[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the genome of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur compared with the sequenced strain M. bovis 2122/97. The functional consequences of many of these mutations remain to be described; however, mutations in genes encoding regulators may be particularly relevant to global phenotypic changes such as loss of virulence, since alteration of a regulator's function will affect the expression of a wide range of genes. One such SNP falls in bcg3145, encoding a member of the AfsR/DnrI/SARP class of global transcriptional regulators, that replaces a highly conserved glutamic acid residue at position 159 (E159G) with glycine in a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) located in the bacterial transcriptional activation (BTA) domain of BCG3145. TPR domains are associated with protein-protein interactions, and a conserved core (helices T1-T7) of the BTA domain seems to be required for proper function of SARP-family proteins. Structural modelling predicted that the E159G mutation perturbs the third alpha-helix of the BTA domain and could therefore have functional consequences. The E159G SNP was found to be present in all BCG strains, but absent from virulent M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. By overexpressing BCG3145 and Rv3124 in BCG and H37Rv and monitoring transcriptome changes using microarrays, we determined that BCG3145/Rv3124 acts as a positive transcriptional regulator of the molybdopterin biosynthesis moa1 locus, and we suggest that rv3124 be renamed moaR1. The SNP in bcg3145 was found to have a subtle effect on the activity of MoaR1, suggesting that this mutation is not a key event in the attenuation of BCG.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To further unravel the mechanisms responsible for attenuation of the tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comparative genomics was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that differed between sequenced strains of Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG. SNPs were assayed in M. bovis isolates from France and the United Kingdom and from different BCG vaccines in order to identify those that arose during the attenuation process which gave rise to BCG. Informative data sets were obtained for 658 SNPs from 21 virulent M. bovis strains and 13 BCG strains; these SNPs showed phylogenetic clustering that was consistent with the geographical origin of the strains and previous schemes for BCG genealogies. The data revealed a closer relationship between BCG Tice and BCG Pasteur than was previously appreciated, while we were able to position BCG Beijing within a grouping of BCG Denmark-derived strains. Only 186 SNPs were identified between virulent M. bovis strains and all BCG strains, with 115 nonsynonymous SNPs affecting important functions such as global regulators, transcriptional factors, and central metabolism, which might impact on virulence. We therefore refine previous genealogies of BCG vaccines and define a minimal set of SNPs between virulent M. bovis strains and the attenuated BCG strain that will underpin future functional analyses.
Infection and immunity 04/2009; 77(5):2230-8. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) relies on regular testing of cattle with a crude preparation of mycobacterial antigens termed purified protein derivative (PPD). Worldwide production of bovine PPD uses the Mycobacterium bovis AN5, a strain that was originally isolated circa 1948 in Great Britain (GB). Despite its worldwide use, the AN5 strain is poorly characterised. AN5 was adapted to grow on glycerol in a process similar to that used for the derivation of the BCG vaccine strains; during this process, it is known that BCG deleted the genes for some potent antigens. Our previous analysis of the genome of M. bovis AN5 showed that it had not suffered extensive gene deletion events during in vitro adaptation. However, glycerol adaptation of AN5 strain may have caused differences in its global gene expression profile that could affect antigen expression. To assess this, we determined the transcriptome profile of AN5 and compared it to expression data for two endemic GB strains of M. bovis that account for approximately 61% of all GB bTB cases. Genes expressed at lower levels in AN5 compared to M. bovis field isolates were then screened for antigenicity in naturally infected animals. Using this approach a number of genes were found to be expressed at lower levels in AN5, including those for known antigens. Our results show that field strains of M. bovis show some significant differences in gene expression to AN5, and that this differential gene expression may impact on the antigen profiles expressed by AN5 during in vitro culture.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the evolution, attenuation, and variable protective efficacy of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur 1173P2 has been subjected to comparative genome and transcriptome analysis. The 4,374,522-bp genome contains 3,954 protein-coding genes, 58 of which are present in two copies as a result of two independent tandem duplications, DU1 and DU2. DU1 is restricted to BCG Pasteur, although four forms of DU2 exist; DU2-I is confined to early BCG vaccines, like BCG Japan, whereas DU2-III and DU2-IV occur in the late vaccines. The glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, glpD2, is one of only three genes common to all four DU2 variants, implying that BCG requires higher levels of this enzyme to grow on glycerol. Further amplification of the DU2 region is ongoing, even within vaccine preparations used to immunize humans. An evolutionary scheme for BCG vaccines was established by analyzing DU2 and other markers. Lesions in genes encoding sigma-factors and pleiotropic transcriptional regulators, like PhoR and Crp, were also uncovered in various BCG strains; together with gene amplification, these affect gene expression levels, immunogenicity, and, possibly, protection against tuberculosis. Furthermore, the combined findings suggest that early BCG vaccines may even be superior to the later ones that are more widely used.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2007; 104(13):5596-601. · 9.74 Impact Factor