species highlight the complex mechanism of pH homeostasis. The B. lehensis G1 genome was also mined for proteins and enzymes with potential viability for industrial and commercial purposes.
    Gene 05/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At least a quarter of any complete genome encodes for hypothetical proteins (HPs) which are largely non-similar to other known, well-characterized proteins. Predicting and solving their structures and functions is imperative to aid understanding of any given organism as a complete biological system. The present study highlights the primary effort to classify and cluster 1202 HPs of Bacillus lehensis G1 alkaliphile to serve as a platform to mine and select specific HP(s) to be studied further in greater detail. All HPs of B. lehensis G1 were grouped according to their predicted functions based on the presence of functional domains in their sequences. From the metal-binding group of HPs of the cluster, an HP termed Bleg1_2507 was discovered to contain a thioredoxin (Trx) domain and highly-conserved metal-binding ligands represented by Cys69, Cys73 and His159, similar to all prokaryotic and eukaryotic Sco proteins. The built 3D structure of Bleg1_2507 showed that it shared the betaalphabetaalphabetabeta core structure of Trx-like proteins as well as three flanking beta-sheets, a 310 -helix at the N-terminus and a hairpin structure unique to Sco proteins. Docking simulations provided an interesting view of Bleg1_2507 in association with its putative cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COXII) redox partner, Bleg1_2337, where the latter can be seen to hold its partner in an embrace, facilitated by hydrophobic and ionic interactions between the proteins. Although Bleg1_2507 shares relatively low sequence identity (47%) to BsSco, interestingly, the predicted metal-binding residues of Bleg1_2507 i.e. Cys-69, Cys-73 and His-159 were located at flexible active loops similar to other Sco proteins across biological taxa. This highlights structural conservation of Sco despite their various functions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We propose that HP Bleg1_2507 is a Sco protein which is able to interact with COXII, its redox partner and therefore, may possess metallochaperone and redox functions similar to other documented bacterial Sco proteins. It is hoped that this scientific effort will help to spur the search for other physiologically relevant proteins among the so-called "orphan" proteins of any given organism.
    BMC Structural Biology 03/2014; 14(1):11. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Burkholderia pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis. It is able to adapt to harsh environments and can live intracellularly in its infected hosts. In this study, identification of transcriptional factors that associate with the β' subunit (RpoC) of RNA polymerase was performed. The N-terminal region of this subunit is known to trigger promoter melting when associated with a sigma factor. A pull-down assay using histidine-tagged B. pseudomallei RpoC N-terminal region as bait showed that a hypothetical protein BPSS1356 was one of the proteins bound. This hypothetical protein is conserved in all B. pseudomallei strains and present only in the Burkholderia genus. A BPSS1356 deletion mutant was generated to investigate its biological function. The mutant strain exhibited reduced biofilm formation and a lower cell density during the stationary phase of growth in LB medium. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the ΔBPSS1356 mutant cells had a shrunken cytoplasm indicative of cell plasmolysis and a rougher surface when compared to the wild type. An RNA microarray result showed that a total of 63 genes were transcriptionally affected by the BPSS1356 deletion with fold change values of higher than 4. The expression of a group of genes encoding membrane located transporters was concurrently down-regulated in ΔBPSS1356 mutant. Amongst the affected genes, the putative ion transportation genes were the most severely suppressed. Deprivation of BPSS1356 also down-regulated the transcriptions of genes for the arginine deiminase system, glycerol metabolism, type III secretion system cluster 2, cytochrome bd oxidase and arsenic resistance. It is therefore obvious that BPSS1356 plays a multiple regulatory roles on many genes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99218. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MS(E)) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications.
    TheScientificWorldJournal. 01/2014; 2014:642891.
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    ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways has been implicated in the pathogenicity of various pathogenic fungi and plays important roles in regulating pathogenicity-related morphogenesis. This work describes the isolation and characterization of MAP kinase gene, Cgl-SLT2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. A DNA sequence, including 1,633 bp of Cgl-SLT2 open-reading frame and its promoter and terminator regions, was isolated via DNA walking and cloned. To analyze gene function, a gene disruption cassette containing hygromycin-resistant gene was constructed, and Cgl-SLT2 was inactivated via gene deletion. Analysis on Cgl-slt2 mutant revealed a defect in vegetative growth and sporulation as compared to the wild-type strain. When grown under nutrient-limiting conditions, hyperbranched hyphal morphology was observed in the mutant. Conidia induction for germination on rubber wax-coated hard surfaces revealed no differences in the percentage of conidial germination between the wild-type and Cgl-slt2 mutant. However, the percentage of appressorium formation in the mutant was greatly reduced. Bipolar germination in the mutant was higher than in the wild-type at 8-h post-induction. A pathogenicity assay revealed that the mutant was unable to infect either wounded or unwounded mangoes. These results suggest that the Cgl-SLT2 MAP kinase is required for C. gloeosporioides conidiation, polarized growth, appressorium formation and pathogenicity.
    Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]. 12/2013; 44(4):1241-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren is capable of feeding on living tree. This ability is attributed to their effective digestive system that is furnished by the termite's own cellulolytic enzymes and cooperative enzymes produced by their gut microbes. In this study, the identity of an array of diverse microbes residing in the gut of C. curvignathus was revealed by sequencing the near-full-length 16S rRNA genes. A total of 154 bacterial phylotypes were found. The Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum and accounted for about 65% of the gut microbial profile. This is followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, TM7, Deferribacteres, Plantomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Termite Group 1. Based on the phylogenetic study, this symbiosis can be a result of long co-evolution of gut enterotypes with the phylogenic distribution, strong selection pressure in gut and other speculative pressures that determine bacterial biome to follow. The phylogenetic distribution of cloned rRNA genes in the bacterial domain that was considerably different from other termite reflects the strong selection pressures in the gut where a proportional composition of gut microbiome of C. curvignathus has established. The selection pressures could be linked to the unique diet preference of C. curvignathus which profoundly feeds on living tree. The delicate gut microbiome composition may provide available nutrients to the host as well as potential protection against opportunistic pathogen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Insect Science 10/2013; · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to optimize sugar production from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). Three different pretreatments were applied to EFBF, namely steam, steam with 5% sodium hydroxide (steam + 5% NaOH) and steam with 5% acetic acid (steam + 5% acetic acid). The hydrolyzability of the pretreated EFBF was determined using cellulolytic enzyme mixture comprising of Celluclast 1.5L (C), Viscozyme L (V) and Novozyme 188 (N). The different pretreatments showed varying degree of severities to the morphology of the fiber. Steam + 5% acetic acid pretreatment was found to cause the most severe changes to the EFBF surface. The optimum combinations of the enzymes for EFBF degradation, using a fixed parameters, were determined using Simplex Lattice mixture design. For untreated, steam pretreated, steam + 5% NaOH, steam + 5% acetic acid EFBFs, the optimum combinations enzyme were 0.49C: 0.45V: 0.06N, 0.88C: 0.12N, 0.78C: 0.03V: 0.2N and 0.90C: 0.03V: 0.07N respectively. Surface morphology of EFBF appears to be the major contributing factor that affects efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. Among these four samples, steam + 5% acetic acid pretreated EFBF gave the highest yield of sugars (44.36% xylose; 52.03% glucose). Applying the best enzymatic combinations, saccharification of pretreated samples was optimized using RSM. saccharification of the steam + 5% acetic acid pretreated EFBF was able to yield 99.90 ± 10.92 mg g−1 xylose and 281.77 ± 28.00 mg g−1 glucose at 2.51% enzyme loading (with total protein loading 22.1 mg per gram EFBF) in 4.55% EFBF for 35.08 h of reaction. Overall, through the combination of steam + 5% acetic acid pretreatment, enzyme mixture optimization and optimization of enzymatic saccharification, EFBF has the potential to produce substantial amount of sugars (62.36% xylose; 81.84% glucose).
    Biomass and Bioenergy 09/2013; 56:137–146. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel α-amylase was isolated successfully from Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 using DNA walking and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The structure of this psychrophilic α-amylase (AmyPI12) from G. antarctica PI12 has yet to be studied in detail. A 3D model of AmyPI12 was built using a homology modelling approach to search for a suitable template and to generate an optimum target-template alignment, followed by model building using MODELLER9.9. Analysis of the AmyPI12 model revealed the presence of binding sites for a conserved calcium ion (CaI), non-conserved calcium ions (CaII and CaIII) and a sodium ion (Na). Compared with its template-the thermostable α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (BSTA)-the binding of CaII, CaIII and Na ions in AmyPI12 was observed to be looser, which suggests that the low stability of AmyPI12 allows the protein to work at different temperature scales. The AmyPI12 amino acid sequence and model were compared with thermophilic α-amylases from Bacillus species that provided the highest structural similarities with AmyPI12. These comparative studies will enable identification of possible determinants of cold adaptation.
