[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Tbd_0210 gene of the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans is annotated to encode a 60.5 kDa bifunctional enzyme with ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activity. This putative bifunctional enzyme was cloned, expressed and structurally characterized. The 2.95 A resolution X-ray crystal structure reported here revealed a hexameric assembly with D(3) symmetry. Each subunit contains a large N-terminal sulfurylase-like domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain reminiscent of the two-domain fungal ATP sulfurylases of Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which also exhibit a hexameric assembly. However, the T. denitrificans enzyme exhibits numerous structural and sequence differences in the N-terminal domain that render it inactive with respect to ATP sulfurylase activity. Surprisingly, the C-terminal domain does indeed display APS kinase activity, indicating that this gene product is a true APS kinase. Therefore, these results provide the first structural insights into a unique hexameric APS kinase that contains a nonfunctional ATP sulfurylase-like domain of unknown function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Thiobacillus denitrificans genome contains two sequences corresponding to ATP sulfurylase (Tbd_0210 and Tbd_0874). Both genes were cloned and expressed protein characterized. The larger protein (Tbd_0210; 544 residues) possesses an N-terminal ATP sulfurylase domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain and was therefore annotated as a bifunctional enzyme. But, the protein was not bifunctional because it lacked ATP sulfurylase activity. However, the enzyme did possess APS kinase activity and displayed substrate inhibition by APS. Truncated protein missing the N-terminal domain had <2% APS kinase activity suggesting the function of the inactive sulfurylase domain is to promote the oligomerization of the APS kinase domains. The smaller gene product (Tbd_0874; 402 residues) possessed strong ATP sulfurylase activity with kinetic properties that appear to be kinetically optimized for the direction of APS utilization and ATP+sulfate production, which is consistent with an enzyme that functions physiologically to produce inorganic sulfate.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 08/2009; 489(1-2):110-7. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.026 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most assimilatory bacteria, fungi, and plants species reduce sulfate (in the activated form of APS or PAPS) to produce reduced sulfur. In yeast, PAPS reductase reduces PAPS to sulfite and PAP. Despite the difference in substrate specificity and catalytic cofactor, PAPS reductase is homologous to APS reductase in both sequence and structure, and they are suggested to share the same catalytic mechanism. Metazoans do not possess the sulfate reduction pathway, which makes APS/PAPS reductases potential drug targets for human pathogens. Here, we present the 2.05 A resolution crystal structure of the yeast PAPS reductase binary complex with product PAP bound. The N-terminal region mediates dimeric interactions resulting in a unique homodimer assembly not seen in previous APS/PAPS reductase structures. The "pyrophosphate-binding" sequence (47)TTAFGLTG(54) defines the substrate 3'-phosphate binding pocket. In yeast, Gly54 replaces a conserved aspartate found in APS reductases vacating space and charge to accommodate the 3'-phosphate of PAPS, thus regulating substrate specificity. Also, for the first time, the complete C-terminal catalytic motif (244)ECGIH(248) is revealed in the active site. The catalytic residue Cys245 is ideally positioned for an in-line attack on the beta-sulfate of PAPS. In addition, the side chain of His248 is only 4.2 A from the Sgamma of Cys245 and may serve as a catalytic base to deprotonate the active site cysteine. A hydrophobic sequence (252)RFAQFL(257) at the end of the C-terminus may provide anchoring interactions preventing the tail from swinging away from the active site as seen in other APS/PAPS reductases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermophilic chemolithotroph, Aquifex aeolicus, expresses a gene product that exhibits both ATP sulfurylase and adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase activities. These enzymes are usually segregated on two separate proteins in most bacteria, fungi, and plants. The domain arrangement in the Aquifex enzyme is reminiscent of the fungal ATP sulfurylase, which contains a C-terminal domain that is homologous to APS kinase yet displays no kinase activity. Rather, in the fungal enzyme, the motif serves as a sulfurylase regulatory domain that binds the allosteric effector 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), the product of true APS kinase. Therefore, the Aquifex enzyme may represent an ancestral homolog of a primitive bifunctional enzyme, from which the fungal ATP sulfurylase may have evolved. In heterotrophic sulfur-assimilating organisms such as fungi, ATP sulfurylase catalyzes the first committed step in sulfate assimilation to produce APS, which is subsequently metabolized to generate all sulfur-containing biomolecules. In contrast, ATP sulfurylase in sulfur chemolithotrophs catalyzes the reverse reaction to produce ATP and sulfate from APS and pyrophosphate. Here, the 2.3 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of Aquifex ATP sulfurylase-APS kinase bifunctional enzyme is presented. The protein dimerizes through its APS kinase domain and contains ADP bound in all four active sites. Comparison of the Aquifex ATP sulfurylase active site with those from sulfate assimilators reveals similar dispositions of the bound nucleotide and nearby residues. This suggests that minor perturbations are responsible for optimizing the kinetic properties for the physiologically relevant direction. The APS kinase active-site lid adopts two distinct conformations, where one conformation is distorted by crystal contacts. Additionally, a disulfide bond is observed in one ATP-binding P-loop of the APS kinase active site. This linkage accounts for the low kinase activity of the enzyme under oxidizing conditions. The thermal stability of the Aquifex enzyme can be explained by the 43% decreased cavity volume found within the protein core.