[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high mortality rate observed on the regular waiting list (RWL) before lung transplantation (LTx) prompted the French organ transplantation authorities to set up in 2007 a dedicated graft allocation strategy, the so-called 'high-emergency waiting list' (HEWL), for patients with an abrupt worsening of their respiratory function. This study reports on the early results of this new allocation system.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 07/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After lung transplant, between 9 and 13% of bronchial anastomoses develop complications severe enough to warrant therapeutic intervention. These complications include stenosis, dehiscence, granulation tissue, bronchomalacia and fistula. Most of these have already been included in a classification or another, but none of these have been universally accepted. Moreover, no grading system has integrated all of these complications. The Groupe Transplantation (GT) (Transplant Group), from the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF) [French Language Pulmonology Society], maintains a prospective national registry of lung transplants performed in France. The GT has mandated the Groupe d'Endoscopie de Langue Française (GELF), also from the SPLF, to develop an endoscopic classification, in order to describe the macroscopic aspect of the bronchial anastomoses, and downhill airways, using a standardized and exhaustive grading system.
An endoscopic classification that would take into account the three major aspects of the description of bronchial anastomoses was elaborated. The first parameter is the macroscopic aspect (M), the second, the diameter (D) of the anastomosis and the third, the sutures (S) of the anastomosis. This classification was then submitted to expert bronchoscopists from nine centres, responsible for lung transplants in France, for their opinion, using a five-item questionnaire, according to the Delphi methodology.
After the first round of consultation, all experts (100%) agreed on Questions 1 and 4. Answers were positive for Questions 2 (59%), 3 (56.25%) and 5 (70%). A modified classification, incorporating propositions from the first round, was then submitted. This second round allowed a consensus to be reached between all experts: the MDS classification. Each parameter (M, D and S) can be classified from 0 to 3. For M and D, it is possible to determine the extent of abnormalities downhill from the anastomosis into four subgroups (a, b, c or d). For S, the localization of abnormalities can be divided between two subgroups (e and f).
The MDS classification, established by a consensus of French experts in bronchoscopy, could represent a standardized, universally acceptable system to describe central airway complications after lung transplant.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 11/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional assessment is not included yet as a major recommendation in lung cancer guidelines. The purpose of this study was thus to assess the influence on surgical outcome of the nutritional status of patients with primary lung cancer undergoing lobectomy.
We queried Epithor, the national clinical database of the French Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, and identified a retrospective cohort of 19 635 patients having undergone lobectomy for a primary lung cancer in the years 2005-11. Their nutritional status was categorized according to the WHO definition: underweight (BMI < 18.5): 857 patients (4.4%), normal (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25): 9391 patients (47.8%), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30): 6721 patients (34.2%), obese (BMI ≥ 30): 2666 patients (13.6%). Operative mortality, pulmonary, cardiovascular, infectious and surgical complications rates were collected and analysed for these various BMI groups.
In the normal-weight category, operative mortality, pulmonary, surgical, cardiovascular and infectious complications rates were 2.7, 14.6, 13.8, 5.5 and 4.1%, respectively. When compared with that of normal BMI patients, adjusted operative mortality was significantly lower in overweight (2.3%; odd ratio (OR): 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.89]; P = 0.002) and obese patients (1.9%, OR: 0.54 [95% CI: 0.40-0.74]; P < 0.001), and significantly higher in underweight patients (4.1%, OR: 1.89 [95% CI: 1.30-2.75]; P = 0.001). Underweight patients experienced significantly more pulmonary (21.1%; P < 0.001), surgical (23.2%; P < 0.001) and infectious (5.1%; P = 0.05) complications (P < 0.0001). Among surgical complications, prolonged air leaks (17.6%; P < 0.001) and bronchial stump dehiscence (1.5%; P = 0.001) were significantly more frequent in underweight patients than in normal BMI patients. Obesity was not associated with increased incidence of postoperative complications, except for arrhythmia (5.6%; P < 0.05), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (1.5%; P = 0.005). Moreover, a statistical protective effect of obesity was observed regarding surgical complications (7.1%; P < 0.001).
