[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported bronchial circulation contributes to pulmonary edema and increases shunt fraction following smoke inhalation, and bronchial blood flow significantly increases in inhalation injury. We hypothesized reduction of bronchial blood flow reduces exudation to the airway and ameliorates lung injury from combined burn and smoke insults (B&S injury).
Merino ewes (n=28) randomly divided into three groups: (1) bronchial artery ligated and injured (injury+ligation group); (2) bronchial artery left intact and injured (injury+no ligation group); (3) bronchial artery ligated but not injured (no injury+ligation group) were subjected to a flame burn and inhalation injury under halothane anesthesia. Parameters were analyzed using Scheffe's post hoc test (P<0.05). All Groups were resuscitated with Ringer lactate solution and placed on a ventilator for 48h.
Pulmonary gas exchange (PaO(2)/FiO(2)) improved in injury+ligation group. Further, obstruction score, an index of airway cast formation, significantly changed between injury+no ligation group compared to both ligation groups.
Bronchial circulation plays a significant role in lung injury after B&S injury, and reduction of bronchial blood flow by bronchial artery ligation reduces bronchial exudates, resulting in improved gas exchange.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 12/2010; 37(3):465-73. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the effects of low-dose arginine vasopressin on cardiopulmonary functions and nitrosative stress using an established model of acute lung injury.
Prospective, randomized, controlled laboratory experiment.
Investigational intensive care unit.
Eighteen chronically instrumented sheep.
Sheep were randomly assigned to a sham group without injury or treatment, an injury group without treatment (40% total body surface area third-degree burn and 48 breaths of cold cotton smoke), or an injured group treated with arginine vasopressin (0.02 IU·min⁻¹) from 1 hr after injury until the end of the 24-hr study period (each n = 6). All sheep were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated using an established protocol.
There were no differences among groups at baseline. The injury was characterized by a severe deterioration of cardiopulmonary function (left ventricular stroke work indexes and Pao2/Fio2 ratio; p < .01 each vs. sham). Compared with controls, arginine vasopressin infusion improved myocardial function, as suggested by higher stroke volume indexes and left ventricular stroke work indexes (18-24 hrs and 6-24 hrs, respectively; p < .05 each). In addition to an improved gas exchange (higher Pao2/Fio2 ratios from 6 to 24 hrs, p < .01 each), pulmonary edema (bloodless wet-to-dry-weight ratio; p = .018), bronchial obstruction (p = .01), and pulmonary shunt fraction (12-24 hrs; p ≤ .001 each) were attenuated in arginine vasopressin-treated animals compared with controls. These changes occurred along with reduced nitrosative stress, as indicated by lower plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite (12-24 hrs, p < .01 each), as well as lower myocardial and pulmonary tissue concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine (p = .041 and p = .042 vs. controls, respectively). At 24 hrs, pulmonary 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations were negatively correlated with Pao2/Fio2 ratio (r = -.882; p < .001) and myocardial 3-nitrotyrosine content with stroke volume indexes (r = -.701; p = .004).
Low-dose arginine vasopressin reduced nitrosative stress and improved cardiopulmonary functions in sheep with acute lung injury secondary to combined burn and smoke inhalation injury.
Critical care medicine 11/2010; 39(2):357-63. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors devised a novel bronchial artery catheterization technique to deliver agents directly into bronchial circulation with preserved blood flow in an awake ovine model. A polyurethane catheter was inserted into bronchial artery via an incision into the 4th intercostal space. Regional blood flow of the airway was measured by fluorescent microspheres before cannulation, after cannulation, and 7 days after the operative procedure. The blood flows were also measured in a sham group (no cannulation, no ligation, n = 6), cannulation group (bronchial artery cannulation, n = 5), and ligation group (bronchial artery ligation, n = 5) at baseline and 6 hours after burn and smoke inhalation injury. The regional blood flows decreased slightly after cannulation in proximal bronchi, but recovered after 7 days. The regional blood flow increased 10-fold after inhalation injury in bronchi of the sham group. Bronchial artery ligation significantly attenuated the increase of blood flow. However, cannulation preserved regional blood flow and did not prevent the blood flow increases after burn and smoke inhalation injury, thus constituting a novel bronchial artery catheterization technique.
