Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante

University of Campinas, Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (130)303.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Among the large number of scientifically oblivious fruits from Amazonia biome, Couepia bracteosa figures as an interesting source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which may be used for protecting human health against oxidative damage. For the first time, the phenolic compounds and carotenoids of extracts obtained from the pulp, shell and seeds of C. bracteosa fruits are reported, as well as its in vitro scavenging capacities against some reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The shell extract presented the highest phenolic compound and carotenoid contents (5540 and 328 µg/g extract, dry basis, respectively), followed by the pulp and seed extracts. The major phenolic compound was acacetin sulphate (one methoxy and two OH groups) (62%) in the shells; however, only seeds presented apigenin sulphate (three OH groups), in which it was the major compound (44%). The high content of apigenin sulphate may explain the highest scavenging efficiency of the seed extract against all tested ROS/RNS among the studied extracts. Regarding carotenoids, all-trans-neochrome (17%) and all-trans-β-carotene (16%) were the major carotenoids in the pulp extracts, while all-trans-lutein (44%) was the major in shell and all-trans-α-carotene (32%) and all-trans-β-carotene (29%) were the major ones in seed extracts.
    07/2015; 6:3081-3090. DOI:10.1039/C5FO00722D
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    ABSTRACT: The profile of the three classes of pigments (carotenoids, chlorophylls and phycobiliproteins) and the peroxyl radical scavenger capacity of extracts from microalgae Phormidium autumnale was determined. Twenty-four carotenoids, three phycobiliproteins and two chlorophylls were identified. The major carotenoids of biomass were all-trans-β-carotene (225.44 μg.g- 1), all-trans-lutein (117.56 μg.g- 1) and all-trans-zeaxanthin (88.46 μg.g- 1). Furthermore, characteristic carotenoids in cyanobacteria such as echinenone (79.07 μg.g- 1), myxoxanthophyll (18.83 μg.g- 1) and canthaxanthin (1.89 μg.g- 1) were found. The chlorophyll a (2.700 μg.g- 1) and C-phycocyanin (2.05 × 105 μg.g- 1) were predominant pigments in the other fractions of color compounds from biomass. The carotenoid and chlorophyll extracts were shown to be potent scavengers of peroxyl radical, being almost 28 and 85 times more potent α-tocopherol respectively, and for phycobiliproteins, the antioxidant capacity was 274 μmol trolox.g- 1 (dry wt).
    Food Research International 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.04.027 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different storage conditions can induce changes in the colour and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the colour and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC–DAD–MS/MS, and the colour of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p < 0.01), with negative estimated values (β coefficients) indicating that during cold storage conditions, the concentrations of these carotenoids tended to decrease. In cv. Nanicão, no carotenoid was significantly affected by cold storage (p > 0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The colour of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p > 0.05).
    Food Chemistry 03/2015; 170:102–109. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.069 · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti · Eliseu Rodrigues · Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante
    Atualidades em Ciências de Alimentos e Nutrição para Profissionais de Saúde, 1a. edited by Elaine Cristina P. de Martinis, Gustavo Henrique de A. Teixeira, 01/2015: chapter Alimentos Funcionais: pages 25-57; Editora Varela., ISBN: 978-85-7759-022-3
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    ABSTRACT: There is no consensus in the literature regarding the decrease of kahweol and cafestol contents during coffee roasting, but it has been reported that these compounds can undergo dehydration under heat. Kahweol and cafestol were quantified in Arabica and Robusta coffees with different roasting degrees (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min at 230 A degrees C). The structures of the diterpenes and the presence of derivative compounds were determined by liquid chromatography with UV-Vis and mass spectrometry detection. In the dark roast samples, dehydro derivatives were found. The roasting process influenced the level of diterpenes in both species of coffee, but the effect was dependent on the intensity of the process. Cafestol and kahweol were degraded (general losses from 60 to 75 % on a lipid basis) to dehydrocafestol and dehydrokahweol, respectively, after 8 min of process, which corresponds to the commercial roasting degree. On the other hand, the amounts of cafestol and kahweol (mg/100 g of coffee) remained stable during the roasting process due to relative increase in lipid concentration.
