[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ponatinib (AP24534) was previously identified as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor that potently inhibits the T315I gatekeeper mutant, and has advanced into clinical development for the treatment of refractory or resistant CML. In this study, we explored a novel series of five and six membered monocycles as alternate hinge-binding templates to replace the 6,5-fused imidazopyridazine core of ponatinib. Like ponatinib, these monocycles are tethered to pendant toluanilides via an ethynyl linker. Several compounds in this series displayed excellent in vitro potency against both native BCR-ABL and the T315I mutant. Notably, a subset of inhibitors exhibited desirable PK and were orally active in a mouse model of T315I-driven CML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with BCR-ABL kinase inhibitors, the T315I gatekeeper mutant has emerged as resistant to all currently approved agents. This report describes the structure-guided design of a novel series of potent pan-inhibitors of BCR-ABL, including the T315I mutation. A key structural feature is the carbon-carbon triple bond linker which skirts the increased bulk of Ile315 side chain. Extensive SAR studies led to the discovery of development candidate 20g (AP24534), which inhibited the kinase activity of both native BCR-ABL and the T315I mutant with low nM IC(50)s, and potently inhibited proliferation of corresponding Ba/F3-derived cell lines. Daily oral administration of 20g significantly prolonged survival of mice injected intravenously with BCR-ABL(T315I) expressing Ba/F3 cells. These data, coupled with a favorable ADME profile, support the potential of 20g to be an effective treatment for CML, including patients refractory to all currently approved therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL(T315I) mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL(T315I)-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.
Cancer cell 11/2009; 16(5):401-12. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2009.09.028 · 23.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of potent dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitors based on a 9-(arenethenyl)purine core has been identified. Unlike traditional dual Src/Abl inhibitors targeting the active enzyme conformation, these inhibitors bind to the inactive, DFG-out conformation of both kinases. Extensive SAR studies led to the discovery of potent and orally bioavailable inhibitors, some of which demonstrated in vivo efficacy. Once-daily oral administration of inhibitor 9i (AP24226) significantly prolonged the survival of mice injected intravenously with wild type Bcr-Abl expressing Ba/F3 cells at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In a separate model, oral administration of 9i to mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts of Src Y527F expressing NIH 3T3 cells elicited dose-dependent tumor shrinkage with complete tumor regression observed at the highest dose. Notably, several inhibitors (e.g., 14a, AP24163) exhibited modest cellular potency (IC50 = 300-400 nM) against the Bcr-Abl mutant T315I, a variant resistant to all currently marketed therapies for chronic myeloid leukemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel N(9)-arenethenyl purines, optimized potent dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are described. The key structural feature is a trans vinyl linkage at N(9) on the purine core which projects hydrophobic substituents into the selectivity pocket at the rear of the ATP site. Their synthesis was achieved through a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction of N(9)-phosphorylmethylpurines and substituted benzaldehydes or Heck reactions between 9-vinyl purines and aryl halides. Most compounds are potent inhibitors of both Src and Abl kinase, and several possess good oral bioavailability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted disruption of the pp60(src) (Src) gene has implicated this tyrosine kinase in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and as a therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases. Here, we describe structure activity relationships of a novel series of carbon-linked, 2-substituted purines that led to the identification of AP23451 as a potent inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase with antiresorptive activity in vivo. AP23451 features the use of an arylphosphinylmethylphosphinic acid moiety which confers bone-targeting properties to the molecule, thereby increasing local concentrations of the inhibitor to actively resorbing osteoclasts at the bone interface. AP23451 exhibited an IC50 = 68 nm against Src kinase; an X-ray crystal structure of the molecule complexed with Src detailed the molecular interactions responsible for its Src inhibition. In vivo, AP23451 demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in PTH-induced hypercalcemia. Moreover, AP23517, a structurally and biochemically similar molecule with comparable activity (IC50 = 73 nm) except devoid of the bone-targeting element, demonstrated significantly reduced in vivo efficacy, suggesting that Src activity was necessary but not sufficient for in vivo activity in this series of compounds.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 03/2008; 71(2):97-105. DOI:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2007.00615.x · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first example of a Heck reaction with 9-vinylpurines and aryl halides is described. It gives exclusively E-9-(arenethenyl)purines in high yields. Subsequent hydrogenation furnishes 9-(arenethyl)purines quantitatively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hydrogenation of iminonitriles and iminobisnitriles of type 1a-f is a particularly difficult process as the intermediate dieneamines are highly susceptible to addition reactions. A short general method of preparation and purification of 2-aminomethylene-1,3-diamine of type 2a-e by catalytic hydrogenation of iminobisnitriles is described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades, the oncogenic protein kinase pp60src (Src) has been the focus of tremendous biological investigations that have identified it to be a promising therapeutic target