Experimental Lung Research 04/2010; 36(3):183-9. · 1.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that nitric oxide derived from the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for much of the injury resulting from skin burn and smoke inhalation. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of selective neuronal NOS inhibition on cardiopulmonary functions and cellular injury in sheep with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to combined burn and smoke inhalation injury.
Prospective, randomized, controlled laboratory experiment.
Investigational intensive care unit.
A total of 22 chronically instrumented adult ewes.
Sheep were randomly assigned to either healthy controls (sham), injured controls (40% third-degree flame burn; 48 breaths of cotton smoke), or an injury group treated with the specific neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (1 mg x kg(-1) x hr(-1)) from 1 hr postinjury to the end of the 48-hr study period. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was assessed as decrease in left pulmonary blood flow in response to single-lung hypoxic challenges (100% nitrogen) at baseline, 24 hrs, and 48 hrs.
The combination injury contributed to a approximately 90% loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and was associated with significant pulmonary shunting and death of one animal. The increase in nitrate/nitrite plasma levels in injured controls (12 hrs: 17 +/- 2 vs. 6 +/- 1 microM in sham animals; p < .001) was linked to increases in inducible NOS messenger RNA and 3-nitrotyrosine formation in lung tissue (48 hrs: 22 +/- 1 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.3 nM in sham animals; p < .001). 7-Nitroindazole treatment prevented the injury-associated changes in inducible NOS messenger RNA, nitrate/nitrite, and 3-nitrotyrosine, thereby attenuating the loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and improving gas exchange. In addition, 7-nitroindazole decreased lung tissue concentrations of hemoxygenase-1 and ameliorated myocardial depression, airway obstruction, pulmonary edema, ventilatory pressures, and histopathologic changes seen in injured controls.
The present study provides evidence that neuronal NOS-derived nitric oxide plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from combined burn and smoke inhalation injury.
Critical care medicine 05/2008; 36(4):1196-204. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury is a detrimental complication for victims of burn accidents. Airway obstruction plays an important role in pulmonary dysfunction in these patients. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that aerosolized anticoagulants will reduce the degree of airway obstruction and improve pulmonary function in sheep with severe combined burn and smoke inhalation injury by preventing the formation of airway fibrin clots.
Prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animal study.
Investigational intensive care unit at a university hospital.
Adult female sheep.
After 7 days of surgical recovery, sheep were given a cutaneous burn (40% of total body surface, third degree) and insufflated with cotton smoke (48 breaths, <40 degrees C) under halothane anesthesia. After injury, sheep were placed on ventilators and resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution. Sheep were randomly divided into five groups: sham, noninjured and nontreated (n = 6); control, injured and aerosolized with saline (n = 6); recombinant human antithrombin (rhAT) + heparin, injured and aerosolized with rhAT (290 units for each) and heparin (10,000 units for each) (n = 6); rhAT, injured and aerosolized with rhAT alone (290 units for each; n = 5); and heparin, injured and aerosolized with heparin alone (10,000 units for each; n = 5). rhAT and heparin were aerosolized every 4 hrs, starting at 2 hrs postinjury.
Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics were monitored during a 48-hr experimental time period. Control sheep developed multiple signs of acute lung injury. This pathophysiology included decreased pulmonary gas exchange and lung compliance, increased pulmonary edema, and extensive airway obstruction. These variables were stable in sham animals. The aerosolization of rhAT or heparin alone did not significantly improve deteriorated pulmonary gas exchange. However, aerosolization of these anticoagulants in combination significantly attenuated all the observed pulmonary pathophysiology.
The results provide definitive evidence that aerosolized rhAT and heparin in combination may be a novel treatment strategy for pulmonary pathology in burn victims with smoke inhalation injury.