    European Food Research and Technology 12/2014; 239(6):961-970. DOI:10.1007/s00217-014-2293-x · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Addition of lutein to dairy products is an alternative that widens the range of foods which could be lutein sources. However, bioaccessibility is an essential aspect to be considered during the development of products with added bioactive substances. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt with different fat contents, and determined the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the esters during digestion. Bioaccessibility of lutein and efficiency of hydrolysis were significantly lower in skimmed products than semi-skimmed and whole products, indicating that a minimal amount of fat is required to allow micellization and hydrolysis. The efficiency of ester hydrolysis ranged between 12 and 35%, which was attributed to pancreatic lipase. Whole and semi-skimmed samples were shown to be good vehicles for the addition of lutein, since presented bioaccessibility indices (38.3–47.5%) are similar to those found in natural food sources of xanthophylls.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate the production of carotenoids from microalgae Phormidium autumnale cultivated using agroindustrial wastes. The carotenoid profile from microalgae biomass was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors. A total of twenty carotenoids were separated from the biomass. The all-trans-β-carotene (70.22 μg/g), all-trans-zeaxanthin (26.25 μg/g), all-trans-lutein (21.92 μg/g), all-trans-echinenone (19.87 μg/g) and cis-echinenone (15.70 μg/g) were the major ones. For the production of single-cell carotenoids it is possible to estimate a total carotenoid production of up to 107,902.5 kg/year in an industrial scale. Based on these results, we observed the potential of P. autumnale to the production of microalgal carotenoid in agroindustrial wastewater.
    Food Research International 11/2014; 65:144-148. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.06.037 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Adria de Sousa Bentes · Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante
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    ABSTRACT: Genipap fruits, native to the Amazonic region, were classified in relation to their stage of ripeness according to the firmness and peel color. The influence of the part of the genipap fruits and ripeness stage on the iridoid and phenolic compound profiles was evaluated by HPLC-DAD-MSn and a total of 17 compounds were identified. Geniposide was the major compound in both parts of the unripe genipap fruits, representing more than 70% of the total iridoids, whilst 5-caffeoylquinic acid was the major phenolic compound. In ripe fruits, genipin- gentiobioside was the major compound in the endocarp (38%) and no phenolic compounds were detected. During ripening, the total iridoid content decreased by more than 90%, which could explain the absence of blue pigment formation in the ripe fruits after their injury. This is the first time that the phenolic compound composition and iridoid contents of genipap fruits have been reported in the literature.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2014; 62(44). DOI:10.1021/jf503378k · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A hydrophilic extract of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia), a fruit native to the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, was evaluated in relation to its phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant potential against some physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Additionally, the protective effect of murici extract against peroxyl radical (ROOradical dot)-induced toxicity to human erythrocytes was also determined. The major phenolic compound, determined by HPLC–DAD–MSn, was quercetin (2.72 ± 0.35 μg/mL). The extract was able to scavenge ROOradical dot (0.30 ± 0.04 μmol trolox equivalent/mg), hypochlorous acid (IC50 = 10.0 ± 0.1 μg/mL), hydroxyl radical (IC50 = 7 ± 1 μg/mL) and peroxynitrite anion (IC50 = 21.0 ± 0.6 μg/mL and 17.0 ± 1.6 μg/mL, respectively, in absence and presence of NaHCO3). Human erythrocytes were subjected to oxidative damage, but murici extract was not able to inhibit hemolysis, even at the highest tested concentration. On the other hand, the extract inhibited hemoglobin oxidation (IC50 = 271 ± 44 μg/mL), lipid peroxidation (1000 μg/mL) by 48 ± 5%, depletion of glutathione (100 μg/mL) by 49 ± 2% and formation of its oxidized form (100 μg/mL) by 96 ± 4%.