Despite having an increased risk of some postoperative cardiovascular complications, obese patients should undergo surgical standard of care therapy for appropriately stage-specific lung cancer. In underweight patients, in addition to preoperative rehabilitation including a nutritional program, attention should be given to aggressive prophylactic respiratory therapy in the perioperative period, and specific intraoperative actions to prevent prolonged air leaks and bronchial stump dehiscence.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 09/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of metastatic chondrosarcoma to the lung that invaded the right inferior pulmonary vein with massive cardiac extension and presented with an acute heart failure. CT scan showed a large mass of the right lower lobe which invaded and filled almost all the left atrium with an extension into left ventricle through the mitral valve. Surgical resection was performed in emergency. The patient is still alive 4 months after development of cardiac symptoms and surgery.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 09/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report two cases of pulmonary aspergilloma (PA) in a cavity formed after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA), a rare complication that has only been described once in the literature. The first patient was a 59-year-old white woman treated for a secondary lung nodule of an advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. One month after PRFA, a consolidation of a cavity was noticed with an "air crescent sign," and aspergilloma serology was highly positive. A bisegmentectomy was performed due to the proximity of the lesion to mediastinal vessels and the absence of significant regression after antifungal treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of PA. The second patient was a 61-year-old white man followed-up for a non-small-cell lung cancer. A cavitation with thick margins in the ablation zone was noticed 6 months after PRFA. A biopsy was performed, and aspergilloma was diagnosed. Medical treatment with itraconazole was administered for 13 months, and there was significant regression.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 05/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: During sequential double-lung transplantation (DLT), the newly implanted first lung receives the entire cardiac output during the implantation of the second one. This may be responsible for the increased hydrostatic pressure that causes severe interstitial and alveolar edema that can lead to allograft dysfunction. The authors tested the hypothesis that CPB started after first graft implantation and before second recipient lung removal should improve post-transplantation oxygenation and clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Observational during 2 consecutive 1-year periods. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Nine consecutive patients undergoing sequential DLT with CPB started after first graft implantation and before second recipient lung removal were compared to controls, who were 10 consecutive patients who underwent sequential DLT but without CPB the year before. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Oxygenation after transplantation was assessed. The use of CPB during the implantation of the second lung was associated with an increased mean postoperative ratio of PaO2 to the fraction of inspired oxygen at 1 hour (363±51 v 240±113, p = 0.01) and 6 hours (430±111 v 280±103, p = 0.03). The mean duration of CPB was 111±19min. The occurrence of primary graft dysfunction and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation tended to be lower, but did not reach significance. Similarly, mortality rate was comparable between both groups, as was the rate of blood transfusions. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' results suggest that the use of CPB started after first graft implantation and before second recipient lung removal appears to benefit oxygenation and reduces the occurrence of severe pulmonary edema in the first transplanted lung.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 03/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The progressive ageing of the population is accompanied by an increasing incidence of cancer. Our objective was to compare mediastinal lymphadenectomy performed in the surgical treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients between ≥70 and <70. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-centre case-control study, including 80 patients ≥70 years of age, surgically treated for NSCLC between January 2008 and December 2010, matched 1:1 to 80 younger controls on gender, American Society of Anesthesia score, performance status and histological subtype of the tumour. The number and type of dissected hilar/intrapulmonary and mediastinal lymph node stations as well as the number of resected lymph nodes were compared between the two age groups. RESULTS: The type of pulmonary resection was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.03): pneumonectomy 6% (n = 5) for patients ≥70 vs 12% (n = 10) for patients <70, lobectomy 85 (n = 68) vs 65% (n = 52), bilobectomy 1 (n = 1) vs 2% (n = 2) and sub-lobar resection 7 (n = 6) vs 20% (n = 16). There was no significant difference in type of mediastinal lymphadenectomy (radical vs sampling; P = 0.6). Elderly patients presented a more advanced N status of lymph node invasion than younger controls (P = 0.02). The number and type of dissected lymph node stations and the number of lymph nodes were not significantly different between the two age groups (P = 0.66 and 0.25, respectively). The mean number of metastatic lymph nodes was higher in patients ≥70 (2.3 vs 1.3 in patients <70; P = 0.002). Lymph node ratio between metastatic and resected lymph nodes was higher in elderly patients (0.11 vs 0.07 in younger controls; P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Lymph node involvement in surgically treated NSCLC was more significant in elderly patients ≥70 than in younger patients presenting comparable clinical and histopathological characteristics, and undergoing a similar lymphadenectomy.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 11/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe delays in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer in patients treated by radiotherapy from the first abnormal imaging to the first day of treatment. Our retrospective single-center study included all patients treated for primary lung cancer in our center receiving radiotherapy alone or in association to chemotherapy or surgery, between 1st May and 15th September 2011. We included 40 patients. Mean age was 65.3 years and sex ratio was 4 (32 males). In 72.5% (n = 29) of the cases, the objective of the treatment was palliative. Median delay between the first abnormal imaging to the first day of treatment was 75.5 days (CI 95% [63.6-134.4]). Median diagnostic delay to obtain a pathological proof was 38 days (CI 95% [27.9-100]). Median therapeutic delay to start treatment was 31 days (CI 95% [24.6-38.5]). When considering radiotherapy, median delay between multidisciplinary staff decision and first radiotherapy session was 26 days (CI 95% [22.4-33.3]). The study of the delays in diagnosis and treatment is the first step to reduce them. Detailed analysis helps to propose some measures to improve these delays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initially double-lung transplantation (DLT) was performed with airway anastomosis at the tracheal bifurcation requiring a cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP). Complications related to ischemia of the bronchi and trachea around the carina prompted adoption of sequential single lung implantations as the method of choice for DLT. In different studies, CPB was associated with an increase in postoperative morbidity but this was probably due to the selection of more severe patients. Moreover, important progress in the technology of CPB has occurred. Therefore, the systematic use of CPB during sequential lung transplantation might have some interest by limiting the occurrence of ventilation and perfusion injuries. This article discusses the potential beneficial effects of CPB during double-lung transplantation.
Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation 05/2012; 31 Suppl 1:S8-11. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subclavicular lymph nodes are one of the deeper lymph node groups of the lymphatic network located in the axillary region. As its location is surrounded by vessels and nerves, biopsy of subclavicular lymph nodes is not possible without eye control. We describe a new, mini-invasive technique for accessing the thoracic outlet region. Video-axillaroscopy is a reliable mini-invasive technique for targeting biopsies of lymph nodes in the axillary region. It is safer and more accurate than radio-guided techniques. Exploration of this region might benefit treatment of lymphoma and breast cancer and applications might emerge for thoracic outlet syndromes.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 02/2012; 42(1):180-1. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was previously shown that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reverses chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats, but whether DHEA can improve the clinical and hemodynamic status of patients with PH associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PH-COPD) has not been studied whereas it is a very severe poorly treated disease.
Eight patients with PH-COPD were treated with DHEA (200mg daily orally) for 3 months. The primary end-point was the change in the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) distance. Secondary end-points included pulmonary hemodynamics, lung function tests and tolerance of treatment.
The 6-MWT increased in all cases, from 333m (median [IQR]) (257; 378) to 390m (362; 440) (P<0.05). Mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased from 26mmHg (25; 27) to 21.5mmHg (20; 25) (P<0.05) and pulmonary vascular resistance from 4.2UI (3.5; 4.4) to 2.6UI (2.5; 3.8) (P<0.05). The carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO % predicted) increased significantly from 27.4% (20.1; 29.3) to 36.4% (14.6; 39.6) (P<0.05). DHEA treatment did not change respiratory parameters of gas exchange and the 200mg per day of DHEA used was perfectly tolerated with no side effect reported.
DHEA treatment significantly improves 6-MWT distance, pulmonary hemodynamics and DLCO of patients with PH-COPD, without worsening gas exchange, as do other pharmacological treatments of PH (trial registration NCT00581087).
Annales d Endocrinologie 02/2012; 73(1):20-5. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New developments in surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma are presented. Nowadays, the main interest of robotic surgery is to avoid skin incision in the neck by transposing it in the armpit and in the nipple. Mini-invasive surgery of the mediastinum (TEMLA, VAXY) are authentic progress. Decision making of the physicians are more standardized by standardization of fine needle aspiration biopsy and Bethesda classification. Unilateral prophylactic central lymph node dissection may be an alternative between systematic bilateral and any lymph node central dissection for thyroid carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory amyloidosis is a rare disease which refers to localized aberrant extracellular protein deposits within the airways. Tracheobronchial amyloidosis (TBA) refers to the deposition of localized amyloid deposits within the upper airways. Treatments have historically focused on bronchoscopic techniques including debridement, laser ablation, balloon dilation, and stent placement. We present the outcomes after rigid bronchoscopy to remove the amyloid protein causing the airway obstruction in 6 cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis. This is the first report of primary diffuse tracheobronchial amyloidosis in our department; clinical features, in addition to therapy in the treatment of TBA, are reviewed. This paper shows that, in patients with TBA causing airway obstruction, excellent results can be obtained with rigid bronchoscopy and stenting of the obstructing lesion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the current practice of lung transplantation, donor and recipient genders are neither directly considered nor matched. However, some data have suggested a possible effect of gender combinations on survival following lung transplantation.