Critical Care Medicine 01/2008; 35(12):2805-10. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study looks at the effects on global and regional microvascular blood flow (RMBF) in an ovine model of septic shock after severe smoke inhalation injury. Sixteen sheep were randomized into two groups, a control group (no injury, n = 8) and a smoke/sepsis (SS) group (n = 8), which received an insufflation of 4 sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke (<40 degrees C) followed by instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa into both lung lobes, according to an established protocol. All sheep were mechanically ventilated with 100% oxygen, and fluid resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution for the entire duration of the 24-h experimental period to maintain hematocrit at baseline (BL) levels. Healthy control animals were not subjected to the injury and received only 4 x 12 breaths of room air and instillation of the vehicle (normal saline). Blood flow was analyzed using colored microspheres. Control animals remained hemodynamically stable and had no statistical changes from BL in visceral or cerebral blood flow during the entire experimental period. All SS animals developed a hypotensive, hyperdynamic circulation, characterized by a significant increase in heart rate and cardiac output with a simultaneous significant fall in mean arterial pressure, which, in combination, led to a fall in systemic vascular resistance index versus BL (P < 0.001, each). In visceral organs, the trachea showed a significant increase in RMBF (P < 0.001). In addition, skeletal muscle significantly increased versus BL and versus controls over time (P < 0.01). Whereas the pancreas displayed a significant drop in RMBF versus BL and controls (P < 0.05), no statistical differences occurred in the renal cortex, spleen, and ileum. All investigated cerebral structures, such as the cortex cerebri, basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum showed a significant increase in RMBF versus BL and versus control animals (P < 0.05, each). These data differ in areas of normal, increased, and decreased RMBF during septic shock after smoke inhalation injury and show differences to former studies of our group investigating RMBF in ovine models of either smoke inhalation or P. aeruginosa infusion. The results of this study reflect the complex pathophysiological variances of the combined injury and may provide a basis for future investigations for the treatment of this kind of injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) on pulmonary function in acute lung injury (ALI) resulting from smoke inhalation in association with a bacterial challenge.
Prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animal study with repeated measurements.
Investigational intensive care unit at a university hospital.
Eighteen sheep (37.2 +/- 1.0 kg) were operatively prepared and randomly allocated to either the sham, control, or rhAPC group (n = 6 each). After a tracheotomy had been performed, ALI was produced in the control and rhAPC group by insufflation of 4 sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30 mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2-5 x 10(11) colony forming units) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle, i.e., 4 sets of 12 breaths of room air and instillation of 30 mL normal saline. The sheep were studied in the awake state for 24 hrs and were ventilated with 100% oxygen. RhAPC (24 mug/kg/hr) was intravenously administered. The infusion was initiated 1 hr post-injury and lasted until the end of the experiment. The animals were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate solution to maintain constant pulmonary artery occlusion pressure.
In comparison with nontreatment in controls, the infusion of rhAPC significantly attenuated the fall in Pao2/Fio2 ratio (control group values were 521 +/- 22 at baseline [BL], 72 +/- 5 at 12 hrs, and 74 +/- 7 at 24 hrs, vs. rhAPC group values of 541 +/- 12 at BL, 151 +/- 29 at 12 hours [p < .05 vs. control], and 118 +/- 20 at 24 hrs), and significantly reduced the increase in pulmonary microvascular shunt fraction (Qs/Qt; control group at BL, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and at 24 hrs, 0.65 +/- 0.08; rhAPC group at BL, 0.24 +/- 0.04, and at 24 hrs, 0.45 +/- 0.02 [p < .05 vs. control]) and the increase in peak airway pressure (mbar; control group at BL, 20 +/- 1, and at 24 hrs, 36 +/- 4; rhAPC group at BL, 21 +/- 1, and at 24 hrs, 28 +/- 2 [p < .05 vs. control]). In addition, rhAPC limited the increase in lung 3-nitrotyrosine (after 24 hrs [%]: sham, 7 +/- 2; control, 17 +/- 1; rhAPC, 12 +/- 1 [p < .05 vs. control]), a reliable indicator of tissue injury. However, rhAPC failed to prevent lung edema formation. RhAPC-treated sheep showed no difference in activated clotting time or platelet count but exhibited less fibrin degradation products (1/6 animals) than did controls (4/6 animals).
Recombinant human activated protein C attenuated ALI after smoke inhalation and bacterial challenge in sheep, without bleeding complications.