    Food Research International 10/2014; 64:618-625. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.07.032 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is a native shrub often found in the Amazon Forest. Its fruits, known as maná-cubiu, possess an unusual flavor and are consumed in salads and juices, mainly by the local community of Northern Brazil. Because these fruits are used in traditional medicine as hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic agents, it is important to establish whether the consumption of maná-cubiu is safe using in vivo genotoxicity tests. Here, we investigated the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of maná-cubiu for doxorucibin(DXR)-induced DNA damage using the micronucleus test and the comet assay in Wistar rats. Moreover, oxidative stress parameters were determined in the heart and liver of the animals by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. The relative expression of Pgts2 mRNA in the livers of the animals was also determined. The tests were performed with maná-cubiu pulp (125, 250, 375 or 500 mg/kg body weight - b.w.) by gavage for 14 days, followed by intraperitoneal injection of saline or DXR (16 mg/kg b.w.) immediately after the last gavage, which occurred 24 hours before euthanasia. The results showed that maná-cubiu at all tested doses had no cytotoxic effects on bone marrow cells and was not genotoxic to heart or liver cells. In addition, maná-cubiu treatments decreased DXR-induced DNA damage according to the comet assay in heart and liver cells. Reductions in micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood cells occurred at 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg b.w doses of maná-cubiu, and the TBARS content induced by DXR was also reduced by maná-cubiu. Furthermore, maná-cubiu did not modulate the transcription of the Ptgs2 gene. In conclusion, maná-cubiu pulp fruit was not cytotoxic or genotoxic in Wistar rats, suggesting its safety for human consumption, at least considering genotoxic effects. The antioxidant capacity of maná-cubiu pulp fruit may contribute to the antigenotoxic effects of this fruit at the doses used in this study.
    Food Research International 08/2014; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.02.036 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Renan C. Chisté · Marisa Freitas · Adriana Z. Mercadante · Eduarda Fernandes
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    ABSTRACT: β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene are liposoluble pigments widely distributed in vegetables and fruits and, after ingestion, these compounds are usually detected in human blood plasma. In this study, we evaluated their potential to inhibit hemolysis of human erythrocytes, as mediated by the toxicity of peroxyl radicals (ROO•). Thus, 2,2′-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) was used as ROO• generator and the hemolysis assay was carried out in experimental conditions optimized by response surface methodology, and successfully adapted to microplate assay. The optimized conditions were verified at 30 × 106 cells/mL, 17 mM of AAPH for 3 h, at which 48 ± 5% of hemolysis was achieved in freshly isolated erythrocytes. Among the tested carotenoids, lycopene (IC50 = 0.24 ± 0.05 μM) was the most efficient to prevent the hemolysis, followed by β-carotene (0.32 ± 0.02 μM), lutein (0.38 ± 0.02 μM), and zeaxanthin (0.43 ± 0.02 μM). These carotenoids were at least 5 times more effective than quercetin, trolox, and ascorbic acid (positive controls). β-Cryptoxanthin did not present any erythroprotective effect, but rather induced a hemolytic effect at the highest tested concentration (3 μM). These results suggest that selected carotenoids may have potential to act as important erythroprotective agents by preventing ROO•-induced toxicity in human erythrocytes.Practical ApplicationSelected carotenoids may have potential to be used in the development of phytopharmaceutical products as important erythroprotective agents by preventing ROO•-induced toxicity in human erythrocytes.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2014; 79(9). DOI:10.1111/1750-3841.12580 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Renan Campos Chisté · Marta de Toledo Benassi · Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionCaryocar villosum has been reported as a source of bioactive compounds that can be used as a potential product against oxidative damage in foods or biological systems. Objective To obtain extracts from fruit pulps of C. villosum with high levels of bioactive compounds that have both antioxidant and colour properties. Method The contents of bioactive compounds (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, carotenoids and tocopherols), the colour parameters, the scavenging capacity against peroxyl radicals (ROO•) and the quenching activity against singlet oxygen (1O2) were determined. All data were used for extract classification by applying principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. ResultsThe water and ethanol:water (1:1, v/v) extracts presented the highest levels of total phenolic compounds (9.2 and 6.