    Journal of Molecular Modeling 05/2013; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    Kheng Oon Low, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Rosli Md Illias
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli-the powerhouse for recombinant protein production-is rapidly gaining status as a reliable and efficient host for secretory expression. An improved understanding of protein translocation processes and its mechanisms has inspired and accelerated the development of new tools and applications in this field and, in particular, a more efficient secretion signal. Several important characteristics and requirements are summarised for the design of a more efficient signal peptide for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. General approaches and strategies to optimise the signal peptide, including the selection and modification of the signal peptide components, are included. Several challenges in the secretory production of recombinant proteins are discussed, and research approaches designed to meet these challenges are proposed.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 03/2013; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Edited by Miroslaw Cygler Cutinase has been ascertained as a biocatalyst for bio-technological and industrial bioprocesses. The Glomerella cingulata cutinase was genetically modified to enhance its enzymatic performance to fulfill industrial requirements. Two sites were selected for mutagenesis with the aim of altering the surface electrostatics as well as removing a potentially deamidation-prone asparagine residue. The N177D cutinase variant was affirmed to be more resilient to temperature increase with a 2.7-fold increase in half-life at 508 8 8 8 8C as compared with wild-type enzyme, while, the activity at 258 8 8 8 8C is not compromised. Furthermore, the increase in thermal tolerance of this variant is accom-panied by an increase in optimal temperature. Another variant, the L172K, however, exhibited higher enzymatic performance towards phenyl ester substrates of longer carbon chain length, yet its thermal stability is inversely affected. In order to restore the thermal stability of L172K, we constructed a L172K/N177D double variant and showed that these two mutations yield an improved variant with enhanced activity towards phenyl ester sub-strates and enhanced thermal stability. Taken together, our study may provide valuable information for enhan-cing catalytic performance and thermal stability in future engineering endeavors. Keywords: deamidation/dynamic light scattering/enzyme engineering/Glomerella cingulata cutinase/thermal stability
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    ABSTRACT: Edited by Miroslaw Cygler Cutinase has been ascertained as a biocatalyst for bio-technological and industrial bioprocesses. The Glomerella cingulata cutinase was genetically modified to enhance its enzymatic performance to fulfill industrial requirements. Two sites were selected for mutagenesis with the aim of altering the surface electrostatics as well as removing a potentially deamidation-prone asparagine residue. The N177D cutinase variant was affirmed to be more resilient to temperature increase with a 2.7-fold increase in half-life at 508 8 8 8 8C as compared with wild-type enzyme, while, the activity at 258 8 8 8 8C is not compromised. Furthermore, the increase in thermal tolerance of this variant is accom-panied by an increase in optimal temperature. Another variant, the L172K, however, exhibited higher enzymatic performance towards phenyl ester substrates of longer carbon chain length, yet its thermal stability is inversely affected. In order to restore the thermal stability of L172K, we constructed a L172K/N177D double variant and showed that these two mutations yield an improved variant with enhanced activity towards phenyl ester sub-strates and enhanced thermal stability. Taken together, our study may provide valuable information for enhan-cing catalytic performance and thermal stability in future engineering endeavors. Keywords: deamidation/dynamic light scattering/enzyme engineering/Glomerella cingulata cutinase/thermal stability
    Protein Engineering Design and Selection 03/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):1, Export Date: 21 February 2014, Source: Scopus
    Polar Biology 01/2013; 36(3):381-389. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ease with which auxotrophic strains and genes that complement them can be manipulated, as well as the stability of auxotrophic selection systems, are amongst the advantages of using auxotrophic markers to produce heterologous proteins. Most auxotrophic markers in Aspergillus oryzae originate from chemical or physical mutagenesis that may yield undesirable mutations along with the mutation of interest. An auxotrophic A. oryzae strain S1 was generated by deleting the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene (pyrG) by targeted gene replacement. The uridine requirement of the resulting strain GR6 pyrGΔ0 was complemented by plasmids carrying a pyrG gene from either Aspergillus nidulans or A. oryzae. β -Galactosidase expression by strain GR6 pyrGΔ0 transformed with an A. niger plasmid encoding a heterologous β -galactosidase was at least 150 times more than that obtained with the untransformed strain. Targeted gene replacement is thus an efficient way of developing auxotrophic mutants in A. oryzae and the auxotrophic strain GR6 pyrGΔ0 facilitated the production of a heterologous protein in this fungus.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:634317. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structure of BPSL1549, a protein of unknown function from Burkholderia pseudomallei, reveals a similarity to Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1. We found that BPSL1549 acted as a potent cytotoxin against eukaryotic cells and was lethal when administered to mice. Expression levels of bpsl1549 correlate with conditions expected to promote or suppress pathogenicity. BPSL1549 promotes deamidation of glutamine-339 of the translation initiation factor eIF4A, abolishing its helicase activity and inhibiting translation. We propose to name BPSL1549 Burkholderia lethal factor 1.
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    ABSTRACT: The psychrophilic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica demonstrated high antifreeze activity in its culture filtrate. The culture filtrate exhibited both thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (RI) properties. The TH of 0.1 °C was comparable to that previously reported for bacteria and fungi. A genome sequence survey of the G. antarctica genome identified a novel antifreeze protein gene. The cDNA encoded a 177 amino acid protein with 30 % similarity to a fungal antifreeze protein from Typhula ishikariensis. The expression levels of AFP1 were quantified via real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the highest expression levels were detected within 6 h of growth at -12 °C. The cDNA of the antifreeze protein was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system. Expression of recombinant Afp1 in E. coli resulted in the formation of inclusion bodies that were subsequently denatured by treatment with urea and allowed to refold in vitro. Activity assays of the recombinant Afp1 confirmed the antifreeze protein properties with a high TH value of 0.08 °C.
    Extremophiles 11/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

161 Citations
159.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Malaysia Genome Institute
      Kuala Lumpor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2008–2013
    • Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
      • • Department of Bioprocess Engineering
      • • Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering (FBME)
      Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
    • Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation - Malaysia
      Putrajaya, Putrajaya, Malaysia
  • 2006–2012
    • National University of Malaysia
      • • Faculty of Science and Technology
      • • School of Biosciences and Biotechnology
      Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2011
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
      Diliman, Central Luzon, Philippines