for both cancer and bone disease drug discovery. The molecular, cellular and in vivo functional properties of Src provide
a detailed framework for strategies to advance small molecule inhibitors relative to both its noncatalytic (e.g., SH2) and
catalytic (i.e., kinase) domains. This chapter illustrates phoshopeptide mimetic-based small molecule Src SH2 inhibitors and
ATP mimetic-based, small molecule Src kinase inhibitors. Key lead compounds exemplifying Src SH2 and Src kinase inhibitors
are described with respect to structural biology, drug design and biological activity (in vitro and in vivo). The term SMART
refers to small molecule ARIAD therapeutics that has been particularly focused on generating and optimizing novel lead compounds
such as AP22408 and AP23464. AP22408 is a prototype bone-targeted Src SH2 inhibitor that blocks binding to phosphorylated
ligands and was first to achieve in vivo proof-of-concept in a bone disease model. AP23451 is a second-generation, bone-targeted
Src inhibitor and determined to be effective in both osteolytic bone metastasis and osteoporosis in vivo models. AP23464 is
a prototype Src kinase inhibitor that is competitive to ATP and is extraordinarily potent in vitro and provides proof-of-concept
in Src-dependent, cell assays representing both bone degrading osteoclasts and cancer cells. X-ray crystallographic structures
of the aforementioned Src SH2 and Src kinase inhibitors provide insight to SMART drug design strategies. Second-generation
Src kinase inhibitors are amidst preclinical and clinical drug development, and such small molecules illustrate varying template
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Src tyrosine kinase was the first gene product shown to have an essential function in bone using recombinant DNA technology after its expression was knocked out in mice approximately 15 years ago. Since then, our understanding of the regulation of bone catabolism has advanced significantly with the identification of other key enzymes that regulate osteoclast formation, activation, and survival after their knockout in mice or recognition of mutations in them in humans. This led to the discovery or development of specific inhibitors of some of these key enzymes, including Src, as proof-of-concept lead compounds or potential clinical candidates for the prevention of diseases associated with increased bone resorption, such as osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease. Although bisphosphonates have been prescribed with proven and improving efficacy for the prevention of bone loss for >30 years, adverse effects, such as upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, and the requirement to take them at least 2 hours before food have limited patient compliance. Thus, with growing knowledge of the pathways regulating osteoclast function and the appreciation that some of these are active also in tumor cells, drug companies have made efforts to identify small-molecular lead compounds for development into new therapeutic agents for the prevention of bone loss with efficacy that matches or supersedes that of bisphosphonates. In this article, we review our current understanding of the signaling pathways that regulate osteoclast formation, activation, and survival with specific reference to the role of Src tyrosine kinase and downstream signaling and highlight in a variety of models of increased bone resorption the effects of Src kinase inhibitors that have been targeted to bone to limit potential adverse effects on other cells.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2006; 12(20 Pt 2):6291s-6295s. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0991 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutation in the ABL kinase domain is the principal mechanism of imatinib resistance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Many mutations favor active kinase conformations that preclude imatinib binding. Because the active forms of ABL and SRC resemble one another, we tested two dual SRC-ABL kinase inhibitors, AP23464 and PD166326, against 58 imatinib-resistant (IM(R)) BCR/ABL kinase variants. Both compounds potently inhibit most IM(R) variants, and in vitro drug selection demonstrates that active (AP23464) and open (PD166326) conformation-specific compounds are less susceptible to resistance than imatinib. Combinations of inhibitors suppressed essentially all resistance mutations, with the notable exception of T315I. Guided by mutagenesis studies and molecular modeling, we designed a series of AP23464 analogues to target T315I. The analogue AP23846 inhibited both native and T315I variants of BCR/ABL with submicromolar potency but showed nonspecific cellular toxicity. Our data illustrate how conformational dynamics of the ABL kinase accounts for the activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors against IM(R)-mutants and provides a rationale for combining conformation specific inhibitors to suppress resistance.