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively), total flavonoids (3.8 and 2.5 mg catechin equivalent/g extract, respectively) and total tannins (7.6 and 2.4 mg tannic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively). The ethanol:water (1:1, v/v) extract also showed the highest scavenging capacity against ROO• (0.3 mmol trolox equivalent/g extract) and the highest protection against 1O2 (12.5%). On the other hand, the ethanol extracts, which were the most vivid and yellow colour (C*ab = 13.7 and b* = 13.3), presented the highest level of total carotenoids (0.1 mg/g), but low scavenging capacity against ROO• (0.01 mmol trolox equivalent/g extract). Conclusion Based on these results and depending on the applicability, the ethanol:water, water and ethanol are the most promising solvents to obtain C. villosum extracts with high contents of bioactive compounds, ROO• scavenging capacity and protection against 1O2. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1002/pca.2489 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lutein (LT) is a carotenoid obtained by diet and despite its antioxidant activity had been biochemically reported, few studies are available concerning its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes. The expression of 84 genes implicated in antioxidant defense was quantified using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction array. DNA damage was measured by comet assay and glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were quantified as biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mouse kidney and liver. cDDP treatment reduced concentration of GSH and increased TBARS, parameters that were ameliorated in treatment associated with LT. cDDP altered the expression of 32 genes, increasing the expression of GPx2, APC, Nqo1 and CCs. LT changed the expression of 37 genes with an induction of 13 mainly oxygen transporters. In treatments associating cDDP and LT, 30 genes had their expression changed with a increase of the same genes of the cDDP treatment alone. These results suggest that LT might act scavenging reactive species and also inducing the expression of genes related to a better antioxidant response, highlighting the improvement of oxygen transport. This improved redox state of the cell through LT treatment could be related to the antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects observed.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 05/2014; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.018 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fruits from the Atlantic Forest have received increasing interest because they contain high levels of bioactive compounds with notable functional properties. The composition of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from fruits found in the Atlantic Forest (jussara, uvaia, araça and grumixama) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometry detectors. Uvaia showed the highest levels of carotenoids (1306.6 μg/100 g fresh matter (f.m.)). Gallic acid was major phenolic compound in araça (12.2 mg GAE/100 g f.m.) and uvaia (27.5 mg GAE/100 g f.m.). In grumixama, eight quercetin derivatives were found; the main carotenoids included all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (286.7 μg/100 g f.m.) and all-trans-lutein (55.5 μg/100 g f.m.). Uvaia and grumixama contain high amounts of carotenoids, while jussara showed greater levels of phenolic compounds (415 mg GAE/100 g f.m.), particularly anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-rutinoside: 179.60 mg/100 g f.m. and cyanidin 3-glucoside: 47.93 mg/100 g f.m.).
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2014; 62(22). DOI:10.1021/jf501211p · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study HPLC-DAD-MS/MS was applied for the identification of compounds derived from (all-E)-β-carotene following epoxidation and oxidative cleavage. The consequences on the CIELAB colour parameters and antioxidant capacity (AC) were also evaluated. Five apocarotenoids, three secocarotenoids, seven Z isomers and two epoxides were detected as a result of the oxidative cleavage. Four epoxides and three Z isomers were detected as a consequence of the epoxidation reaction. Some compounds were detected for the first time as a result of oxidation reactions. Both treatments led to a marked decrease in b(∗) and Cab(∗) values, indicating that these colour parameters can be used for the rapid assessment of β-carotene oxidation. The oxidative cleavage of β-carotene resulted in increased capacity to both scavenge ABTS(+) and quench singlet oxygen. These results suggest that the study of the AC of these oxidative derivatives and their possible usefulness as food ingredients deserves further attention.
    Food Chemistry 03/2014; 147C:160-169. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.106 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorophyll a and carotenoids are important pigments in photosynthesis. Several studies have been published describing extraction and analysis protocols of these pigments, mainly in vascular plant species. This study standardizes an extraction and analysis protocol of these substances in Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui, a red seaweed. Apical portions grown in vitro were triturated in liquid nitrogen. Extracts were prepared in 1.5 mL solvent and centrifuged. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of pigments were performed by UV/visible light spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The parameters assessed were: minimum biomass, best extraction solvent, and number of extraction steps. Methanol was the most efficient solvent, and 50 mg fresh biomass was the amount of sample indicated, submitted to one single extraction step. No significant differences were observed in levels of these pigments by UV-visible light spectrophotometry and HPLC. However, HPLC or HPLC-MS are required to identify the different carotenoids present in this seaweed species.
    Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 03/2014; 62(1). DOI:10.1590/s1679-87592014068106201 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thermal degradation of carotenoids in cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice leads to changes in the beverage colour, and possibly in the aroma and flavour, although the latter hypothesis has not yet been properly investigated. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate the formation of odour active volatiles derived from the thermal degradation of carotenoids in a cashew apple juice model. A carotenoid extract in an acidic aqueous medium was submitted to 60 and 90 °C for 1 and 2 h. The non-volatile compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-PDA). The volatiles were isolated by headspace-solid phase micro-extraction, separated by gas chromatography, identified by mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS) and their odour significance assessed by GC-Olfactometry. Thirty-three odour active volatiles were identified in the heated system, amongst which 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene, naphthalene and p-xylene. The results indicated that the volatiles formed from the thermal degradation of the carotenoids influence the aroma and flavour of thermally processed cashew apple products.
    Food Research International 02/2014; 56:108–114. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2013.12.015 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Renan Campos Chisté · Marisa Freitas · Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante · Eduarda Fernandes
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the presence of endogenous antioxidants in erythrocytes, these cells are highly susceptible to oxidative damage and some exogenous antioxidants, such as carotenoids, are able to inhibit the pro-oxidant effect provided by reactive oxygen species. In this study, we evaluated the potential of carotenoids usually detected in human blood plasma (β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene) to prevent the oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Human erythrocytes were subjected to induced oxidative damage and the following biomarkers of oxidative stress were monitored: lipid peroxidation [induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) or by 2,2´-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)] and AAPH-induced oxidation of hemoglobin and depletion of glutathione. When tBHP was used to induce lipid peroxidation, lycopene was the most efficient carotenoid (IC50=2.2±0.4μM), whilst lutein was the most efficient (IC50=2.5±0.7μM) when peroxyl radicals (ROO(●)) were generated by AAPH. In relation to the hemoglobin oxidation induced by AAPH, β-carotene and zeaxanthin were the most efficient antioxidants (IC50=2.9±0.3μM and 2.9±0.1μM, respectively). Surprisingly β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene did not inhibit hemoglobin oxidation or lipid peroxidation when induced by AAPH, even at the highest tested concentration (3μM). Additionally, the tested carotenoids did not prevent ROO(●)- mediated GSH depletion and GSSG formation probably due to the lack of interaction between carotenoids (apolar) and glutathione (polar). Our study contributes with important insights that carotenoids may exert therapeutical potential to act as natural antioxidant to prevent ROO(●)-induced toxicity in human erythrocytes.
    Life sciences 01/2014; 99(1). DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.01.059 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various species of the genus Passiflora have been extensively used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anxiolytics, diuretics and analgesics. In the present study, after the identification and quantification of phytochemical compounds from yellow passion fruit pulp by liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), its antihypertensive effect was investigated on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Additionally, the renal function, evaluated by kidney/body weight, serum creatinine, proteinuria, urinary flow, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and mutagenicity in bone marrow cells were assessed to evaluate the safety of passion fruit consumption. Yellow passion fruit pulp (5, 6 or 8 g/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage once a day for 5 consecutive days. HLPC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed that yellow passion fruit pulp contains phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and flavonoids. The highest dose of passion fruit pulp significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, increased the GSH levels and decreased TBARS. There were no changes in renal function parameters or the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of yellow passion fruit pulp, at least in part, might be due to the enhancement of the antioxidant status. The exact mechanisms responsible by this effect need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 01/2014; 28(1). DOI:10.1002/ptr.4949 · 2.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
303.60 Total Impact Points


  • 1989–2015
    • University of Campinas
      • • Departamento de Ciência de Alimentos (DCA)
      • • Institute of Chemistry
      • • Departamento de Farmacologia
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2012
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 1996–2010
    • Universität Bern
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2007
    • CEP America
      Емеривил, California, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero
      Santiago del Estero, Santiago del Estero, Argentina
  • 2005
    • Technische Universität Braunschweig
      Brunswyck, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1997
    • University of Liverpool
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom