[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hepatic artery embolisation (HAE) in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is controversial because of the associated complications and unproven long-term benefit. We present our results in 20 such patients over a time span of 17 years. METHODS: Staged HAE was performed using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles and coils. Complications, clinical symptoms and cardiac output were assessed before and after therapy as well as at the end of follow-up (median 92 months, range 26-208 months). RESULTS: Two patients died within 30 days following HAE (10 %). Four further deaths resulted from causes unrelated to HAE. Ischaemic cholangitis, cholecystitis and focal hepatic necrosis with biliary sepsis necessitated re-intervention in four patients. In all but one patient, clinical symptoms resolved with mean cardiac output falling from 11.84 ± 3.22 l/min pre-treatment to 8.13 ± 2.67 l/min at the end of follow-up (P < 0.001). One patient required liver transplantation for de novo symptoms of portal hypertension 4 years after primary symptoms had been cured by HAE. CONCLUSION: The 30-day mortality of HAE in patients with HHT is 10 %. The rate of complications requiring re-intervention is 20 %. Clinical response at long-term follow-up is satisfactory. KEY POINTS : • Hepatic artery embolisation (HAE) in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) provides long-term benefit. • Mortalities of HAE and liver transplantation in HHT patients are comparable. • In HHT, complications of HAE are lower than those of liver transplantation. • Complications of HAE can be further reduced by refinement of technique. • Complications include ischaemic cholangitis, hepatic necrosis, biliary sepsis and death.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the use of a hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique to treat a patient suffering from a multisegmentally diseased, dextropositioned aortic arch and right descending aorta.
The technique is illustrated in a 58-year-old woman who was diagnosed with chronic type A aortic dissection in a right aortic arch and descending aorta; a lusoric left subclavian artery passed behind the esophagus. Aneurysmal dilatation of the arch and descending aorta required treatment. A frozen elephant trunk procedure was performed in a single stage via a median sternotomy using a hybrid Chavan-Haverich endograft, with complete surgical replacement of aortic arch. The stents for the endograft were placed in the descending aorta in an antegrade fashion through the opened aortic arch.
This case demonstrates the feasibility of treating complex pathologies of the thoracic aorta even in cases of aberrant anatomy. A conventional 2-stage approach for treatment of the complex pathology could have been complicated due to difficulties with exposure.
Journal of Endovascular Therapy 12/2010; 17(6):751-4. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of percutaneous interventions in treating ischemia complicating aortic dissection. Forty-five patients with ischemia complicating aortic dissection were treated by balloon fenestration, true lumen stenting, angioplasty, or thrombolysis. Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed before and after intervention, and at the end of follow-up (median 37 months). Eighteen dissections were acute, 9 sub-acute, and 18 chronic. Mesenterohepatic ischemia resolved in 16 of 18 patients; lactate and SGOT values fell from 2.89 to 1.23 mmol/L (p=0.006) and from 165.9 to 59.7 U/L (p=0.034), respectively. In patients with renal ischemia, creatinine levels fell from 360.1 to 196.3 micromol/L (p=0.007) accompanied by a significant reduction in blood pressure. Limb-threatening ischemia resolved in three of four patients; in 21 claudicants, the mean walking distance improved from 272 to 1,283 m (p=0.001). Spinal ischemia resolved completely or partially in six of eight patients. Adjunctive surgical measures were necessary in six patients. Overall 30-day mortality in the 45 patients was 6.7%; all three deaths were in patients with acute dissections (mortality in this subgroup 16.7%). Ischemia complicating aortic dissection can be effectively treated by percutaneous interventions resulting in good early and mid-term outcomes.
European Radiology 09/2008; 19(2):488-94. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is a device originally intended for arterial and venous embolization in peripheral vessels. From December 2004 to March 2007 we implanted a total of 8 AVPs in the portal venous system in our institution for preoperative portal vein embolization in 4 patients (55-71 years) prior to right hemihepatectomy. AVP implantation was successful in all patients. Total occlusion of the embolized portal vein branches was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications associated with the embolization.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 11/2007; 30(6):1245-7. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a multidisciplinary conference patients with advanced non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were stratified according to their clinical status and tumor extent to different regional modalities or to best supportive care. The present study evaluated all patients who were stratified to repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) from 1999 until 2003 in terms of tumor response, toxicity, and survival. A moderate embolizing approach was chosen using a combination of degradable starch microspheres (DSM) and iodized oil (Lipiodol) in order to combine anti-tumoral efficiency and low toxicity.