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2006; 103(24):9244-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0600001103 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding of the regulation of bone catabolism has advanced significantly over the past two decades with the identification of key enzymes that regulate osteoclast formation, activation, and survival following their knockout in mice or recognition of mutations in humans. This led to the discovery of specific inhibitors of some of these key enzymes as proof-of-concept lead compounds or potential clinical candidates for the prevention of osteoporosis and other diseases associated with increased bone resorption. Bisphosphonates have been the major therapeutic agents prescribed for the prevention of bone loss in a variety of pathologic conditions for over 30 years. More potent amino bisphosphonates have increased efficacy than earlier drugs, but side effects such as upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the requirement to take them at least 2 h before food have limited patient compliance. This, coupled with the growing knowledge of the pathways regulating osteoclast function, has driven efforts to identify small molecular lead compounds that could be developed into new therapeutic agents with efficacy that matches or supersedes that of bisphosphonates for the prevention of bone loss. In this article, we review briefly the effects of specific inhibitors of bone resorption that have been developed to date and highlight in a variety of models of increased bone resorption the effects of Src kinase inhibitors that have been targeted to bone to limit potential unwanted side effects on other cells.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/2006; 1068(1):447-57. DOI:10.1196/annals.1346.042 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tyrosine kinase pp60src (Src) is the prototypical member of a family of proteins that participate in a broad array of cellular signal transduction processes, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, adhesion, and migration. Abnormal Src family kinase (SFK) signaling has been linked to several disease states, including osteoporosis and cancer metastases. Src has thus emerged as a molecular target for the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors that regulate Src kinase activity by binding to the ATP pocket within the catalytic domain. Here, we present crystal structures of the kinase domain of Src in complex with two purine-based inhibitors: AP23451, a small-molecule inhibitor designed to inhibit Src-dependent bone resorption, and AP23464, a small-molecule inhibitor designed to inhibit the Src-dependent metastatic spread of cancer. In each case, a trisubstituted purine template core was elaborated using structure-based drug design to yield a potent Src kinase inhibitor. These structures represent early examples of high affinity purine-based Src family kinase-inhibitor complexes, and they provide a detailed view of the specific protein-ligand interactions that lead to potent inhibition of Src. In particular, the 3-hydroxyphenethyl N9 substituent of AP23464 forms unique interactions with the protein that are critical to the picomolar affinity of this compound for Src. The comparison of these new structures with two relevant kinase-inhibitor complexes provides a structural basis for the observed kinase inhibitory selectivity. Further comparisons reveal a concerted induced-fit movement between the N- and C-terminal lobes of the kinase that correlates with the affinity of the ligand. Binding of the most potent inhibitor, AP23464, results in the largest induced-fit movement, which can be directly linked to interactions of the hydrophenethyl N9 substituent with a region at the interface between the two lobes. A less pronounced induced-fit movement is also observed in the Src-AP23451 complex. These new structures illustrate how the combination of structural, computational, and medicinal chemistry can be used to rationalize the process of developing high affinity, selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 02/2006; 67(1):46-57. DOI:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2005.00316.x · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: c-Src is frequently activated in human malignancies, including colon, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas. Several recent studies have shown that activation of Src family kinases leads to tumor progression and metastasis by increasing cellular migration and invasion, promoting cell growth and survival, and deregulating expression of proangiogenic molecules. Therefore, selective inhibitors of Src are being developed for cancer therapy. In this study, we characterize the biological effects of the novel ATP-based Src family kinase inhibitor, AP23846, in tumor cells with high Src activity. As a lead compound, AP23846 is a potent c-Src kinase inhibitor (IC50 approximately 0.5 nmol/L in vitro, approximately 10-fold more potent than PP2, the most widely used commercially available Src family kinase inhibitor). At concentrations of 1 micromol/L, AP23846 led to complete Src inhibition for 48 hours in cells. No cytotoxicity was observed under these conditions, although proliferation rates were slower. Therefore, this was an excellent inhibitor to examine Src-regulated signaling pathways in tumor cells. AP23846 reduced cellular migration, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-8 in a dose-dependent fashion in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells grown in vitro. Correspondingly, cell culture supernatants from L3.6pl pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells pretreated with AP23846 failed to promote migration of hepatic endothelial cells in vitro and failed to support angiogenesis into gel foams implanted s.c. in mice in vivo. These results suggest that Src inhibitors affect biological properties of tumor progression and may be useful as cancer therapeutic agents in more advanced disease.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 01/2006; 4(12):1900-11. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0171 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogenic mutations of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase occur in several types of malignancy. Juxtamembrane domain mutations are common in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, whereas mutations in the kinase activation loop, most commonly D816V, are seen in systemic mastocytosis and acute myelogenous leukemia. Kit activation-loop mutants are insensitive to imatinib mesylate and have been largely resistant to targeted inhibition. We determined the sensitivities of both Kit mutant classes to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based inhibitors AP23464 and AP23848. In cell lines expressing activation-loop mutants, low-nM concentrations of AP23464 inhibited phosphorylation of Kit and its downstream targets Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). This was associated with cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Wild-type Kit-and juxtamembrane-mutant-expressing cell lines required considerably higher concentrations for equivalent inhibition, suggesting a therapeutic window in which cells harboring D816V Kit could be eliminated without interfering with normal cellular function. Additionally, AP23464 did not disrupt normal hematopoietic progenitor-cell growth at concentrations that inhibited activation-loop mutants of Kit. In a murine model, AP23848 inhibited activation-loop mutant Kit phosphorylation and tumor growth. Thus, AP23464 and AP23848 potently and selectively target activation-loop mutants of Kit in vitro and in vivo and could have therapeutic potential against D816V-expressing malignancies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation has been exploited by Nature in profound ways to control various aspects of cell proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, survival, motility and gene transcription. Cellular signal transduction pathways involve protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and phosphoprotein-interacting domain (e.g., SH2, PTB, WW, FHA, 14-3-3) containing cellular proteins to provide multidimensional, dynamic and reversible regulation of many biological activities. Knowledge of cellular signal transduction pathways has led to the identification of promising therapeutic targets amongst these superfamilies of enzymes and adapter proteins which have been linked to various cancers as well as inflammatory, immune, metabolic and bone diseases. This review focuses on protein kinase, protein phosphatase and phosphoprotein-interacting cellular protein therapeutic targets with an emphasis on small-molecule drug discovery from a chemistry perspective. Noteworthy studies related to molecular genetics, signal transduction pathways, structural biology, and drug design for several of these therapeutic targets are highlighted. Some exemplary proof-of-concept lead compounds, clinical candidates and/or breakthrough medicines are further detailed to illustrate achievements as well as challenges in the generation, optimization and development of small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases, protein phosphatases or phosphoprotein-interacting domain containing cellular proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deregulated, oncogenic tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI571), a Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor, selectively inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of CML cells. Despite the success of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of CML, resistance is observed, particularly in advanced disease. The most common imatinib mesylate resistance mechanism involves Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations that impart varying degrees of drug insensitivity. AP23464, a potent adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-based inhibitor of Src and Abl kinases, displays antiproliferative activity against a human CML cell line and Bcr-Abl-transduced Ba/F3 cells (IC(50) = 14 nM; imatinib mesylate IC(50) = 350 nM). AP23464 ablates Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation, blocks cell cycle progression, and promotes apoptosis of Bcr-Abl-expressing cells. Biochemical assays with purified glutathione S transferase (GST)-Abl kinase domain confirmed that AP23464 directly inhibits Abl activity. Importantly, the low nanomolar cellular and biochemical inhibitory properties of AP23464 extend to frequently observed imatinib mesylate-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants, including nucleotide binding P-loop mutants Q252H, Y253F, E255K, C-terminal loop mutant M351T, and activation loop mutant H396P. AP23464 was ineffective against mutant T315I, an imatinib mesylate contact residue. The potency of AP23464 against imatinib mesylate-refractory Bcr-Abl and its distinct binding mode relative to imatinib mesylate warrant further investigation of AP23464 for the treatment of CML.