A total of 249 adult lung transplant recipients at a single center between February 1988 and December 2008, were analyzed retrospectively for donor-recipient gender matching. We compared the mortality by calculating one-term survival rates after transplantation using the Kaplan-Meier method with comparisons using the log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. Statistical significance of the mean effects of size matching was assessed by paired Student t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests.
Kaplan-Meier survival analysis shown that male compared to female recipients did not have an effect on outcomes after lung transplantation at 5 years (P=.5379), 10 years (P=.107), 15 years (P=.0841), 20 years (P=.0711). No effect of gender on lung transplantation outcomes was observed with donor-recipient gender mismatches at 5 years (P=.1804), 10 years (P=.1457), 15 years (P=.0731), or 20 years (P=.0629). Similarly, no differences were observed for each gender combination. The degree of size matching was defined as the ratio of donor-to-recipient predicted total lung capacity. The ratios were similar for the donor-recipient gender match and significantly different for the donor-recipient gender mismatch.
These analyses suggested that gender was not a significant independent risk factor affecting survival after lung transplantation. Size mismatch caused by gender mismatch did not increase mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective is to report the case of a 36 year-old female with a primary mediastinal germ cell tumor mimicking an ectopic pregnancy. The patient under birth control pill presented, at seven weeks of amenorrhea, a β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level of 850 UI and uterine vacuity with left lateral uterine heterogeneous mass but no bleeding and no pain. She received left adnexectomy, uterine curettage and further treatment by methotrexate because of persistent high β-hCG markers. Computed tomography scan finally permitted to discover a voluminous anterior mediastinal tumor. We may recommend investigating patients with a simple chest X-ray that present with persistent increased β-hCG despite efficient ectopic pregnancy treatment.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology 12/2011; 22(4):288-91. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the postoperative morbidity of patients ≥75 years with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, comparing them to younger patients.
We performed a case-control study over a 5-year period using Epithor, the French Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery database, including to date more than 160,000 procedures from 103 institutions. We collected prospectively the data concerning 1510 patients with NSCLC who underwent preoperative chemotherapy, from January 2005 to December 2009. In order to compare patients with similar characteristics, we matched the 81 patients ≥75 to 81 controls (<75) for gender, American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) score, Performance Status (PS), Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) and histological subtype of the tumor. The patients of the control group were randomized within the 1429 patients <75 included. Lung cancer surgical treatment, post-operative morbidity and mortality rates, and length of stay (LOS) were compared between the two age groups.
There was no significant difference in type of resection between the two groups (p=0.07): pneumonectomy 15% (n=12) for patients ≥75 vs 28% (n=23) for younger patients, lobectomy 65% (n=53) vs 54% (n=44), bilobectomy 14% (n=11) vs 6% (n=5) and sub-lobar resection 4% (n=3) for the two groups. There was no significant difference in type of mediastinal lymphadenectomy (p=0.48) between the two age groups. Elderly patients presented a more important number of postoperative complications (p=0.04) and these ones were more severe (p=0.03). There was no significant difference in postoperative mortality with 30-day mortality: 4.9%, n=4, versus 2.5%, n=2, (p=0.83); 60-day mortality: 6.2%, n=5, versus 2.5%, n=2, (p=0.61); and 90-day mortality was the same. Hospital LOS was longer for the elderly (14.9 days, CI95%[12.5;17.4] vs 11.9 days, CI95%[10.7;13.3], p<0.001).
Postoperative morbidity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is more important in elderly patients. These data should be taken into account when considering the interest of preoperative treatment in elderly patients with resectable NSCLC.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2011; 76(2):216-21. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous haematoma of the oesophagus is a rare cause of chest pain. We report the case of a 63-year-old female in whom spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus was suspected, but who was subsequently, found to have a dissecting intramural haematoma of the oesophagus. She successfully underwent mediastinal and thoracic drainage by right video-assisted thoracoscopy. Although conservative treatment is widely described in the literature, surgical treatment by right video-associated thoracoscopy may be a suitable alternative if there is a diagnostic doubt. 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 06/2011; 13:356-357. · 1.11 Impact Factor