Fourty-seven patients were followed up prospectively. TACE treatment consisted of cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)), doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2)), 450-900 mg DSM, and 5-30 ml Lipiodol. DSM and Lipiodol were administered according to tumor vascularization. Patient characteristics, toxicity, and complications were outlined. In multivariate regression analyses of pre-treatment variables from a prospective database, predictors for tumor response and survival after TACE were determined.
112 TACE courses were performed (2.4+/-1.5 courses per patient). Mean maximum tumor size was 75 (+/-43) mm, in 68% there was bilobar disease. Best response to TACE treatment was: progressive disease (PD) 9%, stable disease (SD) 55%, partial remission (PR) 36%, and complete remission (CR) 0%. Multivariate regression analyses identified tumor size <or=75 mm, tumor number <or=5, and tumor hypervascularization as predictors for PR. The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year-survival rates were 75%, 59%, and 41%, respectively, and the median survival was 26 months. Low alpha-fetoprotein levels (<400 ng/ml) (Odds ratio=3.3) and PR as best response to TACE (Odds ratio=6.7) were significantly associated with long term survival (>30 months, R(2)=36%). Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 7.1% (n=8), and grade 4 toxicity in 3.6% (n=4) of all courses in terms of reversible leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The incidence of major complications was 5.4% (n=6). All complications were managed conservatively. The mortality within 6 weeks after TACE was 2.1% (one patient).
DSM and Lipiodol were combined successfully in the palliative TACE treatment of advanced HCC resulting in high rates of tumor response and survival at limited toxicity. Favourable tumor response was associated with tumor extent and vascularization. TACE using DSM and Lipiodol can be considered a suitable palliative measure in patients who might not tolerate long acting embolizing agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report a novel complication of a hybrid "frozen elephant trunk" endograft used in the treatment of a multisegmentally diseased aorta.
A 53-year-old man with chronic type A aortic dissection and previous replacement of the supracoronary ascending aorta underwent a "frozen elephant trunk" procedure using a hybrid endograft. The stent-graft was placed deep in the descending aorta to cover the multiple distal re-entries. Due to ineffective covering of the re-entries, a patent false lumen led to rapid repressurization of the false lumen immediately distal to the circumferential elephant trunk anastomosis. Compression of the non-stented portion of the hybrid endograft caused a functional aortic stenosis, with severe hemodynamic consequences. Endovascular treatment of the compression by retrograde transfemoral placement of a stent-graft in the non-stented portion of the hybrid endograft achieved free flow in the distal aorta.
This case documents a new complication of the frozen elephant trunk procedure; a pseudocoarctation from a repressurized proximal false lumen was successfully managed with a stent-graft to support the non-stented segment of the hybrid endograft.
Journal of Endovascular Therapy 05/2007; 14(2):260-3. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the treatment effect of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for patients with advanced, non-resectable HCC compared with combination of transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and repeated single-session PEI, repeated single-session PEI alone, repeated TACE alone, or best supportive care.
All patients who received PEI treatment during the study period were included and stratified to one of the following treatment modalities according to physical status and tumor extent: combination of TACE and repeated single-session PEI, repeated single-session PEI alone, repeated TACE alone, or best supportive care. Prognostic value of clinical parameters including Okuda-classification, presence of portal vein thrombosis, presence of ascites, number of tumors, maximum tumor diameter, and serum cholinesterase (CHE), as well as Child-Pugh stage, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), fever, incidence of complications were assessed and compared between the groups. Survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate regression analyses.
The 1- and 3-year survival of all patients was 73% and 47%. In the subgroup analyses, the combination of TACE and PEI (1) was associated with a longer survival (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 90%, 52%, and 43%) compared to PEI treatment alone (2) (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 65%, 50%, and 37%). Secondary PEI after initial stratification to TACE (3) yielded comparable results (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 91%, 40%, and 30%) while PEI after stratification to best supportive care (4) was associated with decreased survival (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 50%, 23%, 12%). Apart from the chosen treatment modalities, predictors for better survival were tumor number (n < 5), tumor size (< 5 cm), no ascites before PEI, and stable serum cholinesterase after PEI (P < 0.05). The mortality within 2 wk after PEI was 2.8% (n = 3). There were 24 (8.9%) major complications after PEI including segmental liver infarction, focal liver necrosis, and liver abscess. All complications could be managed non-surgically.
