Mike Young

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (3)8.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A feeling of mouth dryness occurs from actual drying of the oral surfaces or from sampling astringent substances such as polyphenols (e.g., tannins in brewed tea and wine), which bind proline-rich proteins in saliva to reduce its lubricity. Here we investigated the interactions between physical drying and the effect of polyphenols on the subjective state of oral hydration. Twelve subjects rated the perceived wetness/dryness of their mouth using a labeled magnitude scale, after the mouth was dried with air for 35 s, or the subjects waited for an equal period of time during which the mouth was not dried. Subsequently, 1.5 mL volumes of an astringent solution (5 g L(-1) tannic acid in distilled water), distilled drinking water, or a sweet solution (40 g L(-1) sugar in mango tea with no tannins) were introduced into the mouth. After swishing and swallowing, the subject rated the wetness of the mouth for 4.3 min. The liquids were found to differ in their ability to wet the mouth (p<0.0001). The least wet sensations were reported for the astringent solution, on average; however, the differences among liquids were not equally pronounced at all times during the observation period (p<0.02). When the mouth was normally hydrated (i.e., had not been dried), the wetting effectiveness of the three liquids, based on the ratings, differed most greatly immediately after they had been received and swallowed. In contrast, when the mouth was dried, the liquids did not differ at this time. That the astringent solution did not have less wetting effectiveness in the dried mouth was attributed to the absence of precipitable salivary proteins. The findings suggest that the refreshment value of astringent drinks, based on their perceived wetting effectiveness, may vary with the state of oral hydration.
    Physiology & Behavior 04/2008; 93(4-5):889-96. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.12.006 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The temperature of foods and fluids is a major factor that determines their pleasantness and acceptability. Studies of nonhuman primates have shown that many neurons in cortical taste areas receive and process not only chemosensory inputs, but oral thermosensory (temperature) inputs as well. We investigated whether changes in oral temperature activate these areas in humans, or middle or posterior insular cortex, the areas most frequently identified for the encoding of temperature information from the human hand. In the fMRI study we identified areas of activation in response to innocuous, temperature-controlled (cooled and warmed, 5, 20 and 50 degrees C) liquid introduced into the mouth. The oral temperature stimuli activated the insular taste cortex (identified by glucose taste stimuli), a part of the somatosensory cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum. Brain regions where activations correlated with the pleasantness ratings of the oral temperature stimuli included the orbitofrontal cortex and pregenual cingulate cortex. We conclude that a network of taste- and reward-responsive regions of the human brain is also activated by intra-oral thermal stimulation, and that the pleasant subjective states elicited by oral thermal stimuli are correlated with the activations in the orbitofrontal cortex and pregenual cingulate cortex. Thus the pleasantness of oral temperature is represented in brain regions shown in previous studies to represent the pleasantness of the taste and flavour of food. Bringing together these different oral representations in the same brain regions may enable particular combinations to influence the pleasantness of foods.
    Physiology & Behavior 01/2008; 92(5):975-84. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.07.004 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that the preference for drinking cold water is increased when the drinker has a dry mouth. In a first experiment, we investigated whether a positive shift in preference would occur for small water volumes (0.75 ml and 1.5 ml) at 8, 16 or 25 degrees C, delivered into a mouth that had been dried using a warmed airflow, versus a normally hydrated mouth. Subjects rated the perceived wetness (or dryness) of their mouth, and the perceived pleasantness (or unpleasantness) of the water samples, using a labeled magnitude scale. Cooler water samples were preferred, and consistent with previous research, this preference was slightly enhanced when the subject's mouth was dried. The coldest water sample led to significantly wetter mouthfeel than the other two less cold samples, consistent with the possibility that the coldest water increased the rate of salivation. However, a second experiment found that although the rate of parotid salivation was increased if the mouth had been dried using a warm airflow, the different water temperatures did not induce different rates of parotid salivation. This indicates that enhanced preference for cold water when the mouth is dry is not invariably based in the reward gained from mouth rewetting via increased parotid saliva flow.
    Physiology & Behavior 01/2007; 89(5):724-34. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.08.012 · 2.98 Impact Factor