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthetase, isoform 1 (brain), was purified to near-homogeneity from an Escherichia coli expression system and kinetically characterized. The native enzyme, a dimer with each 71 kDa subunit containing an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase and an adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase domain, catalyzes the overall formation of PAPS from ATP and inorganic sulfate. The protein is active as isolated, but activity is enhanced by treatment with dithiothreitol. APS kinase activity displayed the characteristic substrate inhibition by APS (K(I) of 47.9 microM at saturating MgATP). The maximum attainable activity of 0.12 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1) was observed at an APS concentration ([APS](opt)) of 15 microM. The theoretical K(m) for APS (at saturating MgATP) and the K(m) for MgATP (at [APS](opt)) were 4.2 microM and 0.14 mM, respectively. At likely cellular levels of MgATP (2.5 mM) and sulfate (0.4 mM), the overall endogenous rate of PAPS formation under optimum assay conditions was 0.09 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1). Upon addition of pure Penicillium chrysogenum APS kinase in excess, the overall rate increased to 0.47 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1). The kinetic constants of the ATP sulfurylase domain were as follows: V(max,f) = 0.77 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1), K(mA(MgATP)) = 0.15 mM, K(ia(MgATP)) = 1 mM, K(mB(sulfate)) = 0.16 mM, V(max,r) = 18.7 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1), K(mQ(APS)) = 4.8 microM, K(iq(APS)) = 18 nM, and K(mP(PPi)) = 34.6 microM. The (a) imbalance between ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activities, (b) accumulation of APS in solution during the overall reaction, (c) rate acceleration provided by exogenous APS kinase, and (d) availability of both active sites to exogenous APS all argue against APS channeling. Molybdate, selenate, chromate ("chromium VI"), arsenate, tungstate, chlorate, and perchlorate bind to the ATP sulfurylase domain, with the first five serving as alternative substrates that promote the decomposition of ATP to AMP and PP(i). Selenate, chromate, and arsenate produce transient APX intermediates that are sufficiently long-lived to be captured and 3'-phosphorylated by APS kinase. (The putative PAPX products decompose to adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate and the original oxyanion.) Chlorate and perchlorate form dead-end E.MgATP.oxyanion complexes. Phenylalanine, reported to be an inhibitor of brain ATP sulfurylase, was without effect on PAPS synthetase isoform 1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum is a homohexameric enzyme that is subject to allosteric inhibition by 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate. In contrast
to the wild type enzyme, recombinant ATP sulfurylase lacking the C-terminal allosteric domain was monomeric and noncooperative.
All kcat values were decreased (the adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (adenylylsulfate) (APS) synthesis reaction to 17% of the wild type
value). Additionally, the Michaelis constants for MgATP and sulfate (or molybdate), the dissociation constant of E·APS, and the monovalent oxyanion dissociation constants of dead end E·MgATP·oxyanion complexes were all increased. APS release (the k6 step) was rate-limiting in the wild type enzyme. Without the C-terminal domain, the composite k5 step (isomerization of the central complex and MgPPi release) became rate-limiting. The cumulative results indicate that besides (a) serving as a receptor for the allosteric inhibitor, the C-terminal domain (b) stabilizes the hexameric structure and indirectly, individual subunits. Additionally, (c) the domain interacts with and perfects the catalytic site such that one or more steps following the formation of the binary
E·MgATP and complexes and preceding the release of MgPPi are optimized. The more negative entropy of activation of the truncated enzyme for APS synthesis is consistent with a role