Repeated single-session PEI is effective in patients with advanced HCC at an acceptable and manageable complication rate. Patients stratified to a combination of TACE and PEI can expect longer survival than those stratified to repeated PEI alone. Furthermore, patients with large or multiple tumors in good clinical status may also profit from a combination of TACE and reconsideration for secondary PEI.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2006; 12(23):3707-15. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 'frozen' elephant trunk technique allows for single-stage repair of combined aortic arch and descending aortic aneurysms using a 'hybridprosthesis' with a stented and a non-stented end. This report summarizes the operative- and follow-up data (mean follow-up 14 months) with this new treatment.
Between 09/01 and 4/04, 22 patients (62+/-9 years; 9 female) with different aortic pathologies (15 aortic dissections, 7 aneurysms) were operated on after approval from the local institutional review board. The stented end of the hybridprosthesis was deployed in the descending aorta through the opened aortic arch during hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.
All patients survived the procedure but one patient died of acute hemorrhage due to rupture of the false lumen in the descending aorta on the second postoperative day. Two patients required reexploration of the chest for bleeding complications. In 2 of 4 patients who developed neurological dysfunction, symptoms resolved completely. In one of them, the descending aorta was perforated intraoperatively due to misplacement of the stented end of the hybridprosthesis. In all follow-up CT-scans thrombus formation in the descending aortic aneurysm excluded by the stented end of the hybridprosthesis has been observed.
This procedure is performed through median sternotomy and combines the concepts of the elephant trunk operation and endovascular stenting of descending aortic aneurysms. Favourable intraoperative and postoperative results during follow-up with regard to thrombus formation around the stented descending aortic segment encourage us to evaluate all patients with thoracic aneurysms extending to proximal and distal of the left subclavian artery for this treatment.
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 09/2005; 28(2):286-90; discussion 290. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, a two-step surgical approach is necessary to treat patients with coexistent pathologic conditions involving the proximal and descending thoracic aorta. A hybrid endograft is described here that enables such treatment during a single operation.
The Chavan-Haverich endograft consists of a Dacron vascular prosthesis with stainless-steel stents affixed at its distal end. After approval by the institutional review board, the endograft was prospectively implanted in 22 patients with multisegment thoracic aortic disease (13 men, nine women; median age, 64 years). Eleven patients had type A dissections (one acute, 10 chronic), four had a chronic type B dissection, and seven had atherosclerotic aneurysms of the ascending aorta or aortic arch as well as of the descending aorta. Of these patients, 11 additionally required aortic valve replacement or coronary artery bypass grafting. Via median sternotomy, the aortic arch was opened in circulatory arrest. After antegrade deployment of the stent-containing portion in the descending aorta, the proximal non-stent-containing endograft was used to reconstruct the aortic arch. Median follow-up was 14 months.
Endograft implantation was successful in all but one patient. Complications included neurologic deficits that were transient in one case and lasting in two, two cases of vocal cord paralysis, and one death. In all patients with atherosclerotic aneurysms who received the endograft (six of seven), aneurysm thrombosis was noted at follow-up. In aortic dissections, partial or complete false-lumen thrombosis to the level of the stents occurred in all patients. None of the patients showed a progressive widening of the descending aorta.
The Chavan-Haverich endograft enables one-step treatment of multisegment pathologic conditions affecting the thoracic aorta that otherwise would require two or more operations.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 07/2005; 16(6):823-9. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In nonresectable cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) therapeutic options are limited. Recently, systemic chemotherapy has shown response rates of up to 30%. Additional regional therapy of the arterially hyper vascularized hepatic tumors might represent a rational approach in an attempt to further improve response and palliation. Hence, a protocol combining transarterial chemoembolization and systemic chemotherapy was applied in patients with CCC limited to the liver.
Eight patients (6 women, 2 men, mean age 62 years) with nonresectable CCC received systemic chemotherapy (gemcitabine 1 000 mg/m(2)) and additional transarterial chemoembolization procedures (50 mg/m(2) cisplatin, 50 mg/m(2) doxorubicin, up to 600 mg degradable starch microspheres). Clinical follow-up of patients, tumor markers, CT and ultrasound were performed to evaluate maximum response and toxicity.