Critical Care Medicine 10/2006; 34(9):2432-8. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used to improve gas exchange, increase functional residual capacity, recruit air spaces, and decrease pulmonary shunt in patients suffering from respiratory failure. The effect of PEEP on extravascular lung water (EVLW), however, is still not fully understood. This study was designed as a prospective laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of PEEP on EVLW and pulmonary lymph flow (QL) under physiologic conditions. Twelve adult sheep were operatively prepared to measure haemodynamics of the systemic and pulmonary circulation, and to assess EVLW In addition, the lung lymphatic duct was cannulated and a tracheostomy performed. The animals were then mechanically ventilated in the awake-state without end-expiratory pressure (PEEP 0). After a two-hour baseline period, PEEP was increased to 10 cmH2O for the duration of two hours, and then reduced back to 0 cmH2O. Cardiopulmonary variables, QL, and arterial blood gases were recorded intermittently; EVLW was determined two hours after each change in PEEP. The increase in PEEP resulted in a decrease in QL (7 +/- 1 vs 5 +/- 1 ml/h) and an increase in EVLW (498 +/- 40 vs 630 +/- 58 ml; P<0.05 each) without affecting cardiac output. As PEEP was decreased back to baseline, QL increased significantly (5 +/- 1 vs 10 +/- 2 ml/h), whereas EVLW returned back to baseline. This study suggests that institution of PEEP produces a reversible increase in EVLW that is linked to a decrease in QL.
Anaesthesia and intensive care 07/2006; 34(3):329-33. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of combined burn and smoke inhalation injury on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, and respiratory function in adult sheep.
Prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, single-blinded trial.
University research laboratory.
Twelve chronically instrumented ewes.
Following a baseline measurement, sheep were randomly allocated to either healthy controls (sham) or the injury group, subjected to a 40%, third-degree body surface area burn and 48 breaths of cotton smoke according to an established protocol (n = 6 each). Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was assessed as changes in pulmonary arterial blood flow (corrected for changes in cardiac index) in response to left lung hypoxic challenges performed at baseline and at 24 and 48 hrs postinjury.
Combined burn and smoke inhalation was associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, elevated NO2/NO3 (NOx) plasma levels (12 hrs, sham, 6.2 +/- 0.6; injury, 16 +/- 1.6 micromol.L; p < .01) and increased peroxynitrite formation, as indicated by augmented lung tissue 3-nitrotyrosine content (30 +/- 3 vs. 216 +/- 8 nM; p < .001). These biochemical changes occurred in parallel with pulmonary shunting, progressive decreases in Pao2/Fio2 ratio, and a loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (48 hrs, -90.5% vs. baseline; p < .001). Histopathology revealed pulmonary edema and airway obstruction as the morphologic correlates of the deterioration in gas exchange and the increases in airway pressures.
This study provides evidence for a severe impairment of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction following combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. In addition to airway obstruction, the loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction may help to explain why blood gases are within physiologic ranges for a certain time postinjury and then suddenly deteriorate.
Critical Care Medicine 06/2006; 34(5):1428-36. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive NO has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunctions in septic condition. Burn injury, especially if it is associated with smoke inhalation, is often complicated by subsequent development of pneumonia or sepsis that determine the outcome. In the present study, we developed an ovine sepsis model, created by exposing sheep to smoke inhalation followed by instillation of bacteria into the airway, that closely mimics human sepsis and pneumonia. We hypothesized that the inhibition of iNOS-derived excessive NO might be beneficial in treating the cardiopulmonary derangement in this model. Female sheep (n = 18) were