of the C-terminal domain in promoting the effective orientation of MgATP and sulfate at the active site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure of the cooperative hexameric enzyme ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum bound to its allosteric inhibitor, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), was determined to 2.6 A resolution. This structure represents the low substrate-affinity T-state conformation of the enzyme. Comparison with the high substrate-affinity R-state structure reveals that a large rotational rearrangement of domains occurs as a result of the R-to-T transition. The rearrangement is accompanied by the 17 A movement of a 10-residue loop out of the active site region, resulting in an open, product release-like structure of the catalytic domain. Binding of PAPS is proposed to induce the allosteric transition by destabilizing an R-state-specific salt linkage between Asp 111 in an N-terminal domain of one subunit and Arg 515 in the allosteric domain of a trans-triad subunit. Disrupting this salt linkage by site-directed mutagenesis induces cooperative inhibition behavior in the absence of an allosteric effector, confirming the role of these two residues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase catalyzes the second reaction in the two-step, ATP-dependent conversion of inorganic sulfate to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). PAPS serves as the sulfuryl donor for the biosynthesis of all sulfate esters and also as a precursor of reduced sulfur biomolecules in many organisms. Previously, we determined the crystal structure of ligand-free APS kinase from the filamentous fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum [MacRae et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 1613-1621]. That structure contained a protease-susceptible disordered region ("mobile lid"; residues 145-170). Addition of MgADP and APS, which together promote the formation of a nonproductive "dead-end" ternary complex, protected the lid from trypsin. This report presents the 1.43 A resolution crystal structure of APS kinase with both ADP and APS bound at the active site and the 2.0 A resolution structure of the enzyme with ADP alone bound. The mobile lid is ordered in both complexes and is shown to provide part of the binding site for APS. That site is formed primarily by the highly conserved Arg 66, Arg 80, and Phe 75 from the protein core and Phe 165 from the mobile lid. The two Phe residues straddle the adenine ring of bound APS. Arg 148, a completely conserved residue, is the only residue in the mobile lid that interacts directly with bound ADP. Ser 34, located in the apex of the P-loop, hydrogen-bonds to the 3'-OH of APS, the phosphoryl transfer target. The structure of the binary E.ADP complex revealed further changes in the active site and N-terminal helix that occur upon the binding/release of (P)APS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATP sulfurylase from the hyperthermophilic chemolithotroph Aquifex aeolicus is a bacterial ortholog of the enzyme from filamentous fungi. (The subunit contains an adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase-like, C-terminal domain.) The enzyme is highly heat stable with a half-life >1h at 90 degrees C. Steady-state kinetics are consistent with a random A-B, ordered P-Q mechanism where A=MgATP, B=SO4(2-), P=PP(i), and Q=APS. The kinetic constants suggest that the enzyme is optimized to act in the direction of ATP+sulfate formation. Chlorate is competitive with sulfate and with APS. In sulfur chemolithotrophs, ATP sulfurylase provides an efficient route for recycling PP(i) produced by biosynthetic reactions. However, the protein possesses low APS kinase activity. Consequently, it may also function to produce PAPS for sulfate ester formation or sulfate assimilation when hydrogen serves as the energy source and a reduced inorganic sulfur source is unavailable.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2002; 406(2):275-88. DOI:10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00428-9 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In sulfur chemolithotrophic bacteria, the enzyme ATP sulfurylase functions to produce ATP and inorganic sulfate from APS and inorganic pyrophosphate, which is the final step in the biological oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. The giant tubeworm, Riftia pachyptila, which lives near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, harbors a sulfur chemolithotroph as an endosymbiont in its trophosome tissue. This yet-to-be-named bacterium was found to contain high levels of ATP sulfurylase that may provide a substantial fraction of the organisms ATP. We present here, the crystal structure of ATP sulfurylase from this bacterium at 1.7 A resolution. As predicted from sequence homology, the enzyme folds into distinct N-terminal and catalytic domains, but lacks the APS kinase-like C-terminal domain that is present in fungal ATP sulfurylase. The enzyme crystallizes as a dimer with one subunit in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Many buried solvent molecules mediate subunit contacts at the interface. Despite the high concentration of sulfate needed for crystallization, no ordered sulfate was observed in the sulfate-binding pocket. The structure reveals a mobile loop positioned over the active site. This loop is in a "closed" or "down" position in the reported crystal structures of fungal ATP sulfurylases, which contained bound substrates, but it is in an "open" or "up" position in the ligand-free Riftia symbiont enzyme. Thus, closure of the loop correlates with occupancy of the active site, although the loop itself does not interact directly with bound ligands. Rather, it appears to assist in the orientation of residues that do interact with active-site ligands. Amino acid differences between the mobile loops of the enzymes from sulfate assimilators and sulfur chemolithotrophs may account for the significant kinetic differences between the two classes of ATP sulfurylase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In sulfur chemolithotrophic bacteria, the enzyme ATP sulfurylase functions to produce ATP and inorganic sulfate from APS and inorganic pyrophosphate, which is the final step in the biological oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. The