Both systemic and regional therapies were tolerated well; no severe toxicity (WHO III/IV) was encountered. Nausea and fever were the most commonly observed side effects. A progressive rarefication of the intrahepatic arteries limited the maximum number of chemoembolization procedures in 4 patients. A median of 2 chemoembolization cycles (range, 1-3) and a median of 6.5 gemcitabine cycles (range, 4-11) were administered. Complete responses were not achieved. As maximum response, partial responses were achieved in 3 cases, stable diseases in 5 cases. Two patients died from progressive disease after 9 and 10 mo. Six patients are still alive. The current median survival is 12 mo (range, 9-18); the median time to tumor progression is 7 mo (range, 3-18). Seven patients suffered from tumor-related symptoms prior to therapy, 3 of these experienced a treatment-related clinical relief. In one patient the tumor became resectable under therapy and was successfully removed after 10 mo.
The present results indicate that a combination of systemic gemcitabine therapy and repeated regional chemoembolizations is well tolerated and may enhance the effect of palliation in a selected group of patients with intrahepatic nonresectable CCC.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2005; 11(8):1091-5. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present there is no established therapy for treating patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and symptomatic hepatic involvement. We present the results of a prospective study with 15 consecutive patients who were treated with staged hepatic artery embolization (HAE). Branches of the hepatic artery were selectively catheterized and embolized in stages using polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) and platinum microcoils or steel macrocoils. Prophylactic antibiotics, analgesics and anti-emetics were administered after every embolization. Clinical symptomatology and cardiac output were assessed before and after therapy as well as at the end of follow-up (median 28 months; range 10-136 months). Five patients had abdominal pain and four patients had symptoms of portal hypertension. The cardiac output was raised in all patients, with cardiac failure being present in 11 patients. After treatment, pain resolved in all five patients, and portal hypertension improved in two of the four patients. The mean cardiac output decreased significantly ( P<0.001) from 12.57+/-3.27 l/min pre-treatment to 8.36+/-2.60 l/min at the end of follow-up. Symptoms arising from cardiac failure resolved or improved markedly in all but one patient. Cholangitis and/or cholecystitis occurred in three patients of whom two required a cholecystectomy. One patient with pre-existent hepatic cirrhosis died as a complication of the procedure. Staged HAE yields long-term relief of clinical symptoms in patients with HHT and hepatic involvement. Patients with pre-existing hepatic cirrhosis may be poor candidates for HAE.
European Radiology 11/2004; 14(11):2079-85. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluates long-term results after using the kissing balloon technique in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of bifurcation stenoses of the renal artery. Eight patients with proven renal artery stenosis and deterioration of renal function were treated, including one kidney transplant recipient. Follow-up ranged between 3 and 131 months. All interventions were technically successful. All patients improved in one or more of the following: serum creatinine levels and creatinine clearance, blood pressure, and need for antihypertensive medication. The kissing balloon technique is a reliable and safe method for treating bifurcation stenoses of the renal artery, rendering stable long-term results.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 12/2003; 14(11):1455-9. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic dissection is most often a catastrophic medical emergency which, if untreated, can be potentially fatal. The intention of therapy in patients with aortic dissection is to prevent aortic rupture or aneurysm formation as well as to relieve branch vessel ischaemia. Patients with aortic dissection are often poor candidates for anaesthesia and surgery and the surgical procedure itself is challenging requiring thoracotomy, aortic cross clamping, blood transfusion as well as prolonged hospital stay in some cases. Operative mortality is especially high in patients with critical mesenteric or renal ischaemia. The past decade has experienced the emergence of a number of interventional radiological or minimally invasive techniques which have significantly improved the management of patients with aortic dissection. These include stent grafting for entry site closure to prevent aneurysmatic widening of the false lumen as well as percutaneous techniques such as balloon fenestration of the intimal flap and aortic true lumen stenting to alleviate branch vessel ischaemia. False lumen thrombosis following entry closure with stent grafts has been observed in 86-100% of patients, whereas percutaneous interventions are able to effectively relieve organ ischaemia in approximately 90% of the cases. In the years to come, it is to be expected that these endoluminal techniques will become the method of choice for treating most type-B dissections and will assist in significantly reducing the number of open surgical procedures required for type-A dissections. The intention of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of these endoluminal techniques based on our own experience as well as on a review of the relevant literature.