surgically prepared for the study and given a tracheostomy. This was followed by insufflation of 48 breaths of cotton smoke (< 40 degrees C) into the airway of each animal and subsequent instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5 x 10(11) colony forming units) into each sheep's lung. All sheep were mechanically ventilated using 100% O2. Continuous infusion of BBS-2 (100 microg/kg/h), an iNOS inhibitor, was started 1 h after insult. The administration of BBS-2 improved pulmonary gas exchange (PaO2/FiO2 and pulmonary shunt fraction) and partially reduced airway obstruction and an increase in ventilatory pressures. The lung water content was not affected by iNOS inhibition. The hypotension seen in nontreated animals was not ameliorated either. The increase in plasma concentration of nitrate and nitrite was inhibited by BBS-2. The results of present study show that iNOS may be partially involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by smoke inhalation followed by bacterial instillation in the airway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Victims of fire accidents who sustain both thermal injury to the skin and smoke inhalation have gross evidence of oxidant injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that delivery of vitamin E, an oxygen superoxide scavenger, directly into the airway would attenuate acute lung injury postburn and smoke inhalation. Sheep (N = 17 female, 35 +/- 5 kg) were divided into 3 groups: (1) injured, then nebulized with vitamin E (B&S, Vitamin E, n = 6); (2) injured, nebulized with saline (B&S, Saline, n = 6); and (3) not injured, not treated (Sham, n = 5). While under deep anesthesia with isoflurane, the sheep were subjected to a flame burn (40% total body surface area, 3rd degree) and inhalation injury (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40 degrees C). All groups were resuscitated with Ringer lactate solution (4 mL/kg/%burn/24 h) and placed on a ventilator [positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 5 cm H2O, tidal volume = 15 mL/kg] for 48 h. B&S injury halved the lung alpha-tocopherol concentrations (0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol/g) compared with sham-injured animals (1.5 +/- 0.3), whereas vitamin E treatment elevated the lung alpha-tocopherol concentrations (7.40 +/- 2.61) in the injured animals. B&S injury decreased pulmonary gas exchange (PaO2/FiO2 ratios) from 517 +/- 15 at baseline to 329 +/- 49 at 24 h and to 149 +/- 32 at 48 h compared with sham ratios of 477 +/- 14, 536 +/- 48, and 609 +/- 49, respectively. Vitamin E treatment resulted in a significant improvement of pulmonary gas exchange; ratios were 415 +/- 34 and 283 +/- 42 at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Vitamin E nebulization therapy improved the clinical responses to burn and smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A decrease in alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) plasma levels in burn patients is typically associated with increased mortality. We hypothesized that vitamin E supplementation (alpha-tocopherol) would attenuate acute lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation injury.
Under deep anesthesia, sheep (33 +/- 5 kg) were subjected to a flame burn (40% total body surface area, third degree) and inhalation injury (48 breaths of cotton smoke, < 40 degrees C). Half of the injured group received alpha-tocopherol (1000 IU vitamin E) orally, 24 h prior to injury. The sham group was neither injured nor given vitamin E. All three groups (n = 5 per group) were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate solution (4 ml/kg/%burn/24 h), and placed on a ventilator (PEEP = 5 cmH2O; tidal volume = 15 ml/kg) for 48 h.
Plasma alpha-tocopherol per lipids doubled in the vitamin E treated sheep. Vitamin E treatment prior to injury largely prevented the increase in pulmonary permeability index and moderated the increase in lung lymph flow (52.6 +/- 6.2 ml/min, compared with 27.3 +/- 6.0 ml/min, respectively), increased the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, ameliorated both peak and pause airway pressure increases, and decreased plasma conjugated dienes and nitrotyrosine.
Pretreatment with vitamin E ameliorated the acute lung injury caused by burn and smoke inhalation exposure.
