[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating signal cointegrator-2 (ASC-2) is a recently isolated transcriptional coactivator protein for a variety of different transcription factors, including many members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In this report, we demonstrate that ASC-2 also serves as a coactivator of the xenobiotic nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). First, transcriptional activation by CAR was enhanced by cotransfected ASC-2 in CV-1 and HeLa cells. In contrast, CAR transactivation was significantly impaired in HepG2 cells stably expressing specific small interfering RNA directed against ASC-2. Consistent with these results, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that ASC-2 is recruited to the known CAR target genes in a ligand-dependent manner. Secondly, CAR specifically interacted with the first LXXLL motif of ASC-2, and these interactions were stimulated by CAR agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene and repressed by CAR inverse agonist androstanol, suggesting that this motif may mediate the interactions of ASC-2 and CAR in vivo. In support of this idea, DN1, a fragment of ASC-2 encompassing the first LXXLL motif, suppressed CAR transactivation, and coexpressed ASC-2 but not other LXXLL-type coactivators such as thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 220 reversed this repression. Finally, CAR was recently found to play a pivotal role in effecting the severe acetaminophen-induced liver damage. Interestingly, transgenic mice expressing DN1 were resistant to the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and expression of a series of the known CAR target genes was specifically repressed in these transgenic mice. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that ASC-2 is a bona fide coactivator of the xenobiotic nuclear receptor CAR and mediate the specific xenobiotic response by CAR in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-induced gene-1 (Insig-1) and its homolog Insig-2 encode closely related proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum that block proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins, membrane-bound transcription factors that activate synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids in animal cells. These proteins also restrict lipogenesis in mature adipocytes and block differentiation of preadipocytes. Herein, we identified a novel 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] response element in the promoter region of Insig-2 gene, which specifically binds to the heterodimer of retinoid X receptor and vitamin D receptor (VDR) and directs VDR-mediated transcriptional activation in a 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent manner. Interestingly, 1,25-(OH)2D3 is known to directly suppress the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 protein and inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and murine bone marrow stromal cells. Consistent with an idea that the antiadipogenic action of 1,25-(OH)2D3 may also involve up-regulation of Insig-2, we found that 1,25-(OH)2D3 transiently but strongly induces Insig-2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. This novel regulatory circuit may also play important roles in other lipogenic cell types that express VDR, and collectively our results suggest an intriguing, new linkage between 1,25-(OH)2D3 and lipogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating signal cointegrator 2 (ASC-2), a cancer-amplified transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors and many other transcription factors, contains two LXXLL-type nuclear receptor interaction domains. Interestingly, the second LXXLL motif is highly specific to the liver X receptors (LXRs). In cotransfection, DN2, an ASC-2 fragment encompassing this motif, exerts a potent dominant-negative effect on transactivation by LXRs, which is rescued by ectopic coexpression of the full-length ASC-2 but not by other LXXLL-type coactivators, such as SRC-1 and TRAP220. In contrast, DN2/m, in which the LXXLL motif is mutated to LXXAA to abolish the interactions with LXRs, is without any effect. Accordingly, expression of DN2, but not DN2/m, in transgenic mice results in phenotypes that are highly homologous to those previously observed with LXRalpha(-/-) mice, including a rapid accumulation of large amounts of cholesterol and down-regulation of the known lipid-metabolizing target genes of LXRalpha in the liver upon being fed a high-cholesterol diet. These results identify ASC-2 as a physiologically important transcriptional coactivator of LXRs and demonstrate its pivotal role in the liver lipid metabolism.