European Radiology 12/2003; 13(11):2521-34. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of SAPHO syndrome, since it has been isolated repeatedly through open surgical bone biopsy. This study demonstrates the role of MRI in identifying inflamed bone areas in patients with SAPHO syndrome and the role of CT-guided bone biopsies in obtaining samples from these areas for microbiological and histopathological investigations, thus obviating open surgery. Fourteen consecutive patients with SAPHO syndrome were investigated by MRI to identify acute inflammatory changes in hyperostotic periarticular bone. The CT-guided biopsies for microbiological investigations were taken from the areas identified. Patients positive for P. acnes were started on long-term antibiotic therapy according to antibiotic susceptibility. On MRI the inflammatory changes appeared as hyperintense areas on fat-saturated T2 fast-spin-echo (FSE) images and showed signal increase on fat-saturated T1 SE images after Gd-DTPA. With MR localization CT-guided bone biopsies yielded P. acnes in 8 patients. No bacteria could be isolated from the remaining 6 patients. Acute inflammatory bone changes in SAPHO syndrome are well localized by MRI. With MR localization, CT-guided bone biopsies offer a minimally invasive alternative to open surgery in the detection of. P. acnes leading to the institution of a specific antibiotic therapy.
European Radiology 11/2003; 13(10):2304-8. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic involvement in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is highly variable and may lead to severe clinical symptoms such as heart failure. This controlled, prospective study defined sonographic criteria for hepatic involvement in HHT. Color Doppler sonography and pulsed Doppler sonography were used to study 25 patients with HHT and liver involvement, 20 patients with HHT without liver involvement, 25 patients with cirrhosis, and 25 patients without liver disease. The diagnosis of hepatic manifestation was confirmed by computed tomography and/or angiography. Liver size, parenchymal changes of the liver, vessel diameters, and flow velocities of the portal vein and the hepatic artery were determined. Resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were calculated. The diameter of the common hepatic artery was significantly dilated without overlap between HHT patients with liver involvement and the 3 control groups (mean 11.3 +/- 2.8 mm [HHT with liver involvement], 4.6 +/- 0.9 mm [HHT without liver involvement], 4.8 +/- 1.0 mm [cirrhosis], and 4.4 +/- 1.0 mm [healthy controls], P <.001). Doppler parameters of the proper hepatic artery differed significantly (all P <.001). In all patients with HHT and liver involvement, areas with intrahepatic hypervascularization caused by dilated intrahepatic arteries were observed in varying intensity. Cardiac output significantly correlated with the diameter of the common hepatic artery (r = 0.53, P =.007) and the portal vein (r = 0.42, P =.05). In conclusion, the diameter of the common hepatic artery (>7 mm) and intrahepatic hypervascularization are suitable sonographic diagnostic parameters of HHT with high sensitivity and specificity. Dilated diameters of the hepatic feeding vessels are indicators for systemic circulatory distress in these patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic surgery is under continuous development. This applies to the aortic root where more and more reconstructive efforts are being made but also to intraoperative means of organ protection. Likewise, the endoluminar stent graft approach to downstream pathologies of the aorta has broadened the classical treatment option "replacement" by "exclusion". Some of these evolving changes in operative strategies and indications are discussed on the basis of a single-center experience.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Die Aortenchirurgie befindet sich im Umbruch. Dies betrifft die Aortenwurzel, wo in zunehmendem Ma rekonstruktiv vorgegangen wird, aber auch die Verfeinerung intraoperativer Manahmen zur Organprotektion. berdies hat die klinische Einfhrung endoluminrer Stentgrafts in der Behandlung thorakaler und abdomineller Aortenerkrankungen zu einer Erweiterung der klassisch chirurgischen Behandlungsoptionen gefhrt. Einige dieser Neuerungen werden auf der Grundlage der Erfahrungen mit dem eigenen Krankengut angesprochen. Aortic surgery is under continuous development. This applies to the aortic root where more and more reconstructive efforts are being made but also to intraoperative means of organ protection. Likewise, the endoluminar stent graft approach to downstream pathologies of the aorta has broadened the classical treatment option "replacement" by "exclusion". Some of these evolving changes in operative strategies and indications are discussed on the basis of a single-center experience.