giant tubeworm, Riftia pachyptila, which lives near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, harbors a sulfur chemolithotroph as an endosymbiont in its trophosome tissue. This yet-to-be-named bacterium was found to contain high levels of ATP sulfurylase that may provide a substantial fraction of the organisms ATP. We present here, the crystal structure of ATP sulfurylase from this bacterium at 1.7 Angstrom resolution. As predicted from sequence homology, the enzyme folds into distinct N-terminal and catalytic domains, but lacks the APS kinase-like C-terminal domain that is present in fungal ATP sulfurylase. The enzyme crystallizes as a dimer with one subunit in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Many buried solvent molecules mediate subunit contacts at the interface. Despite the high concentration of sulfate needed for crystallization, no ordered sulfate was observed in the sulfate-binding pocket. The structure reveals a mobile loop positioned over the active site. This loop is in a "closed" or "down" position in the reported crystal structures of fungal ATP sulfurylases, which contained bound substrates, but it is in an "open" or "up" position in the ligand-free Riftia symbiont enzyme. Thus, closure of the loop correlates with occupancy of the active site, although the loop itself does not interact directly with bound ligands. Rather, it appears to assist in the orientation of residues that do interact with active-site ligands. Amino acid differences between the mobile loops of the enzymes from sulfate assimilators and sulfur chemolithotrophs may account for the significant kinetic differences between the two classes of ATP sulfurylase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of temperature on the initial velocity kinetics of allosteric ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum were measured. The experiments were prompted by the structural similarity between the C-terminal regulatory domain of fungal ATP sulfurylase and fungal APS kinase, a homodimer that undergoes a temperature-dependent, reversible dissociation of subunits over a narrow temperature range. Wild-type ATP sulfurylase yielded hyperbolic velocity curves between 18 and 30 degrees C. Increasing the assay temperature above 30 degrees C at a constant pH of 8.0 increased the cooperativity of the velocity curves. Hill coefficients (n(H)) up to 1.8 were observed at 42 degrees C. The bireactant kinetics at 42 degrees C were the same as those observed at 30 degrees C in the presence of PAPS, the allosteric inhibitor. In contrast, yeast ATP sulfurylase yielded hyperbolic plots at 42 degrees C. The P. chrysogenum mutant enzyme, C509S, which is intrinsically cooperative (n(H) = 1.8) at 30 degrees C, became more cooperative as the temperature was increased yielding n(H) values up to 2.9 at 42 degrees C. As the temperature was decreased, the cooperativity of C509S decreased; n(H) was 1.0 at 18 degrees C. The cumulative results indicate that increasing the temperature increases the allosteric constant, L, i.e., promotes a shift in the base-level distribution of enzyme molecules from the high MgATP affinity R state toward the low MgATP affinity T state. As a result, the enzyme displays a true "temperature optimum" at subsaturating MgATP. The reversible temperature-dependent transitions of fungal ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase may play a role in energy conservation at high temperatures where the organism can survive but not grow optimally.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2001; 393(1):51-60. DOI:10.1006/abbi.2001.2490 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum is an allosterically regulated enzyme composed of six identical 63.7 kDa subunits (573 residues). The C-terminal allosteric domain of each subunit is homologous to APS kinase. In the presence of APS, the enzyme crystallized in the orthorhombic space group (I222) with unit cell parameters of a = 135.7 A, b = 162.1 A, and c = 273.0 A. The X-ray structure at 2.8 A resolution established that the hexameric enzyme is a dimer of triads in the shape of an oblate ellipsoid 140 A diameter x 70 A. Each subunit is divided into a discreet N-terminal domain, a central catalytic domain, and a C-terminal allosteric domain. Two molecules of APS bound per subunit clearly identify the catalytic and allosteric domains. The sequence 197QXRN200 is largely responsible for anchoring the phosphosulfate group of APS at the active site of the catalytic domain. The specificity of the catalytic site for adenine nucleotides is established by specific hydrogen bonds to the protein main chain. APS was bound to the allosteric site through sequence-specific interactions with amino acid side chains that are conserved in true APS kinase. Within a given triad, the allosteric domain of one subunit interacts with the catalytic domain of another. There are also allosteric-allosteric, allosteric-N-terminal, and catalytic-catalytic domain interactions across the triad interface. The overall interactions-each subunit with four others-provide stability to the hexamer as well as a way to propagate a concerted allosteric transition. The structure presented here is believed to be the R state. A solvent channel, 15-70 A wide exists along the 3-fold axis, but substrates have access to the catalytic site only from the external medium. On the other hand, a surface "trench" links each catalytic site in one triad with an allosteric site in the other triad. This trench may be a vestigial feature of a bifunctional ("PAPS synthetase") ancestor of fungal ATP sulfurylase.