Redox report: communications in free radical research 02/2006; 11(2):61-70. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoke inhalation increases mortality and morbidity in burn patients. We have reported that smoke inhalation increases lung lymph flow, an index of pulmonary transvascular fluid flux and decreases reflection coefficient, an index of microvascular permeability to protein. Nitric oxide has been reported to decrease microvascular permeability to protein. We hypothesize that inhaled nitric oxide decreases pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability following smoke inhalation. Sheep were prepared for study with a chronic lung lymph fistula, Swan-Ganz, left atrial, and femoral arterial catheters. Occluders were placed on pulmonary veins to measure reflection coefficient. All animals were insufflated with 4 x 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Sheep were randomly divided into two groups: NO (injured, treated with nitric oxide (40 ppm) inhalation, n=6) and control (injured, not treated, n=6). Nitric oxide inhalation was started 22 h after the insult. Control animals showed an increase in lung lymph flow, and lung water content. These changes were associated with marked increase in pulmonary microvascular resistance, pulmonary artery pressure, and decrease in reflection coefficient. Nitric oxide inhalation ameliorated the above-mentioned pathological changes. The results suggest that nitric oxide inhalation has potential for beneficial effect in the treatment of patients suffering from smoke inhalation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, our group developed an ovine model of hyperdynamic sepsis associated with acute lung injury. In this study, we sought to modify this sepsis model by the administration of gentamicin to more closely simulate the symptoms observed in human sepsis in the intensive care unit. In a prospective, controlled, randomized laboratory experiment, 18 female sheep were surgically prepared for chronic study. After a tracheotomy had been performed, the sheep were randomized into sham, control, and gentamicin groups (n = 6 each). Sham animals were surgically prepared for the study but were neither injured nor treated. Control and gentamicin animals received 48 breaths of cotton smoke (<40 degrees C) followed by the instillation (via a bronchoscope) of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2-5 x 10(11) colony-forming units) bacteria into the lung. All sheep were mechanically ventilated with 100% O2 for the duration of the 24-h experimental period. Gentamicin (2 mg/kg) was administered at 6, 12, and 18 h after injury. The animals were resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution to maintain filling pressures and hematocrit on a constant level. Cardiopulmonary variables were stable in sham animals, but in the control group, cardiac index increased significantly after 24 h versus baseline (BL, 5.1 +/- 0.4 L.min(-1).m(-2) vs. 24 h, 7.3 +/- 0.7 L.min(-1).m(-2); P < 0.05); this was associated with a significant drop in mean arterial pressure (BL, 95 +/- 3 mmHg vs. 24 h, 65 +/- 4 mmHg, P < 0.05) and systemic vascular resistance index (BL, 1410 +/- 118 dynes s.cm.m vs. 24 h, 598 +/- 101 dynes s.cm.m, P < 0.05). Treatment with gentamicin stabilized cardiac index (BL, 5.0 +/- 0.4 L.min(-1).m(-2) vs. 24 h, 4.7 +/- 0.4 L.min(-1).m(-2)) and attenuated the decrease in mean arterial pressure (BL, 99 +/- 3 mmHg vs. 24 h, 84 +/- 4 mmHg) and systemic vascular resistance index (BL, 1573 +/- 173 dynes s.cm.m vs. 24 h, 1263 +/- 187 dynes s.cm.m). In addition, the fluid requirement in the gentamicin group was significantly lower than in the control group. Pulmonary function remained stable in sham animals, but the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and shunt fraction deteriorated similarly in the control and the gentamicin groups. Because gentamicin improved hemodynamic variables and reduced the fluid requirement in this ovine model, we believe that this modified sepsis model might provide a clinically relevant and useful new approach for future studies focusing on hemodynamic variables and outcome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoke inhalation injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in thermally injured individuals. There is evidence of increased oxygen free radical activity, e.g., superoxide, in association with smoke inhalation injury. Because superoxide dismutase converts the reactive superoxide radical to peroxide, we hypothesized that nebulization of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) into the airway might attenuate pulmonary dysfunction secondary to smoke inhalation injury. The present study was designed as a prospective, controlled, and randomized laboratory experiment to determine the effects of aerosolized Mn-SOD on lung fluid balance, as indexed by changes in pulmonary microvascular permeability, lung lymph flow (Q(L)), and gas exchange in an established and clinically relevant ovine model of smoke inhalation injury. Fifteen female Merino sheep were chronically instrumented with a femoral arterial, a Swan-Ganz, and a left atrial catheter. In addition, the right caudal mediastinal lymph node was cannulated to measure Q(L) (mL.h(-1)). Pneumatic occluders were placed around the right pulmonary veins for the determination of the reflection coefficient (sigma). After 7 days of recovery, sheep were randomly allocated to (a) an untreated control group (4 groups of 12 breaths of cotton smoke), (b) an injured group treated with nebulized Mn-SOD (5 mg/kg), and (c) an injured group that received only the vehicle (nebulized saline). Nebulization was performed 1 h and 12 h after smoke inhalation. Mn-SOD nebulization attenuated the increase in both filtration coefficient and sigma and significantly decreased lung tissue conjugated dienes. However, there were no differences in Q(L), PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and bloodless lung wet/dry weight ratio between groups. Although Mn-SOD nebulization attenuated the loss of protein, it failed to improve lung edema and pulmonary gas exchange, thereby limiting its clinical use.